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THE 



ORCHID REVIEW 



DEVOTED TO ORCHIDOLOC 



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VOLUME XVII 



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Subscriptions for 1909 are now due. 

Vol. XVII. ] JANUARY, 1909. [No. 



ORCHID REVIEW: 

En 3ilustratefc 3ournal of ©rcbifcolo^ 



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Book, Notice of 
Calendar of Operatio 



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Events of 1908 
)ituary ; John 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



JANUARY, 1909. 



THE ORCHID STUD-BOOK. 

It is with great satisfaction that we are able to announce the completion 
of the Orchid Stud-Book, whose appearance has been awaited with no little 
impatience by many of our readers. 

Its object, a 1 ? pointed out in the Preface, is " to provide an authentic 
list of existing Orchid hybrids of artificial origin, arranged on a uniform 
system, so as to show at a glance the crosses that have already been 
made, the adopted name of the hybrids, the works in which they have been 
described and figured, the original raiser or exhibitor, and the date of first 
flowering — in short it is intended as a guide to the already vast literature of 
the subject, and a standard of nomenclature." 

Some of the difficulties met with during its execution are pointed 
out. " These have partly arisen through the same hybrid having 
been raised independently in different collections, but chiefly through 
want of a uniform system. Some raisers have considered all the 
seedlings from the same cross as forms of one, while others have 
given distinct names to different seedlings out of the same seed-pod. 
Some hybrids have received Latin or classical names, in accordance with 
the rules of binomial nomenclature, or have been distinguished by the 
joint names of the two parents, while others have been named in the 
vernacular. A few have been recorded without names. In addition to this 
there are many hybrids whose parentage has been lost, or whose records are 
incomplete, contradictory, or erroneous. Stray seedlings, loss or absence 
of record of parentage, change of ownership of unflowered seedlings, the 
contemporaneous flowering of the same hybrid in different collections, and 
the naming of hybrids without reference to the work of earlier operators, 
have all contributed their quota to the confusion arising from the 
multiplicity of systems of nomenclature, and the object of the work is to 
provide a remedy for this confusion, so far as possible." 

The work is divided into two parts : — 

" Part I. contains an enumeration of the species and hybrids which have 
been used as parents, these being arranged in alphabetical sequence, 
followed by the name of the resulting hybrid. The name of the first parent 



s THE ORCHID REVIEW [January, 1909. 

(in the alphabetical series) is given in heavy type in the centre of the 
column, and all the species with which it has been crossed are arranged 
alphabetically on the left, with the resulting hybrid on the right. Each 
parent appears again in its own alphabetical position, and thus the hybrids 
of any given species appear all together. . . . Having found the 
name of the hybrid by means of its parents, one turns to Part II., where its 
history and other details are given. Part I. serves the double purpose of 
indicating the name of any given hybrid whose parents are known, and of 
shewing with what others a given species has been crossed." 

Part II. contains (1) an alphabetical enumeration of existing hybrids, 
each under its adopted name, followed by (2) the names of its parents, 
(3) references to descriptions and figures, (4) the name of the raiser or 
exhibitor, (5) date of first flowering, and (6) synonymy, these being followed 
in a few cases by (7) a short additional note. A few explanatory details 
are given under these several headings. 

" 1. Names. — In all cases we have aimed at adopting the earliest 
correct name, but this is not invariably the name first published. Part II. 
commences with a few suggestions for securing greater uniformity of 
practice than at present exists, and the following paragraph may be repeated, 
as it has been our guide throughout : — 

' Hybrids raised between species should receive specific names, Latin or 
classical, consisting of a single word — the use, however, of two short words 
being permissible where they can be connected with a hyphen. Short 
names should be used for preference, those exceeding six syllables being 
considered inadmissible.' " 

Some examples of the names adopted are then given. \ 

" 2. Parents. — The names of the parents are given in their alphabetical 
sequence, and in most cases where the seed parent is definitely recorded\ 
the sign ? follows the name. But in many cases the record is not clear, \ 
and where doubt exists the sign has been omitted. Raisers might help to 
fill up some of these blanks, and to correct any that are known to be 



References and figures may be left to explain themselves, but of the 
latter it is remarked : " Except in cases where they are unduly numerous, an 
attempt has been made to give a complete list of published figures, (avoiding, 
however, mere repetitions in the same work)." 

The next point that we note is that of Synonymy, under which we 
find : " This has proved an unusually difficult subject. A glance 
at page 97 will show that the well-known hybrid between Cattleya Mossiae 
and Lajlia purpurata (Lseliocattleya X Canhamiana) has been recorded 
under nineteen distinct names, while Paphiopedilum X aureum has nearly 
forty synonyms. The latter may be an exceptional case, and a good 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 3 

example of the wide diversity of character often shown by secondary 
hybrids (even out of the same capsule), which seem to defy all attempts to 
name them satisfactorily, but generally speaking there has been a careless 
and even reckless multiplication of synonymy. But hybrids with imperfect 
or contradictory records have proved still more difficult. It was impossible 
to ascertain whether they should be regarded as distinct or as forms of 
something else, and many such have had to be omitted because of the 
sheer impossibility of knowing where to put them. The records or the 
plants may exist somewhere, and if so we hope that the absence of the 
names will be detected, and that such information will be forthcoming as 
will serve to clear up their history. A similar difficulty may have led to 
some of them being inserted in the wrong place, and if so we hope the 
errors will be pointed out. The synonyms are arranged as far as possible 
chronologically, which shows the history of any given hybrid better than an 
alphabetical arrangement." 

There are 120 figures in half-tone, a long addenda down to the end of 
1907, and a complete Index of Synonyms. A paragraph relating to 
omissions may be summarised by saying that a certain number of hybrids 
whose parentage could not be ascertained have been omitted until the 
necessary information is forthcoming, and this should afford an opportunity 
for the ingenuity of our readers, which we hope they will not lose sight of. 
The next paragraph is of general interest. 

" Secondary and more Complex Hybrids. — A great deal of difficulty 
has been experienced in dealing with secondary hybrids and those of more 
complex parentage. Although we have treated them the same as primary 
hybrids it is felt that the plan is not satisfactory. Primary hybrids usually 
combine the characters of their parents in such a way that they can easily 
be recognised, and the variations assumed by different individuals from the 
same seed pod or the same cross are seldom great enough to prevent 
them from being recognised, and had the matter gone no further 
most of the difficulties could have been got over with very little trouble. 
But we now have hybrids of almost every degree of complexity — primary- 
hybrids recrossed with their own parents, or crossed with other species or 
hybrids; hybrids derived from two species in which the parents are 
combined in equal and in unequal proportions ; hybrids derived from three 
species, from four, and one even from five species ; and while some of these 
complex hybrids vary enormously between themselves they also in some 
cases resemble others that are known to have been derived from different 
crosses. In short there are hybrids whose parentage cannot be fixed with 
any degree of certainty by an analysis of their characters, because of the 
amount of reversion that has taken place. Then there is that curious 
complication that certain crosses which from their parentage appear to be 



4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

distinct, yet on analysis prove identical. To put the case differently, the 
same hybrid may be obtained in two different ways. For example, 
Odontoglossum nobile crossed with O. X spectabile would appear to be a 
distinct hybrid from O. X Rolfeae crossed with O. X armainvillierense, but 
an analysis of parentage shows that both are composed of half O. nobile, 
a quarter O. crispum, and a quarter O. Harryanum. The two have been left 
under their respective names of O. X percultum and O. X Ossultoni, but 
it is at least a question whether they ought not to have been regarded as 
forms of one. And this is only a type of a series. Owing to these 
perplexing facts it becomes a question whether secondary and more 
complex hybrids may not in the future have to be treated in a different way 
from primary ones, or at all events have to be classified separately. The 
species in certain genera are now becoming so completely linked up by 
chains of hybrids that we may have to treat these complex forms purely as 
florists' flowers, selecting and naming only such as show distinct improve- 
ments on their predecessors and ignoring the remainder. Some such 
selective method seems almost inevitable in the near future." 

Following the Preface is the " History of Orchid Hybridisation," in 
which the more important events are discussed in chronological sequence, 
and then come articles on "Generic Hybrids," the "Specific Composition 
of Hybrids," in which the various grades of complexity are discussed, and 
the "Variability of Hybrids." Six pages are next devoted to the 
" Literature of Orchid Hybrids," a chronological arrangement being 
followed, and fourteen others to a chapter on " Hybridising and Raising 
Orchids from Seed." 

The bulk of the work is naturally devoted to the enumeration of species 
and hybrids used as parents, and to that of their hybrid offspring, which 
fills 312 pages, both being alphabetical— the arrangement and details, \ 
however, have already been mentioned. The "Index of Synonyms" fills 
eleven closely printed pages, and is followed by the " List of Illustrations," 
120 in number. The Frontispiece, appropriately enough, shows a fine 
specimen of Calanthe X Dominyi, the first hybrid Orchid raised by hand. 

Finally, comes an arrangement for " Future Supplements," as 
follows : — 

" It is inevitable that a work of this kind, dealing with a subject which 
is progressing with such rapid strides, should very quickly become out of 
date. The preceding pages contain the hybrids recorded up to the end of 
1907, so far as their history could be ascertained, but a large number have 
been recorded since, and almost every meeting of importance brings 
additions to the list. It is intended to publish future additions in the 
Orchid Review, so as to prevent the work from falling out of date. Those 
for 1908 have already been collected, and a first instalment will appear in 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 5 

an early number of that work, after which the records will be continued from 
time to time as the materials accumulate. This will also afford an oppor- 
tunity of correcting any errors that may be pointed out, and of including 
any hybrids that have been omitted for want of information. It is quite 
probable that materials exist which will enable the origin of some of these 
doubtful hybrids to be cleared up, and it is hoped that any such information 
will be forthcoming. 

" In order that future records may be as complete as possible, it is hoped 
that raisers will forward the necessary information respecting their 
productions, as they reach the flowering stage, accompanied by a flower as 
a voucher of authenticity, and this remark applies equally to any old hybrid 
which has been overlooked or omitted, or whose origin has been incorrectly 
given. If raisers will compare the work with their own private records, 
and let us know the result, some important information may be elicited, for 
we have reason to believe that there are hybrids in existence whose origin 
has never been properly recorded. Hybrids that have not yet reached the 
flowering stage are outside the scope of the work. 

Schedule for Information respecting Additional Orchid 
Hybrids. 

1. Seedparent. 2. Pollen parent. 

3. Name (if any). 4. Raiser. 

5. Exhibitor. 6. Date of first flowering. 

7. Record of publication or 8. Any additional information, 

exhibition (if any). 



1. Calanthe Masuca. 2. Calanthe furcata. 

3. Calanthe X Dominyi. 4. Veitch. 

5. 6. October, 1856. 

7. Gard. Chron. 1858, p. 4. 8. The first hybrid Orchid 

raised by hand. 

" The above is only intended as a rough guide as to the kind of informa- 
tion desired, and its arrangement. Some of the points may not be known, 
and others will necessarily in some cases have to be left blank. If, however, 
there are doubts about the actual parentage, it is hoped that in the interests 
of accuracy this will be pointed out. The exhibitor is not always the actual 
raiser, and sometimes the latter is not certainly, known, but the complete 
record is desired as often as possible. 

" The above form is obviously not suitable for corrections and criticisms 
of existing records, which when necessary we hope to receive. 
" All communications should be addressed to the Editor." 



6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

EVENTS OF I908. 

In summarising the horticultural events of the past year we may first 
mention the great Quinquennial Exhibition at Ghent, which also celebrated 
the Society's Centenary. As usual, it brought together the leading 
horticulturalists of Europe, while the display of Orchids was certainly very 
fine, and what it might have been is difficult to imagine, for prizes were 
offered in eighty-one classes, though only twenty-seven were filled, and in 
several of these there was only a single exhibit. The group staged by M. 
Firmin Lambeau, of Brussels, which gained the Gold Medal offered by His 
Majesty the King of the Belgians, was excellent, and that staged, not for 
competition, by Major G. L. Holford, of Westonbirt, was remarkable in 
every respect, occupying an area of over 300 square feet, and containing 
many very fine specimens and some brilliant novelties The group of 
hybrid Odontoglossums exhibited in a long glass case by M. Ch. Vuylsteke, 
of Loochristi, was equally remarkable, nothing like it having been staged 

Other Exhibitions. 
The great shows held by the Royal Horticultural Society at the Inner 
Temple Gardens and at Holland House have never been surpassed, perhaps 
not equalled, in the brilliant display of Orchids brought together, while the 
usual fortnightly meetings have rarely failed to produce a fine show of 
Orchids, or some brilliant novelty. The Manchester and North of 
England Orchid Society have also had a very successful year, and the 
various Cup Competitions have led to a keen but friendly rivalry, all of 
which testifies to the growing popularity of these beautiful plants. 
Novelties. 
The striking novelties of the year have been almost exclusively of hybrid 
origin, and the progress which has been made in this department is 
remarkable, and seems likely to increase year by year. A number of new 
species have been described, several interesting in themselves, but nothing 
of striking horticultural merit. Several fine varieties of existing species, 
however, have appeared, and among them the beautiful albinos, Vanda 
ccerulea Charlesworthii, Cypripedium Charlesworthii Bromilowianum, and 
C. macranthum album. 

Hybrids. 
Hybrid novelties have been so numerous that one hardly knows where 
to begin. One of the most brilliant, however, is Odontioda Charles- 
worthii, whose uniform crimson colour came as a surprise, considering that 
one parent was the strongly marked Odontoglossum Harryanum. O. St.- 
Fuscien, O. keighlyensis and O. Thwaitesii are also very promising 
acquisitions. Diacattleya Colmanise and Chondropetalum Fletcheri are 
also interesting generic crosses, though in the latter the Zygopetalum 



January, 1909] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 7 

parent exerts a greatly preponderating influence. Additions were made to 
most of the large showy genera, but as we shall have to summarise them 
elsewhere they may be passed over. Suffice it to say that among the 
complex hybrids of Cypripediums some striking novelties appeared, several 
of them being certificated by the R.H.S. 

Odontoglossums. 

This genus has rapidly come to the front, for over a dozen interesting 
novelties were recorded, without reckoning varieties of hybrids previously 
recorded. Probably the most striking addition was O. X maculatissimum, 
exhibited by M. Ch. Vuylsteke at Ghent, while O. X Groganias, raised by 
J. H. Grogan, Esq., from O. X Uroskinneri and O. Edwardii, was one o 
the most interesting. O. X hibernicum, O. X Clytie, and O. X Eleanor, 
raised by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., and O. X Zenobia, O. X Nerissa, 
and O. X Nemea, raised by De Barri Crawshay, Esq., were also attractive 
additions to the list. Several others also flowered with Mr. Crawshay. 
Certificated Orchids. 

The certificated Orchids of the year contain a large proportion of 
novelties. Fifty-one First-class Certificates were awarded by the Royal 
Horticultural Society,, and of these thirty-eight were given to hybrids, 
either new or of very recent origin. Odontoglossum heads the list, with 
ten hybrids and three varieties of O. crispum. Then comes Cypripedium 
with nine, six of them hybrids, the others being C. Charlesworthii Bromi- 
lowianum,C.bellatulum,Exhim'svar., and the old Siberian C. macranthum 
(the latter certificated under the name of C. ventricosum). Of the eight 
Cattleyas four were hybrids, two of them being forms of the beautiful albino 
C. x Suzanne Hye de Crom. There were four Brassocattleyas, three 
Laeliocattleyas, and three Vandas, including the beautiful albino V. ccerulea 
Charlesworthii and a coloured form of the species, two Odontiodas, both 
of them forms of the brilliant O. Charlesworthii, two Sophrocattleyas, and 
two Cymbidiums, both forms of C. insigne, Genera claiming but a single 
representative were Dendrobium, Calanthe, Phaius, Miltonia and Stanhopea, 
all hybrids but the last, which was a form of the fine old S. tigrina. The 
Awards of Merit we have not attempted to analyse, nor yet the numerous 
awards of the Manchester Orchid Society. 

Some remarkable facts respecting the inheritance of Albinism have 
come to light during the year, which have been very fully discussed in our 
pages. With the object of obtaining albino hybrids, albino varieties of 
different species have been intercrossed, and now that the seedlings are 
beginning to flower an unexpected condition of things has revealed itself, 
the hybrids having in many cases reverted to ordinary coloured forms. 
Hybrids between Cypripedium insigne Sanders? and C. X Maudiae, C, 



3 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

callosum Sanderse, and C. i. Dorothy have in every case reverted to coloured 
forms, while hybrids with C. bellatulum album have also partially reverted, 
as shown by the figures at pp. 104, 105 of our last volume. Seedlings 
obtained by crossing together albino varieties of Cattleya labiata have also 
yielded ordinary coloured forms, and thus were equally disappointing. But 
a batch of hybrids raised from Cypripedium X Maudiae and C. insigne 
Sanderianum retained the albino character, as may be seen by the figures 
of C. X Rossetti with its two parents given at pp. 265-267 of the same 
volume. This seems to show that the two varieties of C. insigne men- 
tioned, Sanderae and Sanderianum, are constitutionally much more distinct 
than would appear from their characters. Further observations on the 
subject will be awaited with interest, for differences of opinion exist as to 
the cause. 

Our Illustrations. 
Several novelties of the year have been illustrated in our pages, 
namely : — 

Chrondropetalum Fletcheri, p. 56. 
Cypripedium X Rossetti, p. 265. 
Diacattleya Colmaniae, p. 80. 

Odontoglossum X Crawshayanum, Thompson's var., p. 177. 
Odontoglossum X egregium, Madame Jules Hye de Crom, p. 209. 
Odontoglossum X maculatissimum, p. 169. 
Vanda ccerulea Charlesworthii, p. 361. 
The female flowers of Cycnoches Egertonianum and the handsome 
Ccelogyne Mooreana have not previously been figured. 
Losses during the Year. 
Three well-known Orchidists have passed away during the year. The 
death of the Marquis de Wavrin, of Ghent, in February last, left a blank in 
the ranks of Belgian Orchidists, and his fine collection was sold during the 
Ghent week. Later in the year another enthusiastic Orchidist passed away 
in the person of Frau Ida Brandt, of Zurich, from whose collection we have 
received many interesting Orchids, and who had been a subscriber to this 
work almost from the commencement. The name of John Carder has been 
familiar to Orchidists for many years as an importer of Odontogiossums, but 
his death took place early in December. An Obituary notice appears on 
another page. 

So much for the events of the past year, those of the coming one cannot 
be foreseen, but we may at least anticipate that it will contribute its quota 
to the general progress of Orchidology. The preparations of the hybridist 
are now on a vast scale. May the harvest be equal to his most sanguine 
anticipations. 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 9 

PAPHIOPEDILUM NIVEUM VAR GLORIA MUNDI. 

The annexed figure represents a remarkably fine form of Paphiopedilum 
niveum from the collection of E. D. Bostock, Esq., Holly House, Stone, 
Staff., and is reproduced from a photograph kindly sent by him. Some 
time previously a living flower was received, one of the finest we have yet 
seen of this beautiful species. The colour is pure white, with a few very 
minute purple dots on the petals. The species varies very much in size, 
but large-flowered forms are rare, and prized accordingly. The species is a 




Fig. 1. Paphiopedilum niveum var. Gloria Mundi. 
native of the Langkawi Islands, north of Penang, where it is said to grow 
on limestone mountains, generally on the western sides, where it is not 
much exposed to the sun ; often in the crevices of the sloping rocks, but 
seldom on the perpendicular escarpments like many other Cypripedes. It 
also grows on the Tembilan Islands, another small group within the 
equatorial zone, about midway between Singapore and Sarawak. Growing 
in such a situation it naturally requires a light position in a warm house, 
with very careful watering. 



io THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR JANUARY. 
By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Dendrobium Wardianum. — Plants that have been properly rested will be 
pushing their buds, and in many cases flowering during this month. They 
should be staged in a light position, and given a little extra water till the 
flowers are properly developed, and then kept a little drier till they pass out 
of flower, when they can be removed to their growing quarters. Where a 
house cannot be set aside for them they will grow well in a plant stove or 
vinery. D. aureum, X Curtisii, X Doris, and a host of other hybrids will 
also be pushing their flower buds, and should be given similar treatment. 
Where several potting mixtures have been tried notes should be taken whilst 
the plants are in flower as to which gives the best harvest of flowers, as 
some mixtures give fine bulbs but few flowers, whereas, in most cases, 
quantity of flower is the chief aim, so that if notes are taken whilst the 
plants are in flower a satisfactory result can be obtained again next season. 
Here we are always trying fresh mixtures and treatments during growing 
seasons, and I have found in many cases that flowers are better guides than 
growths, but generally speaking with Dendrobes I find the best thing is to 
get them growing as soon as possible after flowering, and let them ripen as 
they grow, that is give them a long growing season, and not rush them or 
give very high temperatures at any time. Where the Dendrobes are housed 
at present we give a temperature of 55 to 6o°, plenty of moisture in the 
atmosphere, and ventilate on every fine or mild day. So long as it is done 
carefully, a good syringing is better than too much water with the watering 
can, and also keeps the plants clean and provides a good growing atmos- 
phere, but afterwards a little ventilation must be given some time during 
the day, if only for half an hour, or spot will soon show on the bulbs and 
young growths. 

Aerides, Angr^cums and Vandas are a beautiful class of Orchids, 
which have been rather neglected of late years, probably because the showy 
hybrid Cattleyas and Laelias have replaced them, and are more useful as 
decorative plants. In any case we do not see such fine specimens shown 
as was the case a few years ago. Many of the varieties are only of botanical 
interest, though some of the larger flowering species are very handsome when 
in flower. Practically the whole of them like a stove temperature, with 
perhaps the exception of Vanda coerulea, which generally does better in a 
temperature of about 6o° to 65 . Until we get brighter weather they should 
all be kept on the dry side. Do not dry them so as to shrivel the leaves ; 
just enough water should be given to keep the leaves plump, until they 
commence to root again, when an ample supply can be given. They also 
then enjoy a good syringing overhead on fine days. During the winter 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 11 

months they will get infested with a small scale, which if not carefully 
sponged off soon disfigures the leaves, causing them to turn yellow. If 
neglected this soon spreads, and ants will distribute it over the whole of a 
plant or a batch of plants if not checked. Spraying occasionally with a 
good insecticide will keep them in check and save a lot of sponging, other- 
wise they are not troubled with insect pests. They are not difficult plants to 
grow, and their beautiful and curious flowers are always admired, and for 
the most part remain long in perfection. 

C02LOGYNE cristata, and its varieties alba, Lemoniana, Trentham 
var., &c, will soon be flowering, in a temperature of 65 , and will last a 
considerable time in perfection. Give enough water to keep the bulbs 
plump, or the flowers will be small, and the plants will suffer if flowers are 
left on long. Where the flowers are wanted for decorative purposes the 
plants must be kept in a plump condition, or it will take a long time to pull 
them round again after they have flowered. These are generally termed old- 
fashioned Orchids, still where white flowers are wanted in quantity, they 
are very hard to beat. As a winter -flowering Orchid I do not see much 
chance of their being replaced by any hybrids, especially at the price 
Ccelogynes can be bought at, and they will grow in a cold frame during 
summer, only requiring heat during winter and at their flowering season. 
Scale seems to be the only thing that bothers them, and this can easily be 
kept down by spraying. 

Miltonias. — Miltonia vexillaria, Roezlii, and X Bleuana will be growing 
freely now the days are getting lighter, and will make stronger growths. 
Leaves which have been made during dull weather, and are weak, will soon 
strengthen with sunlight to help them, and a little ventilation will give them 
that bronzy colour so much admired by growers of these beautiful flowers. 
Those plants that were potted in the autumn will be well-established by 
now, and will require an abundance of water at the roots, as the sun will 
soon help to dry them, and fire heat has to be used pretty strong yet. 
Although the sun gives a little help in the middle of the day it soon loses 
its power, and it is not advisable to drop the fires much until next month. 
Thrip must be carefully watched for, and the plants sprayed or fumigated 
as soon as any are seen. The best plan is to spray occasionally and pre- 
vent them from making any appearance at all, for it saves a lot of trouble 
and at the same time prevents the plants from being disfigured. Frequently 
in dull weather the young leaves will be seen to be stuck together, and if 
not released will be crippled. The handle of a budding knife or thumb 
nail run gently along the leaves will release them. A temperature of 6o° 
to 65 will suit them, but M. Roezlii will grow best in stove temperature. 
Keep a moist growing atmosphere, and ventilate whenever possible. A 
light spraying overhead on fine days will keep the leaves fresh, and also 



12 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

keep thrip down. Do not drown the plants; just a light spraying will 
make them look happy. 

Cypripediums of the insigne class will mostly be past their flowering 
stage. These should be examined and those that require potting done at 
once. Good turfy loam, crushed crocks, and one-third leaves suits this class 
first-rate. Some growers object to using loam, but, in my opinion, there is 
no comparison between flowers grown in loam and those grown in peat. 
We have tried divisions of the same plant, grown side by side in the same 
house, under the same treatment, and in comparing flowers the loam-grown 
plants always come much finer and make much finer plants. If locality has 
anything to do with growing Cypripediums, there ought to be some 
magnificent results shown where pure air can be counted as an advantage. 
Here we lay in a very bleak position, and the only time that we get 
fresh air free from sulphur fumes is when the wind is west. We do not 
get bothered with thrip, so perhaps we have something to thank the smoky 
fogs for after all. Plants that need re-potting should be given a liberal 
shift, so as not to disturb them again for at least two years. Large 
specimens must be carefully handled, and if not broken up they can be 
dropped into a larger pot, and lumps of compost worked in between the 
roots, not just pushed down to the bottom of the pot. When a plant is not 
to be potted for two or three years, it is worth doing well. Orchids are not 
much trouble to pot when compared with Chrysanthemums, yet how seldom 
one sees Orchids, which will have to stand two or three years, well potted, 
and how carefully the Chrysanthemums have been potted, which have only 
to stand in the same pot for two months, and yet the Orchid flowers will 
last longer than a whole batch of Chrysanthemums and will not want half 
as much attention. If only a fraction of the attention given in potting 
other things was extended to the Orchids what a different result we should 
see. In potting we crock our pots as for ordinary plants, not half fill them 
with crocks, then gradually work lumps of material between the roots, 
filling up with finer mixture as we go on, so that the plant has the same 
rooting medium at the bottom of the pot as at the top. We do not top up 
with moss, but just finish off neatly about an inch or so from the rim, 
according to the size of the pot. If the material has been damped before 
using it will settle firmly, and not require watering for a few days after 
potting. I am not much in favour of top-dressing. I would rather pot a 
Cypripedium than top-dress it, as Cypripediums are so different in rooting 
and growing from the majority of Orchids. It does not much matter when 
they are potted, as they are always growing and rooting. Of course if fine 
flowers are wanted they must be potted a reasonable time before their 
flowering season. Newly potted plants should be staged by themselves, 
then no mistakes will be made in watering. Syringe between the pots each 



January, 1909] THE ORCHID KEVlZW \% 

day, and overhead as well, and the plants will soon get established again, 
especially if the temperature can b?. raised 5 to io° to help them to start 
again. 

Temperatures should be kept as even as possible during this month. 
If the blinds are run down at night it will be found a great help, especially 
where a boiler is not over large. 

The temperatures should run about as follows :— 
Cool house, night 50 , day 55 . 
Intermediate house, night 55 , day6o°. 
Cattleya house, night 6o°, day 65 . 
Stove or East Indian house, night 65 , day 7°°- 
Houses should be damped so as to prevent a fiery smell being noticed 
when entering them, always remembering one is growing Orchids, not Cacti. 
Orchids will not thrive in a dry atmosphere. 



EPIDENDRUM x KEWENSE : A MENDELIAN EXPERIMENT. 
When the interesting Epidendrum X kewense was described six years ago 
(O.R. xi. p. 6) it was remarked : " A few flowers have been self-fertilised, 
and if the hybrid proves fertile the results should be specially interesting, for 
Mendel's theory assumes that the gemmules of hybrids remain pure, and 
therefore self- fertilised seedlings ought to revert in certain characters." The 
fertilised flowers came to nothing, and I therefore fertilised the hybrid with 
both its parents (all being in flower together), and also reversed the crosses, 
with results that have already been described {O.R. xv. p. 58). Over a year 
later, when the plants were stronger, another attempt was made to self- 
fertilise the flowers, and this time a good capsule and abundance of seeds 
were obtained (O.R. xiv. p. 272 ; xv. p. 58). And now one of the seedlings, 
raised at Burford, has expanded its first flowers, and with others, some of 
which are showing spikes, has been sent to Kew. The first result is that 
E. X kewense has reproduced itself true from seed, for parent and offspring 
resemble each other almost as closely as in the case of seedlings of a pure 
species. Whether the other seedlings will behave in the same way remains 
to be proved, so that further discussion of the subject may be postponed. 
It may, however, be added that about six other spikes are showing, also 
spikes on the secondary hybrids between E. X kewense and both its 
original parents, while E. X kewense is already in flower, so that there 
should be some interesting material for comparison very shortly. Both 
these secondary hybrids produced weak spikes last year, but the results 
were held over in the hope that this year a more definite opinion of the whole 
problem could be formed. It would be interesting to self-fertilise E. X 
O'Brienianum, for the parents show well-marked differences, both in floral 
and vegetative characters. R. A. Rolfe. 



I4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, t 9 o< 

THE TWENTY BEST HYBRID CYPRIPEDES. 
The task of selecting the twenty best hybrid Cypripedes is not an easy on< 
and is likely to show much diversity of opinion. Mr. Samuel Gratrh 
West Point, Whalley Range, Manchester, sends the following as hi 



ection :— 
C. X Actseus, West Point var. 


C. X Golden Glow. 


C. X A. J. Balfour. 


C. X Leeanum Gratrixise. 


C. X alportense. 


C. X Leoneae, Gratrix's var. 


C. X Archimedes. 


C. X Minos Youngii. 


C. X Beryl. 


C. X Priam. 


C. X eboriacum. 


C. X Queen Alexandra. 


C. X Euryades magnificum. 


C. X Samuel Gratrix. 


C X Eve. 


C. X Sir W. Houldsworth. 


C. X fulshawense. 


C. X Thalia, Gratrix's var. 


C. X Gaston Bultel. 


C. X The Baron. 


It is remarkable how few of thenar 


nes agree with those of Mr. Wellesley' 



list. The only name common to both is C. X The Baron, though the 
number could be extended to five if varieties were excluded. In this case, 
however, Mr. Wellesley's list would have to be reduced to eighteen, if not 
less. Mr. Gratrix has not analysed the percentage of the species repre- 
sented, as in the former list, but he shows that most of the hybrids have 
received the award of a First-class Certificate. The question of money 
value is not discussed, and may very well be left out of consideration, being 
something quite distinct from the decorative value of a plant, and an 
altogether variable factor. 

One correspondent asks for a more representative list, in which the 
claims of the summer-flowering hybrids are better recognised. It is also 
pointed out that some of the hybrids are of such recent origin that a good 
many people have not seen them. Perhaps the selection might be made on 
a somewhat different principle, for one wonders how it is that such highly 
decorative plants as the best forms of C. X nitens and C. X Lathamianum 
fail to find a place. We hope that other readers will favour us with their 



CYPRIPEDIUM RECORD -UNDER THE HAMMER." 

Referring to Mr. F. A. Wellesley's note (O.R., December, 1908, p. 354) 
he is in error as to £300 being the record for any Cypripedium. It is 
ancient history, and long before his time as an Orchidist, but well within 
mine (I am perforce bound to admit it), that Cypripedium Stonei platytaenium 
realised, on .May 4th, 1887, £325 10s., at the Lee, of Downside, Sale. Mr. 
Wellesley holds the £300 hybrid Cypripedium record under the hammer, 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW 15 

and possibly this actual record of species over hybrid may help fanciers 
eager to wipe out the past to break it in the coming season. 

de B. Crawshay. 

CHONDROPETALUM FLETCHERI. 
Two interesting inflorescences are sent from the collection of W. Thompson, 
Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, by Mr. Steven?, who remarks : " The plants 
have always been supposed to be from a cross between Zygopetalum 
Mackayi and Chondrorhyncha Chestertoni. We have flowered it for three 
or four years, but never took any notice of it, being so like the Zygopetalum, 
but the present ones have more variation than any I have flowered 
previously." If the record is correct, the seedlings should belong to 
Chondropetalum Fletcheri, figured at page 56 of our last volume, though 
both are considerably different. One has light green sepals and petals, 
strongly striped with brown, and slightly blotched, and the lip white lined 
throughout with clear purple in slightly interrupted lines ; the other has the 
sepals and petals blotched with brown, and the lip much more white, owing 
to the markings being not half as numerous, and not extending to the apex. 
In neither case can we trace a distinct character of the Chondrorhyncha. 
In the one figured the markings on the lip are limited to the crest. We do 
not know if all are from the same cross. The cross should now be attempted 
with the Chondrorhyncha as the seed parent. These " false " hybrids are a 
profound mystery, and we wish someone would make some experiments 
analagous with those made by Messrs. Veitch with Cattleya Mossias. 



CYPRIPEDES FROM BRIDGE HALL, BURY. 

Early in December last we received a beautiful series of Cypripedes from 
the collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers). 
Mr. Wrigley then wrote : — 

" These blooms have been cut in a hurry, in order that they might not 
be damaged by the fearful smoky fogs from which we have been suffering 
during the past week, as these fogs have begun again to-day. It is now 
five years since we had a similar experience of five consecutive days of 
similar dense fogs, and on that occasion our Cypripedes were ruined, and I 
regret to say that a similar fate has befallen these long-suffering flowers 
again. We have close on one thousand blooms open, and most of them are 
beginning to show the effects of the fog, as they are losing their beautiful 
colouring, if the blooms are not destroyed altogether.'' 

The list is too long to enumerate, suffice it to say that it includes fine 
examples of all the best yellow and spotted forms of C. insigne, a fine C. 
tonsum, and a very beautiful example of C. Fairrieanum, together with 
several of the best forms of C. X Leeanum, C. X nitens, the beautiful C. X 



16 tnn oxcnm nwmw. [January, 1909. 

Minos Youngii, C. X Lathamianum, and several other good things, among 
which C. X Euryades incomparible stands out as one of the most striking, 
on account of the amount of rich purple on the dorsal sepal and the clear 
white margin and apex. C. X Actaeus, C. X aureum Rogersii, and C. X 
Kitty are also very fine. Mr. Rogers, in a note, calls attention to C. 
insigne Gladys, as being the nearest approach to an albino that he knows, 
the flower being clear yellow, without either spots or brown hairs — the latter 
remark applying to some brown hairs at the base of the petals of C. i. 
Sanderianum, which it otherwise most resembles. He also mentions one 
called C. X Constance Wrigley, a cross between C. X Minos Youngii and 
C. insigne, Harefield Hall var., which in its broad segments and bold 
spotting most resembles the latter. All the flowers are large and very finely 
developed, and have evidently been cut from strong well-grown plants. 
They enable one to realise what a fine display they must have made when 
on the plants. The ravages of the fog fiend seem to be periodic, and we 
may hope that the present visitation may again prove exceptional. 



VANDA CCERULEA. 

With this note I send you two photographs of some plants of Vanda 
ccerulea which have bloomed very well with me this season, and I really 
hope that we have found out the right place in which this lovely Orchid 
will flourish, make roots, and produce bloom spikes. Ever since I began to 
grow Orchids seriously I have made many attempts to grow this Orchid, 
but without success, for the plants gradually died out, although they were 
placed in various temperatures and varied situations. One of my purchases 
was made about eight or nine years ago, and this plant has existed up to the 
present year, making several attempts to bloom, but the bloom spike always 
damping off, and the plant gradually losing ground each year. Last 
autumn, however, this plant was placed along with a dozen others in a 
certain position in a house in which I grow my Cypripedium insigne and its 
hybrids. This house has a southern aspect, and its temperature, by fire 
heat, ranges from 55 degrees at night to 60 degrees by day, and this 
temperature we endeavour to keep up the year through. As you can see by 
the photographs, the plants are making roots freely and have bloomed 
splendidly, and even the nine-year old plant has turned over a new leaf and 
produced a nice spike with perfect flowers, and has made roots freely, which 
it never did before. The photographs show one plant with four spikes of 
bloom, and a selection of plants which were equally well flowered. We now 
hope we have found out the situation which thi s lovely Orchid likes, and 
expect to have a good show of bloom on our thirty-one plants when the time 
for flowering comes round again. 

Bridge Hall, Bury. O. O. Wrigley. 



January, r 9 o 9 .] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 17 

The photographs sent represent sturdy well-flowered examples of this 
beautiful Orchid, the plant with four spikes being a fine specimen, while 
the group carries a mass of flowers, both being very effective. We should 
have selected one for reproduction, but for the fact that we have already 
figured the species {O.K. iii. p. $37), from a large-flowered example in the 
collection of E. H. Woodall, Esq., of Scarborough, and to which a First-class 




Certificate was given by the R.H.S. This figure is here repeated. Mr. 
Woodall was remarkably successful in its culture, and described his treat- 
ment as warm- Vinery treatment from mid- March to October, a winter near 
the glass in the Cattleya house, and finally a cool dry rest from about the 



1 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909 

end of January in a house where Primulas are happy. A clump exhibited 
by him, in 1894, bore seven long spikes of flowers, from thirteen to fourteen 
each, of the deepest blue, and in some cases touching five inches across— a 
very picture of loveliness. The secret — if secret there be — he considered 
was "air; abundance of it whenever possible, with sufficient moisture in 
the atmosphere to counteract the excessive drying caused by ventilation." 

What we believe this plant particularly resents is close warm treatment, 
particularly when it should be at rest, this being totally at variance with its 
native climate. In the Khasia Hills it grows at a slightly lower elevation 
than Cypripedium insigne, and Sir Joseph Hooker remarks: "The dry 
grassy hills which it inhabits are elevated 3,000 feet to 4,000 feet ; the 
trees are small, gnarled, and very sparingly leafy, so that the Vanda which 
grows on their limbs is fully exposed to sun, rain, and wind. There is no 
moss or lichen on the branches with the Vanda, whose roots sprawl over 
the rough bark. The atmosphere is, on the whole, humid, and extremely 
so during the rains ; but there is no damp heat or stagnation of the air, and 
at the flowering season the temperature ranges between 6o° and 8o°, there 
is much sunshine, and both air and bark are dry during the day. In July 
and August, during the rains, the temperature is a little higher than above, 
but in winter it falls much lower, and hoar frost forms on the ground." 

" In the Shan States it also grows at about 5,000 feet elevation, in what 
is described as a temperate climate, averaging about 8o° in summer to a few 
degrees below freezing point in the winter." 

These facts should afford a very useful guide to the culture of this 
beautiful autumn-flowering Orchid. 

OBITUARY. 

John Carder. — It is with great regret that we have to announce the 
death, on December 7th last, of Mr. John Carder, the well-known Orchid 
collector. The deceased gentleman was for some years collector for the 
late Mr. William Bull, of Chelsea, and through his agency many Masde- 
vallias and other interesting Orchids were introduced to cultivation. After 
that he was for some time in partnership with Mr. Shuttleworth, the former 
continuing to collect Orchids, and particularly Odontoglossums, his name 
becoming famous for a fine type of the popular O. crispum. This business 
being abandoned, Mr. Carder continued to import O. crispum on his own 
account, and was engaged in the work right up to the last. He was in the 
City on. Friday, December 4th, apparently in his usual health, but on the 
following Monday morning passed away rather suddenly at his residence at 
Wood Green. He was highly esteemed by a wide circle of Orchidists. 
His name is commemorated in Masdevallia Carderi, one of his earlier 
introductions. 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 19 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
A meeting of this Society was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, 
Vincent Square, Westminster, on December 8th last, when there was a very 
fine display of Orchids, and the awards consisted of eight medals, one 
First-class Certificate, three Awards of Merit, and two Cultural 
Commendations. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill, Lanes, (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a select 
group of well-grown Cypripediums, which received a Silver Flora Medal. 
It included the handsome C. X Germaine Opoix, var. Queen Alexandra, C. 
X Actaeusvar. Marjorie, C. X Lord Ossulston, the fine C. x Thalia Mrs. 
Francis Wellesley, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X fulshawense, C. X Priam, 
C. x Leeanum Corona, and others. 

His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock (gr. 
Mr. Hunter), received a Cultural Commendation for a fine plant of Vanda 
ccerulea. bearing four fine inflorescences. He also sent Cattleya Trianae and 
a good light form of C. x Fabia. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), received 
a Cultural Commendation for a fine specimen of Cypripedium insigne 
Sanderianum with ten flowers. He also sent two fine spikes of Cymbidium 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis) 
sent Cypripedium X Actseus Fowler's var., a fine form with most of the 
dorsal sepal white. 

J. H. Hill, Esq., Burgess Hill, Sussex, sent a small group of Odonto- 
glossum crispum, O. X Phoebe, a good white Lycaste Skinneri, and several 
Cypripediums. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. Alexander), 
sent a pretty Laelio-cattleya, derived from L.-c. Massangeana and C. 
Dowiana aurea, having canary yellow sepals and petals, and the lip rose- 
coloured, with some yellow veining ; also Cypripedium insigne, Holford's 
var., a very fine seedling form raised from C. i. purpureum crossed with 
C. i. Harefield Hall var., and much resembling the latter, except in its 
dwarfer scape, round flowers and very broad lip. The dorsal sepal is white 
on the upper half, and yellow below, with enormous purple blotches. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent Cattleya X 
Maggie Raphael var. Streatham (C. Trianae alba x Dowiana aurea), a very 
pretty variety having white sepals and petals, and a rose-coloured lip veined 
with yellow. 

G. P. Walker, Esq., Heatherwood, Putney (gr. Mr. McGregor), 
sent Odontoglossum X laudatum var. Walkerianum (X Wilckeanum X 



2o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

ardentissimum), a fine hybrid having a whitish ground colour, heavily 
blotched with red-brown over two-thirds of the segments. 

F. Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent Cypri- 
pedium X Actseus Golden Gem (C. insigne Chantinii Lindenii X Leeanum 
virginale), a pretty greenish yellow flower with a white apex to the dorsal 
sepal, and C. X The Premier (M. de Curte X Mrs. Win. Mostyn), a fine 
hybrid having broad yellow petals and lip, tinged and marked with purple- 
brown, and the dorsal sepal emerald green above and heavily blotched with 
dark chocolate below, becoming violet-purple near the white margin. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Hayward's Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, including a finely blotched Odontoglossum X 
Lambeauianum, O. X crispo-Harryanum, O. X Eleanor, and others, Lselia 
anceps waddonensis, L. Gouldiana, the brilliant Odontioda Bohnhofise, 
Trichopiliasuavis, Gomesa planifolia, Laelio-cattleya Lusitania,Cypripedium 
insigne citrinum, C. X Leeanum, and others. A First-class Certificate 
was given to Brasso-cattleya Cliftoni (B.-c. Digbyano-Mossise X C. 
Trianae), a very fine hybrid most like the former, but larger, and the sepals 
and petals delicately tinted with lavender, while the broad lip is white, and 
fringed with some purple markings behind the yellow disc. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge'Wells, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a large and handsome group, containing a fine series of Cypri- 
pedium insigne and C. X Leeanum varieties, with numerous other good 
things. An Award of Merit was given to Cypripedium Armstrongii, said to 
have been imported with C. Spicerianum, and most like it, though con- 
siderably enlarged. The dorsal sepal is white, with a small green base, and 
a purple band up the centre, the petals decurved, undulate on the upper 
margin, yellow, with some purple hairs and spotting, and the lip reddish- 
brown in front. It was suggested to be a natural hybrid, but the point is 
not at all clear. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons,' St. Albans, staged a fine group, to which a 
Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained some good Oncidium varicosum, 
Odontogiossum crispum Belerophon, a handsomely blotched home-raised 
seedling, a good example of Pleurothallis Scapha, a Laelia suspected to be a 
natural hybrid between L. albida and L. furfuracea, Bulbophyllum crassipes, 
Cypripedium X Actaeus nivalis, C. Charlesworthii Temeraire, a remarkable 
variety, having the dorsal sepal much elongated, and white, veined with 
lilac-rose, and the petals and lip greenish yellow, with some purple veining 
on the former. An Award of Merit was given to C. X Troilus var. Lord 
Nelson (insigne Harefield Hall var. X nitens), a very fine variety, having 
the dorsal sepal yellowish at the base and white above, and heavily 
blotched with purple. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, were awarded a Silver Flora 



January 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 21 

Medal for a fine group, including some good Uendrobium Phalaenopsis and 
Laelia anceps, Vanda ccerulea, Oncidium Papilio, Brassocattleya Pluto, B.-c. 
Digbyano-Schroederas, Calanthes, a fine series of Cypripedium insigne and 
C. X Leeanum, and other good things. 

Messrs. J. and A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, also received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a beautifully arranged group of Odontoglossum crispum, with 
many good Cypripedium insigne Sanderae, a very fine example of C. X 
nitens magnificum Ball's var., C. X Parkinsonianum, C. Thompsoni 
magnificum, and many other good things. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, received a Silver Banksian Medal for 
a good group, including some fine Oncidium varicosum, one called Bush 
Hill Park var. having a red-brown blotch at the base of the lip, Cycnoches 
maculatum, C. chlorochilon, some good Cypripedium insigne and C. X 
Leeanum, C. X Thalia giganteum, C. X aureum, C. X Tracyanum, &c. 

Messrs. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, also received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group of Cypripediums, Odontoglossum, &c, noteworthy 
examples of the latter being O. X excellens, O. x Vuylstekei and O. X 
Wilckeanum. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, received an Award of Merit for 
Dendrobium Ccelogyne striatum, having yellowish sepals and petals striped 
with chocolate purple, and the lip dark purple. 

Messrs. Heath & Son, Cheltenham, staged a nice group of Dendrobium 
Phalaenopsis, Vanda coerulea, Oncidium varicosum, Cypripediums, &c. 

At a meeting held on December 22nd there was again a very fine 
display, and the awards consisted of five medals, three First-class Certifi- 
cates, three Awards of Merit, two Botanical Certificates, and two Cultural 
Commendations. 

F. Menteth Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), 
received a Silver Flora Medal for a good group of Cypripediums, Lycastes, 
&c, the latter including three good plants of L. Skinneri alba, with L. X 
hybrida and L. X Balliae. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), showed a good selection of hybrid Calanthes, &c. A First-class 
Certificate was given to C. X Angela (C. X burfordiensis X Chapmanii), a 
very beautiful hybrid having the large three-lobed lip deep ruby-purple, and 
the sepals and petals lighter in colour, and an Award of Merit to C. X 
Norman (C. vestita gigantea X v. rubro-oculata), rather larger than the 
preceding and paler in colour, the sepals and petals being rose-purple, the 
former tipped with white, and the lip mauve-purple. A Cultural Commenda- 
tion was given to a fine plant of Cypripedium X Leeanum Clinkaberry- 
th fifteen flowers. 



22 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. Alexander), 
received a Cultural Commendation for a line plant of Coelogyne Mooreana 
bearing two spikes, and a First-class Certificate for Cypripedium X 
Antinous (C. X J. Howes X Actasus), a handsome hybrid having the dorsal 
sepal white, blotched with purple on the lower half, and the petals and lip 
yellow with a trace of green veining. He also sent C. X Beacon (C. X J. 
Howes X nitens-Leeanum) and a fine example of Oncidium X Mantinii. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart,, K.C.V.O., Burford (gr. Mr. White), 
received Botanical Certificates for Dendrobium elongatum, a pretty little 
Javan species allied to D. cymbidioides, but having a longer raceme of 
smaller flowers, and to Epidendrum punctiferum, an ally of E. inversum, 
with greenish flowers and a few purple spots at the base of the lip. He 
also sent a Sophrolaelia hybrid raised from Sophronitis grandiflora and 
Lalia Jongheana. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 
Cymbidium X rosefieldiense (Tracyanum X grandiflorum), which should 
develop into a very fine thing. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), sent 
a well-formed Odontoglossum crispum with very large flowers. 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood), sent 
Cypripedium X Felicity. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent a selection of the 
pretty light form of Cattleya X Maggie Raphael, previously exhibited. 

F. Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent a 
pretty yellow Lselio-cattleya, and Cypripedium X Ernest Swinton (Gode- 
froyae X beechense), having beautifully variegated leaves, and a cream 
white flower densely blotched with claret-purple. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
choice group, the more noteworthy plants including the rare and handsome 
Oncidium loxense, Laelia autumnalis alba, some good forms of L. anceps, 
Cypripedium X Penelope (C. X Hitchinsise X Leeanum), a pretty coloured 
form, and a pretty Odontoglossum called O. Mooreanum, of somewhat 
doubtful affinity, having light yellow, undulate sepals and petals, spotted 
with brown, and a heart-shaped crimson blotch on the lip. A First-class 
Certificate was given to Odontoglossum x Magali Sander (O. X Rolfese X 
Adriansevar. F. K. Sander), a very fine hybrid having round cream-coloured 
flowers, densely spotted and blotched with purple, and a very broad, white, 
somewhat fringed lip with rich -purple markings. An Award of Merit was 
given to Oncidium bicallosum Sander's var., a good form of the species. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, including a number of good Odontoglossums, a 
fine specimen of Vanda lamellata Boxallii, the" elegant V. Watsoni, figured 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 23 

as the frontispiece of our last volume, a well-flowered plant of Gongora 
quinquenervis, Laelio-cattleya Charlesworthii princeps, &c. 

Messrs. J. and A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group, consisting largely of Odontoglossum crispum, and including 
O. c. majesticum, a handsome white form, having a few blotches on the 
sepals, also a heavily blotched variety. There were also some good forms 
of Lselia anceps, L. autumnalis with seven spikes, and a number of good 
Cypripediums. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a fine group, including the handsome Cypripedium X C. F. 
Sander, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X triumphans, C. X Thompsoni, good 
varieties of C. X Euryades and insigne, &c. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, sent Cypripedium X Thalia 
splendens, C. X Crusader, and C. X elatior (Leeanum X Baron Schroder) 
the latter, a large and handsome form, with the dorsal sepal white, tinged 
and blotched with deep purple, gaining an Award of Merit. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, sent Cypripedium X 
Minos Youngii, and C. X Helen II. var. Armstrongiae, the pretty light- 
coloured variety figured at page 105 of our last volume. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, sent a small group, including 
Cypripedium X Tracyanum, C. X Helen II., C. X Minos Youngii, some 
good varieties of C. insigne, &c. 

M. Mertens, Ghent, sent a few good hybrid Odontoglossums. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, sent the pretty Cypripedium X 
Goodsonianum. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
At the meeting held in the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on December 3rd, 
a keen disappointment awaited the members, a letter being read from O. 
O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury, stating that he had intended to send a 
large exhibit of his best Cypripediums, but a thick "Lancashire special" 
fog prevailing had deterred him at the last moment. An excellent show, 
however, was provided, and over fifty plants were placed before the Com- 
mittee, who were present as follows : Messrs. E. Ash worth (Chairman), R. 
Ashworth, Thorp, Cowan, Ward, Sander, Warburton, Ball, Shill, Keeling, 
Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, and Weathers (Secretary). It may be 
interesting to note that the plants known as Cypripedium insigne Francis 
Wellesley and C. i. Baron Schroder were unanimously declared by the 
Committee to be C. i. Harefield Hall var., and must in future be exhibited 
as such at the Society's meetings. 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a very 
bright and interesting group, which gained the Society's Silver-gilt Medal. 



24 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909- 

Many interesting Odontoglossums were present, including some well- 
flowered O. crispum of large type, O. X Lambeauianum var. Jaspar, 
O. X ardentissimum var. Lawrencei, O. X Vuylstekei, O. X amabile, 
O. X Wilckeanum, &c, also some good plants of Cypripedium X Leeanum 
Clinkaberryanum, C. X aureum Ward's var., C. callosum Sanders, 
Oncidium tigrinum, &c. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), 
staged a fine group, composed chiefly of Cypripediums. The fine C. X 
Leeanum Lavertonianum, shown in grand form, gained a First-class Certifi- 
cate. An effective seedling variety of C. insigne (i. Dormanianum X i. 
Harefield Hall var.), named Dorman-Harei, gained an Award of Merit, 
as did also C. X Floradora and C. X Lord Ossulston var. Grace Osborne. 
We noted also C. X Bertie, C. X Gaston Bultel, C. X beechense superbum, 
C. X Leeanum Corona, C. X Victor, C. insigne Warburtonianum, 
and many others of merit, with Cattleya chocoensis alba, C. X Dussel- 
dorfii, &c. (Silver-gilt Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a pretty group 
of excellent quality, which was awarded a Silver Medal. I noted Cypri- 
pedium X Thalia Mrs. F. Wellesley, C. X T. giganteum, C. X Madeline, 
C. X Elmireanum, C. X Purity, C. X alportense, C. X St. Albans, C. 
insigne Harefield Hall var., C. Fairrieanum var. Orpheus, &c. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, Preston, gained a Silver Medal 
for a fine group of Cypripediums, an Award of Merit and Cultural Certificate 
going to a fine plant of C. X Arthurianum Stand Hall, var., bearing twelve 
flowers. I noted C. X Baron Schroder, C. x Maudiae, C. insigne Harefield 
Hall var., C. i. Lucianum, C. x Milo Prestona, C. X Leeanum Clinka- 
berryanum, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged an 
effective group, chiefly of Cypripediums. I noted C. X Euryades, C. X 
memoria Moensii, C. X Arthurianum, C. insigne Chantini Lindeni, Laelia 
anceps Amesiana, &c. (Silver Medal). 

John Stott, Esq., Radcliffe, gained a Bronze Medal for a small group, 
containing Cypripedium insigne Youngianum, C. X Leeanum giganteum, 
Odontoglossum puichellum, and two or three plants of Lycaste Skinneri. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent Odonto- 
glossum crispum Lord Lansdowne and O. c. ardwickense, both being very 
good forms and gaining Awards of Merit. Cypripedium X Actaeus var. 
Sanderae also received an Award of Merit. I noted C. X Priam var. virginale 
andC. x incurvum (Vote of Thanks). 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), sent Cypripedium X 
alportense and C. X Leeanum var. Bruxelles, the latter gaining an Award of 
Merit. 



January, i 909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 25 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent good 
plants of Cypripedium X triumphans, C. X Actaeus langleyense, and C. X 
The Duchess, var. Corneyanum. 

Messrs. Cypher & Son, Cheltenham, received a Silver-gilt Medal for a 
fine group, consisting almost wholly of Cypripediums. I noted C. X Minos 
Veitchii, C. X Leeano-Swinburnei, C. X Charlesianum Cypher's var., C. X 
Actaeus Reeling's var., C. X Tityus superbum, C. X Alcibiades, C. insigne 
Harefield Hall var., C. i. Lucianum, C. i. aureum, C. i. Sanderae, C. i. 
heatonense, &c, also a well-flowered plant of the beautiful Masdevallia 
Schrcederiana. 

Messrs. A.J. Keeling and Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, were awarded 
a Silver Medal for a nice group. A curious Catasetum species bearing a 
spike of eight spider-like flowers was given a First-class Botanical Certi- 
ficate. I noted also Dendrobium X xanthocentrum, D. X Apollo, D. X 
Hebe, many Cypripediums, Lelio-cattleya Diogenes, Epidendrum ciliare, 
Odontoglossum bictoniense, &c. 

Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, gained a Silver Medal for an 
interesting group, including the brilliant Habenaria militaris, Warscewic- 
zella velata, Cypripedium X Leeanum Queen of Portugal, C. X 
Harrisianum superbum, C. Fairrieanum with good dark dorsal sepal, C. 
insigne aureum, and others. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, gained a Bronze Medal 
for a group of Cypripediums and Odontoglossums, in which I noted two 
good plants of C. insigne Cobbianum. 

Messrs. Owen, Nurserymen, Hartford, Northwich, staged a good group, 
consisting of many varieties of Cypripedium insigne, and were awarded a 
Bronze Medal. 

Messrs. Heath & Sons, Cheltenham, staged a small group of choice 
things, in which I noted Cypripedium X Swinburnei magnificum, C. X 
Daphne, C. X Leeanum Fowleri, C. X L. giganteum, C. X L. Clinka- 
berryanum, C. insigne Dormanianum, C. i. Agatha, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent a good plant of Cypripedium X Lord 
Ossulston, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X Parkerianum, a good plant with 
excellent flowers of C. X Leeanum Reeling's var., and a nice hybrid from C. 
insigne Sanderae X C. X Lathamianum. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent a good specimen of 
Cypripedium X Niobe with four fine flowers. 

Mr. D. McLeod, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, sent Cypripedium insigne The 
Queen, C. i. Dormanianum, and several cut flowers. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, sent Cypripedium X Harrisianum 
superbum, G. S. Ball's var., a flower of excellent size and colour. 



26 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

At the meeting held on December 17th there was a magnificent exhibition 
of plants and flowers of a high degree of excellence. Over seventy exhibits 
were placed before the Committee, which sat fully two hours and a-half, 
and awarded five First-class Certificates, and sixteen Awards of Merit. 
Committee present : Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, J. 
Cowan, jun., Z. A. Ward, A. Warburton, W. Holmes, G. S. Ball, A. J. 
Keeling, J. E. Shill, F. W. Ashton, H. H. Smith, F. K. Sander, J. Cypher, 
C. Parker, H. Thorp, and P. Weathers (Secretary). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a 
magnificent group of Cypripediums, relieved with ferns, which covered over 
thirty feet of staging and gained the Society's Gold Medal. In the centre 
were many choice albinos, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X Sir Redvers Buller, 
C. X St. Alban, C. X Goldona, and other well-known things, with several 
good C. insigne varieties. At one end stood a nice group of C. Fairrie- 
anum, several of which had very dark dorsal sepals. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Cringlewod, Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherly), staged 
a very choice group, consisting chiefly of Odontoglossums, which received a 
Silver-gilt Medal. I noted the highly-coloured O. X Vuylstekei with a fine 
spike, O. X crispo-Harryanum, O. X loochristiense, O. X Rolfeae, O. X 
ardentissimum Lawrencei, O. X Jaspar, O. X Lambeauianum, and a well- 
flowered O. X Wilckeanum, with a few good Cypripediums bearing 
upwards of half-a-dozen flowers each. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), staged a nice 
group of Cypripediums of extra quality. Cypripedium X ardwickense 
gained an Award of Merit, also C. X Charles-Hitchinsiae (Charlesworthii X 
Hitchinsiae), a fine flower with nearly circular dorsal sepal, and C. X 
Troilus Fielden Park var. I noted also C. X Leeanum Reeling's var., still 
one of the best, C. X Actaeus langleyense, C. X Maudise, C. X Venus 
Oakdene var., the well-blotched Odontoglossum crispum Rogersonae, and 
O. c. Stanley Rogerson with a spike of thirty flowers (Silver Medal). 

G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. Herdman), sent 
a well -grown batch of plants, all of good quality. The beautiful Cypri- 
pedium X Germain Opoix Westfield var. gained a First-class Certificate, 
while C. X A. Dimmock and Chondropetalum Fletcheri received Awards of 
Merit. I noted a very fine Cypripedium Charlesworthii, C. X The Earl, 
C. X Miss Louise Fowler, C. X Alcibiades, C. X Ville de Paris, C. X 
Minos Youngii, C. X Prospero majus, &c. 

D. O. Drewett, Esq., Riding Mill-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Renwick), gained a 
Silver Medal for a fine group of well-grown Cypripediums, chiefly seedling 
insignes, raised by intercrossing the best varieties. C. i. James Renwick, 
specially fine in form and markings, gained a First-class Certificate, while 
C. i. Northumbria and C. i. The Sultan gained Awards of Merit. The 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 27 

abnormal C. Spicerianum Orchidhurst var. and C. X Mary Lee, Drewett's 
var., received the same awards. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), 
staged a group of Cypripediums of uniform excellence, in which I noticed 
many previously certified plants, as C. X fulshawense, C. X Mrs. Cooper 
Quinn, C. X Eve, C. X Gaston Bultel var. King Edward VII., C. X 
Euryades Sander's var., C. X Mrs. Tautz, &c. C. X Marjorie Warburton's 
var. gained an Award of Merit, as also did a fine Oncidium Forbesii, in 
which all the spotting had solidified in one large blotch, having a narrow 
margin of yellow on each sepal. 

Richard Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), 
staged a very bright and interesting group of mixed plants, which merited 
the Silver Medal awarded. It contained such fine things as Cypripedium 
X Maudise, C. X Leeanum Reeling's var., C. insigne Lucianum, C. i. Hare- 
field Hall var., Miltonia X Bleuana, Trichopilia suavis, a very pretty 
Lycaste Skinneri, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), also received 
a Silver Medal for a fine group, including Cypripedium insigne Harefield 
Hall var., C. i. Sanderae, C. X Arthurianum, C. X Milo Youngii, and half- 
a-dozen varieties of Lycaste Skinneri, well-leaved and flowered. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, staged a group of Cypripediums 
which gained a Silver Medal. I noted fine well-flowered plants of Cypri- 
pedium insigne Harefield Hall var., C. i. Sanderae, C. i. Youngianum, C. 
X Arthurianum Stand Hall var., C. X triumphans, some good forms of C. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, sent a mixed group, including Cymbidium 
X Winnianum, C. Tracyanum, Cypripedium Fairrieanum, several good 
varieties of C. insigne, &c. (Silver Medal). 

J. Stott, Esq., Radcliffe, staged a group, which included several varieties 
of Cypripedium X Leeanum and C. insigne, with Lycaste Skinneri, &c. 
(Bronze Medal). 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Reighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent 
Cypripedium insigne Aberdeen, C. X Euryades splendens, and C. X 

O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), sent two very 
pretty unnamed hybrid Cypripediums, from C. X Minos Youngii X C. X 
Euryades New Hall Hey var., and C. X Sallied Hyeanum X C. X 
cenanthum superbum. 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), sent a good albino 
seedling raised by crossing Cypripedium insigne Sanderae with C. i. Kim- 
ballianum, in which all the spotting of the former and the dark hairs of the 
latter were entirely suppressed. It is curious to note that of four plants 



2 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

flowered two were ordinary insigne and two albinos. The latter was named 
C. i. Sanderae-Kimball, E. Ashworth's var., and received a First-class 
Certificate. 

S. Gratrix, Esq., Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), gained a First-class 
Certificate for a fine Cypripedium named Sir W. H. Houldsworth. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, staged a very fine group 
of Cypripediums, which gained the Society's Silver-gilt Medal. It included 
many fine plants of the best varieties of C. insigne and C. X Leeanum,with 
C. X Ville de Paris, C. glaucophyllum, C. X Niobe, C. X nitens G. S. 
Ball's var., &c, all in robust condition. The fine hybrid C. X Helen II. (C. 
insigne Harefield Hall var. X bellatulum) received a First-class Certificate. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Son, Cheltenham, staged a very effective 
group, chiefly Cypripediums, which was awarded a Silver Medal. I noted 
a good Cypripedium X Charlesianum Cypher's var., C. insigne Dormani- 
anum, C. i. heatonense, C. i. Bohnhofianum, C. X Leeanum Cypher's var., 
C. X L. aureum, C. X Miss A. Moore, a good blotched Odontoglossum 
crispum, and a fine O. X ardentissimum. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderly Edge, staged a small but interesting group, 
including a strong plant of Gongora quinquenervis with three long spikes 
and as many others just showing, a very striking and decorative plant which 
gained a First-class Botanical Certificate. Cymbidium Mastersii alburn 
and Schlimmia trifida gained the same award. I noted also Restrepia 
antennifera, Cochlioda rosea, Odontoglossum crocidipterum, &c. (Bronze 
Medal). 

Messrs. A. J. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a mixed 
group, which included Cattleya Percivaliana with a good lip, C. Harrisoniana, 
Cypripedium X Leeanum Reeling's var., Lselia anceps, Calanthes, &c. 
(Bronze Medal). 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Gt. Horton, Bradford, staged several Cypripedium 
insigne varieties, including Harefield Hall and fastuosum, with C. X 
Leeanum giganteum, C. Spicerianum, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent several well-grown Cypripediums, 
including C. X Euryades, C. Leeanum giganteum, C. X L. Reeling's 
var., and C. X Courtlandianum (Exquisite ?), the latter gaining an Award 
of Merit. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, sent three or four plants of Oncidium 
varicosum Rogersii with good spikes. 

Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, sent Cypripedium X Sallieri var. 
Crab, C. X Simoni giganteum, C. X Zeus superbum, and Odontoglossum 
Rossii majus with a very broad lip (Vote of Thanks)- 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent a box of choice cut 
flowers, all showing evidence of vigorous growth (Vote of Thanks). 



January, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 29 

STORING POLLEN. 

About a year ago several most interesting articles upon the subject of 
stored pollen appeared in the Orchid Review (xvi. pp. 35, 65, III). I have 
been experimenting upon the subject for two years, more especially upon 
the pollen of Cypripediums (Paphiopedilum). My experiments are now 
more or less complete, and the results may be of interest. I enclose an old 
tube (the design is old also) containing pollen of C. insigne Youngianum, 
which has been undisturbed since December 6th, 1907. I also enclose a 
new tube which I think is as perfect as it can be made. It is equally suit- 
able for soft or hard pollen (for the hard varieties the tube is simply used as 
a bottle). 

My own results have been most encouraging from the first, and I have 
tried pollen up to twelve months' old with unvarying success. I have not 
yet tried older pollen, but there seems to be no reason why it should not 
keep for twelve years as easily as for twelve months ! It is a curious fact 
the flowers, fertilised with old pollen, go off more rapidly after pollination. 
In two cases nine days have sufficed to prove success. This I believe to be 
due to some slight change in the condition of the greasy covering which 
envelopes the pollen proper. The pollen tends to become if anything more 
liquid with age, and shows no sign of dryness. The principle is to keep 
the pollen dry by means of calcium chloride. The dry air then prevents 
absolutely any germination of mould spores, dec. I have now several very 
large capsules on my plants which have resulted from stored pollen. 

There seems to be no difference in the time taken to ripen the capsules. 
In one case (Exul X Lathamianum) in which the pollen had been stored 
for four months, the capsules ripened only after sixteen months. It con- 
tained what was apparently (when examined microscopically) perfect seed 
in abundance, there being scarcely any " chaff." The seed of this cross 
was sowed on August 8th last, and should appear in the coming spring 
My collection is only a small one of about 200 plants, and I find the tubes 
most useful. They enable me to make crosses which would otherwise be 
out of the question, owing to the difference in the time of flowering. 

I recently sent a tube of pollen, eleven months old, to a well-known 
Orchid firm, with the request that they would be kind enough to verify my 
results. I was advised a short time ago that the cross tried had been quite 
satisfactory (it was Fairrieanum X Leeanum giganteum). So pleased were 
they with the results that I have agreed to allow the tube to be put upon 
the market, and it has consequently been registered. F. H. Smith. 

" Chez Nous," Sherwood, Nottingham. 

[The pollen sent appears quite healthy, but experiment can alone 
decide what the dessicating effect of calcium chloride may be. — Ed.] 



3o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

NOTICE OF BOOK. 

Thirty-nine Articles on Gardening. By Emmeline Crocker, F.L.S. London, 
Dulau & Co., pp. 142, with an Index and seven coloured plates. 

A series of pleasantly-written newspaper articles, chiefly devoted to 
gardening in the open air, which originally appeared in The World, and are 
now reproduced in book form, with the addition of seven coloured plates, 
and an Index. It is dedicated "To all plant lovers." Orchids scarcely 
come within the scope of the work, yet somehow we learn that in Ceylon 
Phaius was being " abused, uprooted, and denounced as a weed," while " a 
dandelion was being cherished and encouraged to grow with the greatest 
care ; " also that Calypso borealis thrives well in half-shady spots on the 
margin of a rock-garden or artificial bog, in a light moist vegetable soil 
composed of peat, leaf-soil, and sand. In one " well-organised, first-class 
garden " we learn, among a few other details, that in July " the Calanthes, 
Anguloa, and Lycastes were getting nourishment, and one ingredient of 
the dose they told me was ' sut.' " We almost wish Miss Crocker could 
have added one more article, devoted to Orchids, and we wonder how she 
managed to avoid it, considering that she devotes two articles to 
Glasnevin, and wonders whether the Orchid house should not rank first in 
point of interest. But all she says is : " No matter what the temperature 
or atmosphere outside, or the time of year, you may be sure a good group 
of Orchids in prime flower will greet you directly you open the door of 
their house. It would be foolish to attempt to give details of the fine 
species." We do not at all understand why it should be so, and we fear 
that Orchidists into whose hands the book may fall will lay it down 
with a feeling of disappointment. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM x GROGANI^E. 
This interesting hybrid was raised in the collection of J. H. Grogan, Esq., 
Slaney Park, Baltinglass, Co. Wicklow (gr. Mr. Skinner), and was noted at 
p. 364 of our last volume. Mr. Grogan writes that we have got the 
parentage " the wrong way round." It should have read O. Uroskinneri X 
Edwardii, the latter being the pollen parent. He adds : "This hybrid is a 
good example of what may be gained by perseverance. In the spring of 
1904 I had a fine spike of 36 buds on a very fine variety of O. Uroskinneri. I 
fertilised every one of these flowers as it came out with the best pollen I 
could obtain at the time, and not one of them would take. When I came to 
the last flower the only pollen I had available was from a good variety of O. 
Edwardii, and this I used, not in the least expecting to get a pod, as I have 
found that Edwardii pollen is practically useless. To my astonishment a 
fine seed pod developed, and in due time the seed ripened, germinated, and 



January, i 909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 31 

the little plants throve apace, with the present result. The plant exhibited 
had an inflorescence of 58 flowers and buds, and this on the first bulb from 
the seed-bulb. I believe Uroskinneri hybrids have a bad name, but these 
are tremendous growers. I have one that made up the seed bulb as big as 
a fair-sized hen's egg. It is like the seed parent in its character of opening 
a few blooms at a time, but each individual flower lasts for weeks in 
perfection. Another plant is now flowering. 

" I have since then fertilised dozens of Uroskinneri flowers but failed to 
get a pod, and the only other plants that I have succeeded in getting seed 
pods on by Edwardii have been Cochlioda Ncetzliana, and I have a nice lot 
of seedlings of these. I don't know that it would have made much 
difference to the flower had the cross been the other way round, but it 
certainly would have been easier to have got it, as O. Edwardii seems to 
set seed pods and produce good seed with nearly anything. I wonder 
whether anybody has tried putting Zygopetalum Mackayi on it ? It would 
be an interesting experiment. I have not got any of the latter Orchid 
myself, but if I can get some good flowers when my Edwardii's are out I 
will try it this season." 

[We should like to see this cross tried.— Ed.j 

ROOT-STRUCTURE. 

At the fortnightly meeting of the Sevenoaks Gardeners' Society, held on 
December 15th last, the first of a series of three lectures on "The General 
Structure of Plant Roots" was given by Mr. Lionel Crawshay, F.R.H.S. 
The structure and functions of plant-roots was dealt with very fully, and 
the difference between them and subterranean forms of stem was pointed out, 
as well as the importance of the root hairs and the root-cap. In considering 
different forms of roots the lecturer mentioned the special absorbent 
apparatus of many tropical Orchids. As all who have seen them must have 
noticed, the rhizomes of many Cattleyas and Lselias usually extend some 
distance beyond the matrix upon which the plant grows. The roots then 
hang down in the air, and it is evident that they cannot come into contact 
with any nutrient medium. Much the same sort of thing takes place in 
their native home, and they are consequently clothed with a jacket of 
absorbent cells, which extends throughout their whole length except the 
apex, giving them a white and swollen appearance. This is called the 
velamen, and the cells being highly absorbent they are able to extract the 
moisture from the air in the same way as the root-hairs draw it from the 
soil. The question of root -bacteria and the nodules found on the roots of 
Leguminosse were also mentioned, and it was remarked that the Nitro- 
Bacterine treatment of crops was of little use where there is already a normal 
development of bacteria in the soil. 



%2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [January, 1909. 

NOTES. 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during January, on the 
12th and 26th, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. 

The Manchester and North of England Orchid Society will hold 
meetings at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on January 7th, 21st, 
and February 4th. The Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits are 
open to inspection from 1 to 4 p.m. 

An Early Orchis. — It was interesting to see half-a-dozen plants of the 
rare Orchis saccata in flower in the Alpine house at Kew, before Christmas. 
It is a Mediterranean species, and has green sepals and petals, with some 
brown markings, and a whitish lip tinged with purple. The plants were 
grown in a cold frame. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Ccelogyne cristata Lemoniana.— /o«r«. Hort., 1908, ii. p. 537, with 

fig. 

Cypripedium X Arethusa.— Jottrn. Hort., 1908, ii. p. 561, with fig. 
Cypripedium x Dreadnought.— Gard. Chron., 1908, ii. p. 389, fig. 
162. 

Cypripedium x Sanact^eus etoniense. — Gard. Chron., 1908, ii. p. 416, 



Dendrobium Ccelogyne var. striatum.— /owm.HorL, 1908, ii. p 
vith fig. 

Epidendrum costatum. — Gard. Chron., 1908, ii. p. 425, fig. 173. 

Eria hyacinthoides, Lindl.— Bot. Mag., t. 8229. 

Oncidium Kramerianum.— Gard. World, 1908, p. 779, with fig. 

Sophro-catt-l^lia Medeia bicolor.— Journ. Hort., 1908, ii. p 
vith fig. 

Sophrocattleya Doris.— Garden, 1908, ii. p. 609, with fig. 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



FEBRUARY, 1909. 



THE TWENTY BEST HYBRID CYPRIPEDES. 
Have not the writers of the articles in your last two issues made a mistake 
in the title? "The twenty most expensive Cypripedes " would have been 
rather more appropriate. We are not all millionaires, but we love Orchids 
none the less, and can manage to get a good show of flowers that do not 
work out at about £100 per bloom. Of course we like to know what these 
best varieties are, and hope to see the day when some of them will come 
within our reach. But will they be quite as highly appreciated when they 
can be purchased for 3s. 6d. each ? Not so very long ago Cypripedium 
insigne Sanderse was sold at quite a prohibitive price, and some of us 
wondered whether it would ever be included in our collections. Just as this 
seemed possible we read that someone was trying to make a " corner" in it, 
but happily the rumour proved false, and now it is accessible to everybody. 
But it is none the less beautiful, because all of us can enjoy the possession of 
it. I wonder how much this beautiful plant has done to popularise cool 
Orchid growing ? There is now a hybrid closely resembling it, which I had 
the pleasure of seeing last autumn, namely C. X Bianca superbum, yet it 
was not included in either of the lists mentioned, though names of later 
date, and surely of less beauty, were included. 

Nearly all the best winter flowering hybrids have C. insigne in them in 
some form or other, and if the list were limited to winter-blooming kinds 
one might include most of the hybrids with its own section. These are C. 
X Leeanum (with Spicerianum), C. X nitens (with villosum), C. X 
Schlesingerianum (with Boxallii), C. X Hitchinsise (with Charlesworthii), 
andC. X Arthurianum (with Fairrieanum), and all are forms of sterling 
merit. Then other combinations between the species mentioned include 
C. x Lathamianum (Spicerianum and villosum), and C. X Niobe 
(Spicerianum and Fairrieanum), which can scarcely be omitted. These 
crossed among themselves have given a number of very beautiful secondary 
hybrids, the best of which are C. X aureum (Spicerianum and Leeanum) 
and C. x Hera (Boxallii and Leeanum), with their varieties. From these 
alone twenty easily grown, free-flowering, and highly decorative hybrids can 
easily be selected which are within the reach of all Orchid growers, 



REVIEW. 


[February, 19 


and distinct vai 


-ietiesofC. insignea 


possible to hi 


ive a good supply 



appears the following in 



and he 

Cyprip 



iyour contemporary, the 


.a list of the supposed best 


Cypripediums has been 


given, ami being a reader and contributor to 


\rnal of Ih n 


lOUght a similar list would be interesting, 


vin append twenty nan 


us which, in my estimation, represent the 


x'A^elislan^'y.n^. 


C. X Maudiae magnificum. 


x *son giganteum. 


C. X Minos Youngii. 


X Alcibiades magnifies 


m. C. X nitens-Leeanum Hannibal. 


X Bianca superbum. 


C. X Priam. 


X Dreadnought. 


C. X Thalia giganteum. 


X elatior. 


C. X Thalia Mrs. Francis 


X F. K. Sander. 


Wellesley. 


X Germaine Opoix, We 


:stfield C. X The Baron. 


car. 


C. X TroilusCravenianum. 


x Helen II.,Westonbir 


t var. C. X Troilus eboraicum. 


x LeeanumJ.GurneyF 


owler. C. X Sultan. 


ie above list 1- undoubte 


dly interesting from a connoisseur's point of 


ut for general purposes i 


t is not of much value, because many are 


1 command h 


igh prices. Among those offered by public 


lare C.Thalia Mrs. F. V 


, T ellesley, which realised £300 ; C. Germaine 


r. ^294; m 


.son giganteum, £231 ; and C. The Baron, 



'For the benefit of i 
decorative standpc 



rs and others who grow Cypripediums from 
add twenty which may be purchased m 



Actaju 
Arthui 



X Leeanum Clinkaberryanu 

X Madame Jules Hye. 

x Maudiae. 

X Mons. de Curte. 

X Mrs. W. Mostyn. 

X Niobe. 



nsigne Sanderae. 
nsigne Hareneld Hall i 



cenanthum superbun 

Rolfei. 

Tityus superbum. 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 35 

" I should be glad to hear other readers' views on this subject, as 
Orchids will in future form part of the general work of a gardener, and not 
be confined to the specialist. — Sentinel." 

Fourteen out of the twenty names in the first list are identical with those 
given by Mr. Wellesley at page 353 of our last volume, the additions being 
C. X Bianca superbum, C. X elatior, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X nitens- 
Leeanum var. Hannibal, C. X Priam, and C. X Troilus eboriacum, which 
displace C. x Beeckmanii, C. X Gaston Bultel, var. King Edward, C. X 
Helen II. Orchidhurst var., C. X Mr. F. Sander, C. X Actceus var. 
etoniense, and C. X The Premier, which shows that there is plenty of room 
for individual taste. 

The second is a good list for general purposes, but it will be noticed that 
it includes two which are not hybrids. 

We have arranged both lists alphabetically for convenience of 
comparison, and have omitted the parentage and raiser, which was 
appended to the first list. — Ed. 

ODONTOGLOSSUMS. 
The first meeting of the Bristol Gardeners' Society for 1909 was held on 
January 12th, when Col. Carey-Batten presided over a good attendance. 
As President of the Society, the Colonel invariably presides at the first 
meeting in the year. Needless to say this kindly act is much appreciated. 
It was appropriate that the topic should be upon Orchids, for the President 
is an enthusiast where these are concerned, and has a fine collection at 
Abbots Leigh. An interesting paper upon " Odontoglossums " was given 
by Mr. Wakefield, gardener to Mr. Shipley, Elmfields, Westbury-on-Trym. 
In the course of his remarks the lecturer recommended a day temperature 
of 55deg., falling to 5odeg. at night ; September being the best month for 
general potting. The plants are then able to recuperate before the dull 
winter months set in. Over-potting should be avoided, for where large 
receptacles are employed the soil becomes stagnant, causing diseased foliage. 
Polypolium and Osmunda fibre, the lecturer said, he has proved highly 
satisfactory, but much prefers peat when the best is obtainable. When 
desirable to increase certain varieties the rhizome may be severed between 
the back pseudo-bulbs, and if the plants are kept on the dry side a break 
will soon occur, which can be potted up separately. Mr. Wakefield named 
a list of Odontoglossums grown at Elmfield, and was awarded a Certificate 
for O. Pescatorei and O. pulchellum majus. For two Orchids, Mr. Curtis 
was first ; Mr. Hunking second. The former had a grand piece of Cypri- 
pedium X Leeanum, and the latter Laelio-cattleya callistoglossa, very good. 
H. W. in Journal of Horticulture. 



36 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

A SELECTION OF USEFUL BOTANICAL ORCHIDS. 

At the present time the selection of Orchids known to some as " botanical 
curios" are certainly finding favour among numerous cultivators. They 
are seen at the fortnightly meetings of the R.H.S. more frequently, and 
trade growers stock the showier kinds in larger quantities than hitherto. 
The majority are of fairly easy culture, although some as yet defy our 
efforts, and would soon become extinct in collections except for an occa- 
sional importation ; but no difficulty should be found in keeping those men- 
tioned below in good health. 

One specimen of each would be sufficient, and the first on my list is 
Peristeria elata, a strong-growing subject with scapes 3ft. or more in height, 
and bearing waxy-white blossoms, which are fragrant. The shape of the 
flowers has been likened to a dove, and for this reason it is termed 
the Dove Orchid, or Holy Ghost Orchid. The potting material should 
consist of fibrous loam, peat, and partly decayed leaves in equal parts, with 
a sprinkling of sphagnum moss and coarse sand added. During the grow- 
ing period it requires plenty of water, and an average temperature of 65deg. 
F. ; but after the completion of the pseudo-bulbs a few degrees lower, and 
less moisture at the base, is advised ; in fact a decided rest is needed. 

A plant suitable for hanging from the roof is Pachystoma (Ancistro- 
chilus) Thomsoniana, the bulbs somewhat resembling a Pleione. When the 
new shoots are about 2in. long, any repotting may be done, afterwards 
providing it with a position at the warmest part of the Cattleya house. 
Directly growth has finished a rest is very beneficial, but care must be 
exercised in giving water to prevent any distress through lack of moisture. 
The flowers are large, with white sepals and petals, and a dark purple lip- 

The Restrepias, and Scuticarias Hadweni and Steelii, are also adapted 
for suspending about i8in. from the glass ; the first-named, of which R- 
antennifera, maculata, and sanguinea, are among the best, should be 
placed in the intermediate division ; and the Scuticarias among the 
Cattleyas, but where they can receive plenty of light, which is necessary to 
produce floriferousness. 

Houlletia is a genus allied to Stanhopea, and may be given similar 
treatment with good results. Two species in general cultivation are 
Brocklehurstiana and odoratissima, the former having chocolate coloured 
flowers, and the latter brownish-red, which are also Violet scented. Another 
quaint group is the Bifrenarias, and B. Harrisoniae is the finest. These can 
be successfully grown near the Maxillarias, requiring practically identical 
culture. 

Many of the Pleurothallis are worth including, particularly P. Roezln, 
which produces long scapes of purplish flowers ; while some of the Poly- 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



37 



stachys are useful from a decorative standpoint; of these I would men- 
tion P. leonensis, a sweet scented variety, and rarely fails to bring forth 
its annual display of Lily of the Valley-like spikes; then we have P. 
grandiflora and odorata, all needing the temperature of the warm division 
while in an active state. The list could easily be prolonged, but enough 
has been said to show that among the species there are plenty to satisfy 
everyone who decides to take up this section of the Orchideae. — T. Anstiss, 
m Journal of Horticulture. 

The revival in these so-called " botanical curios" comes as a welcome 
development, and is reminiscent of the olden days of Orchid growing. The 
above list might be extended almost indefinitely, so numerous are the 
interesting and beautiful species that one seldom sees in ordinary collections, 
and which present no special difficulties in their culture. If one ha? only a 
Cool house at command, room can usually be found for some of the rarer 
Odontoglossums and Masdevallias, with a few Oncidiums and other natives 
of the Andes. Of those that succeed under Intermediate house treatment 
the number is almost legion, and includes various species of Lycaste, 
Maxillaria, Epidendrum, members of the Zygopetalum group, Trichopilia, 
Colax jugosus, Gongora, Brassia, Acineta, Brassavola, and numerous other 
interesting things. The possession of a Warm house enables one to 
introduce various species of Cirrhopetalum and Bulbophyllum, which are 
not only very quaint in structure, but very attractive when well grown. The 
remark also applies to some of the rarer Dendrobiums. Then there is the 
large section comprised under Saccolabium, Aerides, Vanda, Angraecum and 
allies, many of which are now seldom seen in fine condition, though many 
of them require very little room, and are very effective when well grown. 
Reichenbach once remarked that almost any Orchid was effective when well 
grown, and at all events there are many more highly attractive kinds than 
even the largest collection can accommodate, so that there is plenty of room 
for individual taste. 



Epidendrum X kewense. — A second seedling of the self-fertilised 
batch of Epidendrum X kewense is now in flower at Kew, and is much more 
yellow than the one noted at page 13. The colour may be described as part 
yellow and part salmon colour, the former predominating, and there is clear 
dissociation of the two colours. The underlying ground colour is yellow 
with a suffusion of salmon colour in the lip, the adjacent halves of the 
lateral sepals, and the base and margin of the other three segments. Other 
spikes are showing, and the experiment promises to yield some interesting 



38 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

CATASETUM MACULATUM 3 AND ?. 
The production of female flowers of Catasetum in cultivation is of compara- 
tively rare occurrence, and it is a curious fact that in many of the species 
this sex is still unknown, hence the interest of the following case. Mr. M. J. 
Pope, gardener to Mrs. B. B. Tuttle, Naugatuck, Conn., U.S.A., writes: — 
" Some time ago I mentioned to you that I had a Catasetum producing an 
inflorescence of female flowers. I send you photographs showing the 
female flowers exact life size, and one picture showing the whole plant 
reduced. Also another picture showing the entire plant and bulb, with a 
raceme of male flowers. I would like you to identify them for me. The 
male flowers are green, suffused with brown on the petals, and the females 
are larger, and of a pea green all over. The small photograph shows them 
life size. The plant came from Central America." 

The photographs are good, and the male flowers are unmistakably 
those of C. maculatum, one of the two original species of the genus, 
which was described as long ago as 1822 (Kunth. Syn. PL Orb. nov., 
i. p. 330), from a plant collected by Humboldt and Bonpland at Turbaco, 
in Colombia. The female flowers have a larger, more globose lip, and 
the sepals and petals are much shorter, broader and more fleshy, while 
the column is very short, stout, and without antennae. The female 
inflorescence shows five flowers and the male eight. Female flowers 
appeared at Kewin 1893 {O.R., i. pp. 257, 296), and shortly afterwards at the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. It may be added that several female 
inflorescences of Catasetum have been collected which cannot yet be 
identified, because of the general similarity between them, and the ignorance 
of what the corresponding male flowers are like, and it is to be hoped that 
growers will help to clear up this obscure point in the history of the genus. 
It may be a long time before the female of every species is known, but we 
hope that the precedent set by Mr. Pope will not be lost sight of. 

The other species described at the same time as C. maculatum was C. 
macrocarpum, Rich. MSS. (the description not having been published by 
Richard). The specific name was given in allusion to its very large fruits. 
It was shortly afterwards figured by Kunth [Iliunb. ct Hon pi. Nov. Gen. ct Sp., 
vii. p. 158, t. 631), and it is interesting to note that one pseudobulb bears an 
inflorescence with an enormous capsule, the other a two-flowered 
inflorescence of male flowers. Nothing was then known of the sexuality of 
the flowers in this genus. 

The cause of the erratic appearance of the female flowers is not certainly 
known, but it is generally believed they are chiefly produced when the 
plants are very strong. 

R. A. ROLFE. 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 39 

CYMBIDIUM GRANDIFLORUM. 

This fine species has the reputation of sometimes not opening its flowers 
properly, but whether the peculiarity is constitutional or due to some 
cultural defect was not quite clear, as was remarked at page 326 of our last 
volume with respect to the plant at Westonbirt. Mr. Bound attributes the 
defect to want of light in winter, when the species invariably develops its 
spikes, and consequently has always chosen as light a place for it as possible 
in the Cool house, with the result that he has never been troubled with the 
flowers failing to open (see O.R., xii. p. 55 ; xv. pp. 46, 332). The 
Glasnevin plant also opens its flowers normally (O.R., xii. p. 95), but the 
same cannot be said of the Kew plant, which is a subdivision of it. Some 
time ago a fine spike appeared, but the buds turned yellow just before 
expansion, which happened again this year, but curiously enough the apical 
flower escaped, and at length expanded perfectly. Possibly a spell of dull 
and foggy weather had something to do with the failure, but it is clear that 
the plant should be placed in as light a position as possible during the 
winter when the spike is developing. None of the other species show the 
same defect. 

LYCASTE SKINNERI FROM BRIDGE HALL, BURY. 

A dozen fine forms of this beautiful Orchid are sent from the collection of 
O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury, by Mr. Rogers, to show the wide 
range of variation, and the effect they are capable of producing when well 
grown. The species is a great favourite with Mr. Wrigley, and is exten- 
sively used as cut flowers for room and table decoration. The flowers sent 
are splendidly developed, and are excellent examples of good culture, in 
which respect we may recall the beautiful specimen of L. S. alba which was 
figured at page 113 of our last volume. A flower of this beautiful albino is 
enclosed. The others show various shades of blush and pink in the sepals, 
with the petals ranging from light rose to purple, and the lip from white to 
crimson. One form, with rich purple petals, bears a twin-flowered scape, 
and another, with rather short, broad segments, is also very richly coloured. 
A flower of the hairy-lipped L. lasioglossa is also enclosed, with another 
which we believe is the natural hybrid between them, namely, L. X Luciani. 
They form a very interesting and beautiful series. 

It is interesting to note that a plant at Kew which last year produced 
four twin-floured scapes is again behaving in the same way, which suggests 
that the peculiarity may become fixed. It is scarcely an improvement, 
however, for the flowers are so close together that they do not expand to 
their full extent. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



[Fki 



PAPHIOPEDILUM INSIGNE VAR. LAGER/E. 
A flower and photograph of a very distinct and striking variety of Paphio- 
pedilum insigne have been sent by Messrs. Lager & Hurrell, Summit, New 
Jersey, U.S.A., and the photograph is here reproduced. Messrs. Lager & 
Hurrell write: "The variety is, as far as we know, unique, an entirely new 
departure in colour from anything hitherto seen in C. insigne. If the 
flower arrives in good condition it will speak for itself, but in case it is 
damaged we append a description and also enclose a photograph. The 
entire centre of the dorsal sepal is of a reddish dark brown chocolate colour, 




Fig. 3. Pa 



La<; 



slightly suffused towards the edges with greenish yellow, and with four or 
five rose-purple marks at the extreme upper part of the blotch, the whole 
being encircled with a pure white band. The petals are yellowish green, 
heavily barred and veined with reddish brown, and the tips yellowish green. 
The plant has flowered with us for the first time this year, out of a lot of 
plants we imported from Burma four years ago." It seems most allied to 
the variety Bohnhofianum (Gard.Chron., 1890, ii. p. 655), whose history has 
already been given in our pages (ii. pp. 40, 98). In that the base of the 
dorsal sepal is uniformly suffused with brown. 



February, i 909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 41 

CATTLEYA INTERMEDIA MONSTROSA. 

A very curious Cattleya, which flowered in the collection of M. A. Vanden 
Herde, was figured in a recent issue of the Revue de V Horticulture Beige (1908, 
:. Loddigesii, and the figure, by the Editor's 




courtesy, we are able to reprodu 

an abnormal condition of Cattleya intermedi; , 

in the shape of the segments, while those of Cattleya Loddiges 



42 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

different. M. Vanden Herde, in commenting on this curious flower, 
remarks that the anomaly is very interesting and ornamental. There are 
three lips and eleven other segments, four of which appear to take the form 
of lateral sepals and are partly hidden behind the three lips, while four 
others, from their slightly undulate character, are probably true petals! It 
appears to be a case of three flowers fused in one, and although M. Herde 
suggests that if that were the case there ought to be fifteen segments, it 
must be remembered that fusion is often accompanied by a certain amount 
of suppression, there being no room for the development of the segments on 
the sides where the flowers are united. A photograph of the anomaly was 
exhibited at the last Ghent Quinquennial Show. M. Herde remarks that 
the flower has been fertilised, and has produced a large and perfect fruit, 
and he is curious to know what will result. Time alone will tell, but we 
should hardly expect the peculiarity to be reproduced in the seedlings. It 
would be interesting to know if the monstrosity is repeated in the original 
plant. The other anomalous variety of C. intermedia, C. i. Aquinii {O.R. 
viii. p. 73, fig. 9), in which the petals, have become lip-like, is known to be 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR FEBRUARY. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Odontoglossums.— Many of the species and hybrids will now be pushing up 
flower spikes, and must be carefully watched, or slugs will soon play havoc 
amongst them. It is a good plan to keep all plants together which are showing 
spikes, then they can be easily looked over at night for these marauders. 
Half an hour's hunting after dark with a lantern is worth half a day in 
daylight. Air should be given as freely as possible whenever the weather is 
at all suitable, care being taken to prevent cold draughts at any time. Now 
that the sun is getting more power the plants must not be allowed to suffer 
for want of water, or the flowers will come small, and the leaves will go 
yellow and spoil the look of the plants when they are in flower. A light 
spraying overhead on fine days will keep the plants clean, and give the leaves 
a healthy appearance. 

Odontoglossum Rossii and Cervantesii will be making a nice show now> 
and although not so showy as O. crispum and its hybrids, they are very 
pretty and well worth growing. They take up very little room and are very 
useful for buttonholes. They do well suspended from the roof of the 
cool Orchid house. O. grande should be kept fairly dry until it commences 
to make new growths. It and O. citrosmum like to be grown warmer than 
most other Odontos, and the cool end of the Cattleya house will suit them 
exactly. O. citrosmum must be kept dry until its flower spikes are showing, 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 43 

otherwise it will grow and not flower. It blooms freely after a good dry 
rest. It should be suspended from the roof, so as to shew the pendulous 
spikes to the best advantage. 

Ornithidium Sophronitis is a brilliant little Orchid when well flowered, 
and under intermediate treatment it grows to perfection. It is very pretty 
in spring when covered with its scarlet flowers. 

Oncidiums.— Most of the winter flowering varieties will soon commence 
to grow, and any that want potting should be done as soon as they 
commence to root from the new bulbs. A mixture of Polypodium fibre, 
moss and leaves in about equal quantities will make a good compost for 
them, adding plenty of crushed crocks to keep it open. In potting 
Oncidiums the base of the young bulbs should be kept well down on the 
compost, so that the roots can get into it before they get damaged, as they 
will do when potted high above the pots. Woodlice and slugs have a 
special taste for Oncidium roots, and in Orchid houses one always gets 
troubled with these pests. The smaller-growing varieties, such as O. 
concolor dasytyle and ornithorhynchum, are better suspended from the roof. 
These are very pretty varieties, although not quite so showy as the larger 
ones. O. flexuosum is also very pretty, especially when grown on rafts or 
in baskets, where it has plenty of room to wander about. It will also grow 
and flower well in a stove fern wall, and make a very pretty show when in 



Most of the Oncidiums like Intermediate house treatment, but O. 
Kramerianum, Papilio, Lanceanum, and Cavendishianum like a stove 
temperature. The butterfly Orchids are very handsome, and always 
attract attention. They will throw many flowers from the same spike. O. 
macranthum and lamelligerum will be pushing up their spikes, and as 
these are very long they should be trained round stakes, or along the roof, 
where they will make a very fine show when in flower. The spikes are 
better pinched when they have reached a reasonable length, then they will 
branch out at every eye, and give better flowers than when allowed to 
develop the full length of the spike. Slugs are very troublesome with the 
flowers and spikes, and a piece of cotton wool wrapped round the stem 
will prevent them from injuring the young tips, but the wool must be kept 
dry, or replaced whenever it becomes wet, or it will be useless in preventing 
the slugs from crossing over it. Spraying occasionally with insecticide 
will also help to keep them down and also keep thrip in check. 

Phaius will be commencing to grow, and should be potted or top- 
dressed as soon as they push up their young growths. This is a beautiful 
class of Orchid, especially now that there is a good selection of hybrids. If 
given warm treatment they are not much trouble to grow. A compost of 
good fibrous loam and peat, with a little cow manure added, and plenty of 



44 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

crocks and charcoal to kept it porous, will suit them. In potting, keep the 
young growths just below the rim of the pot, so that a plentiful supply of 
water can be given as soon as they become established. Care should be 
taken not to break the roots more than necessary. Work the compost 
carefully in between the roots, and top up with nice lumpy pieces, and add 
plenty of crocks and charcoal as the potting proceeds, so as to have an 
open compost, that water will pass through quickly when applied, as 
Phaiuses object very much to stagnant compost, or a close atmosphere. 
They like plenty of heat, but not a close atmosphere, and a little air should 
be given every day, using either the top or bottom ventilators, according 
to the outside conditions. Do not use both top and bottom ventilators at 
the same time or it will cause a nasty draught. The leaves must be 
sponged occasionally to keep them free from scale, but it must be carefully 
done, as they are very brittle, and easily crack and bruise. A nice warm 
corner at about 70 , where air can be given, will suit them well to start 
growing in, and after they get established the temperature can be lowered 
5 . During their growing season they will require an ample supply of 
water. If spot makes its appearance in the leaves, more air will soon check 
it. Plenty of air should be given during the summer months, so long as a 
draught is not caused, and the supply is put on gradually, so that they do 
not get chilled. 

Pleiones that have finished flowering and are making new growths will 
want potting or top-dressing. They do better when potted annually, before 
they commence to make many roots, and a mixture similar to that advised 
for Phaius suits them. They are quite at home when suspended from the 
roof of the Cattleya house or warm end of the Intermediate house. They 
should be kept well syringed when they are growing, as they are rather 
subject to red spider. 

Cattleyas and L^elias, during the winter months, when the house has 
to be kept a little dry, are liable to become infested with scale, and should 
be carefully gone over and sponged before the young growths begin to 
push up. A few will generally be found round the base of the growth, and 
no amount of spraying or fumigating will kill them, as they are under the 
skin, which should be carefully removed, and then with a brush remove the 
scale or it will get on the young growths as soon as they begin to push, 
and cripple them before the growth gets hard enough to withstand the 
attack. If the young growths get yellow no amount of subsequent care will 
make the leaves and bulbs green again. When going through them for 
re-staging, any sickly plants should be placed by themselves, or better still 
put into a stove temperature, where there is plenty of moisture in the 
atmosphere. If the compost has gone sour on top they should be top- 
dressed, care being taken not to break the roots, as every root is valuable 



February 1909. 


] 


THE ORCHID REVIEW. 




45 


to a sickly plant. Oth< 


irs which are ii 


1 bad condition 


should be shaken out 


and repotted, v 


wishing 


all the old rm 


iterial off the 1 


-oots and 


giving them 


a fresh start. 


Pot intc 


1 as small pots ; 


is possible without crushir 


ig the roots, 


and very little 


water w 


ill be required 1 


until they start 


again. Syringe daily 


overhead, and 


several ti 


imes daily betw 


'een the pots, t 


keep the 


bulbs from 


shrivelling more than c 


an be helped. 


Osmunda fibn 


3 chopped 1 


jp fine with 


a little moss, s< 


3 that it 


can be easily w 


-orked in betwe 


en the root 


:s, will make 



a good compost for them. As soon as the pot gets full of roots it can be 
dropped into another pot a size or two larger. Do not break the compost 
away, but smash the old pot, and drop it into a larger size without 
disturbing it. 

Any other plants that are commencing to root should be potted, if 
necessary, before the roots get too long, as they are so easily broken. I find 
this the only method of keeping Cattleyas in a healthy condition, for when 
once the roots get long they cannot be potted without breaking them, and 
where many plants are grown there are always a few getting out of season 
with their growths, and if left on till the time for the bulk to be potted they will 
be past potting or top-dressing. It is no use doing them when the roots are 
inactive ; they must be growing in order to get any strength from the new 
materials. When staged by themselves they can be given a little extra 
attention, and will soon get re-established. 

Shading. — Blinds should be put on the houses where they have been 
removed for the winter, as they will be needed on a few hours for the 
softer-leaved Orchids by the end of the month. On bright days it is 
better to start too early than too late, as after the dull winter months the 
leaves soon get scorched. Cypripediums, Phalsenopsis and Odonto- 
glossums will probably need a little shade by the middle of February, but 
Cattleyas, Laelias and Dendrobes will easily stand without shade until the 
end of the month. Where blinds are not used a sprinkling of flour and 
water will make a good shading, and one that is not easily washed off 
during heavy rains. Where lath roller blinds are used, and have been left 
on for winter use, they should be examined, and any broken links replaced 
before they are wanted for shading purposes. They are easily repaired, 
and very few links get broken as a rule, still it is better to be on the safe 
side. 

Ventilation.— Now that the days are getting brighter a little extra 
ventilation should be given, always taking care not to cause a draught. 
It is better to use either top or bottom ventilators only at one time, as if 
both are used together it soon chills the house. When the blinds are 
dropped the ventilation should be considerably decreased until they are 
rolled up again, as a sudden check causes more harm than is generally 
suspected at the time. 



46 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

Damping should also be more frequently done, in order to keep a nice 
growing atmosphere in the houses. 

Watering should be gradually increased as the plants commence to 
grow stronger. 

Temperatures will rise considerably with sun heat, but keep the fires 
well in hand, and do not let the h ouses drop below the lowest temperatures 
given last month. It is no use attempting to work to a degree in the day 
time, as one cannot control the sun, and some days it is not bright enough to 
shade, but still the sun has power to run the temperatures up a good deal. 
It will do no harm to let them go io° higher so long as a close atmosphere 

BULBOPHYLLUM LEMNISCATOIDES. 
The reappearance of this remarkable little species in the collection of Sir 
Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate, is interesting. It originally 
appeared in the collection of Mynheer Van Lansberge, Chateau des Rees, 
Brummen Gueldre, Holland, over eighteen years ago, when it was described 
(Rolfe in Gard. Chron., 1890, i. p. 672). It had been imported from Java. 
Practically nothing further was heard about it until last autumn, when it 
flowered at Gatton Park (O.R., xvi. p. 292). This latter plant had been sent 
by Mr. Connell with other Javan Orchids. It is the only ally of the 
remarkable Burmese B. lemniscatum which has yet appeared, and indeed is 
very similar in the inflorescence and in having three remarkable pendulous 
appendages, one from the back of each sepal, though in other details the two 
are very distinct. B. lemniscatum has strongly tuberculed, three-leaved 
pseudobulbs, and the sepaline appendages are clavate, and bear ten 
longitudinal crenate keels, while the other has smooth, one-leaved pseudo- 
bulbs, and the appendages are less clavate and cylindrical in outline. B. 
lemniscatum was discovered by the Rev. C. Parish on an old shingle roof at 
Zwakabin, in Moulmein, in November, 1868, and two years later plants were 
sent to Kew, which flowered there in July, 1872, when the species was 
described and figured (Bot. Mag., t. 5961). Sir Joseph Hooker then 
remarked: "A more singular little gem of an Orchid cannot well be 
imagined. Its curious glossy, tuberculed pseudobulbs, its capillary scape, 
with the long inflated upper sheath, its pendulous spike of glistening minute 
flcwers, and above all, its slender appendages, that hang over from the back 
of each sepal, are as curious in structure as beautiful in coiouring." The 
species was cultivated at Kew as late as 1892, but has unfortunately since 
been lost sight of. In both a good pocket lens is necessary to enable one 
to appreciate their remarkable character. — R. A. R. 

Since the above was written a figure of the species has appeared (Gard. 
Chron., 1909, i. p. 68, fig. 38), with a short description, but its early history 
is omitted. 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 47 

R.H.S. ORCHID COMMITTEE. 

The following constitute the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural 
Society for the current year. New members are indicated thus* : — 

Fowler, J. Gurney, J. P., Glebe Lands, South Woodford, Chairman. 

Veitch, Harry J., V.M.H., F.L.S., 34, Redcliffe Gardens, S.W., 
Vice-chairman, 

Cookson, Norman C, Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne, Vice-chairman. 

Colman, Sir Jeremiah, Bart., V.M.H., Gatton Park, Reigate, Surrey, 
Vice-Chairman. 

O'Brien, James, V.M.H., Marian, Harrow-on-the-Hill, Hon. Sec. 
*Alcock, J. Forsfer, Northchurch, Berkhampstead. 

Alexander, H. G., Westonbirt Gardens, Tetbury. 

Ashworth, Elijah, Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, Cheshire. 

Ballantine, H., V.M.H., The Dell Gardens, Englefield Green. 

Bolton, W., Wilderspool, Warrington. 

Bound, W t . P., 112, Station Road, Redhill. 

Boxall, W., V.M.H., 186, Brook Road, Upper Clapton, N.E. 

Brooman- White, R., Arddarroch, Garelochhead, N.B. 
*Butler, W. Waters, Southfield, Norfolk Road, Edgbaston. 

Chapman, H. J., Oakwood Gardens, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Charlesworth, J., Lyoth House, Haywards Heath. 

Cobb, W., Normanhurst, Rusper, Horsham. 

Crawshay, de Barri, Rosefield, Sevenoaks. 

Curtis, C. H., 2, Adelaide Road, Brentford, Middlesex. 

Cypher, J., Queen's Road, Cheltenham. 

Dye, A., Tring Park Gardens, Tring. 

Hanbury, F. J., F.L.S., Brockhurst, East Grinstead. 
*Hatcher, W. H., CiO J. W. Moore, Rawden, Leeds. 

Little, H., Baronshalt, The Barons, E. Twickenham. 

Low, Stuart H., Bush Hill Park, Enfield. 

Lucas, C. J., Warnham Court, Horsham. 

McBean, A. A., Cooksbridge, Sussex. 

Moore, F. W., A.L.S., V.M.H., Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin. 

Moore, G. F., Chardwar, Bourton-on-the- Water, Glos. 

Ogilvie, F. Menteith, 72, Woodstock Road, Oxford. 

Potter J. Wilson, 219, Ashley Gardens, S.W. 

Sander, F., V.M.H., St. Albans. 

Thompson, W., Walton Grange, Stone, Staffs. 

Thwaites, R. G., 23, Christchurch Road, Streatham, S.W. 

Tracy, H. A., Amyand Park Road, Twickenham. 

White, W. H., Burford Lodge Gardens, Dorking. 

Wilson, Gurney, Glenthorne, Haywards Heath. 



48 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [ February, 1909. 

ODONTIODA CHELSEIENSIS. 

The annexed figure represents an interesting and beautiful hybrid, raised 
by Messrs. Wm. Bull & Sons, Chelsea, from Cochlioda vulcanica and 
Odontoglossum crispum, which was shown by them at a meeting of the 
Manchester Orchid Society held on January 7th last, when it received an 
Award of Merit. It is reproduced from a photograph kindly sent by Messrs. 
Bull, in which the single flower is represented natural size. The colour is 
described as deep rosy carmine, richly shaded with violet purple, and the 
shape may be described as fairly intermediate between its very distinct 






Fig. 5. ODONTIODA CHELSEIENSIS. 

parents. We have not seen a living flower, so cannot describe it more 
minutely, but the photograph speaks for itself, and it shows a very distinct 
blotch on the lip, in front of the crest, also some markings on the sepals 
and petals, these evidently being derived from the Odontoglossum parent. 
It is certainly a very beautiful acquisition, and Messrs. Bull are to be con- 
gratulated on their success. It would be interesting to re-cross it with ? 
good form of Odontoglossum crispum, so as tc 
flower. 



the size of the 



February, i 909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 49 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
The first meeting of the year was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, 
Vincent Square, Westminster, on January 12th last, and produced a good 
display of Orchids, eighteen exhibitors being represented, and the awards 
consisted of three medals, one First-class Certificate, three Awards of 
Merit, and one Cultural Commendation. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman,Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), staged 
a very interesting group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It 
contained a good example of Cymbidium grandiflorum, C. X Lady Colman, a 
selection of Laelia anceps varieties, including Hilliana and Gatton Park 
var., the latter having a lilac tinge on the front lobe of the lip, the handsome 
Spathoglottis X Colmanii, a well-bloomed Epidendrum polybulbon, 
Warscewiczella velata, Bulbophyllum Careyanum, the rare Eria tricolor, 
Phaiocalanthe Colmanii, Ccelogyne X Colmanii, &c. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury, (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received an Award of Merit for a good example of Vanda 
Watsoni, the graceful species figured as the frontispiece to our last volume, 
and a similar award for Cattleya X Maggie Raphael, Westonbirt var., a 
very beautiful form, having light rose-coloured sepals and petals, the latter 
showing a silvery white veining, and the lip deep ruby crimson, with some 
deep yellow veining in the throat. He also sent Brassocattleya Leemannia; 
var. Rajah, a large and very prettily coloured variety, with Cypripedium X 
Beryl and C. X Bellerophon, two very fine hybrids. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), received an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum X ardentissimum 
Norman Cookson, a beautiful variety, having bn>:id white sepals and petals, 
with the lower two-thirds of each heavily blotched with violet-purple. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), received 
a Cultural Commendation for a fine specimen plant of Masdevallia ignea, 
bearing over seventy flowers. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill, Lanes, (gr. Mr. Morgan), sent 
a fine example of Cypripedium x /Eson giganteum, and a pretty albino form 
of C Charlesworthii called Bromilowiae, having a pale green flower, with a 
white dorsal sepal. It differs in shape from the one previously shown, which 
is now known as C. C. Bromilowianum. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Rusper (gr. Mr. Salter), showed the pretty 
Cypripedium Helen II. var. Armstrongiae (insigne Sanders X bellatulum 
album). 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bait., K.C.Y.O., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), showed Maxillaria callichroma and a richly coloured Odontoglossum 



5o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1969. 

from O. X Wilckeanum X Vuylstekei, having a white ground colour and 
heavy dark brown markings. 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley, York, (gr. Mr. Corney), 
sent the handsome Cypripedium X Troilus Cravenianum (X nitens 
magnificum X insigne Harefield Hall var.), a large and handsome form. 

H. Little, Esq., Baronshalt, Twickenham (gr. Mr. Howard), sent 
Cypripedium insigne called Little's var., a fine form with large blotches. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court, Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), 
showed Cypripedium x Alcibiades, Chardwar var., and C. X Harlequin, a 
curiously striped form. 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood), sent 
a fine example of Cypripedium x fulshawense, and Maxillaria Hubschii, 
with very pretty undulate sepals and petals. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent four 
pretty forms of Cattleya X Maggie Raphael, having white sepals and petals 
and a richly coloured lip, and C. X Leda, Thwaites' var. (Dowiana aurea 
X Percivaliana), with rosy lilac sepals and petals, and a rich purple lip, 
with some yellow veining on the sides of the throat. 

Francis Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent 
Sophrocattleya Mrs. Francis Wellesley (Sophronitis grandiflora X Cattleya 
labiata), bearing a very brilliant carmine-rose flower, with some red veining 
on the orange-coloured disc of the lip. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Hay wards Heath, staged a brilliant group, 
to which a Silver Flora Medal was awarded. It included a beautiful series 
of white forms of Laelia anceps, the handsome Sophrocattleya Doris, 
Odontoglossum X crispo-Harryanum. O. X Gladys, the beautiful albino O. 
X armainvillierense xanthotes, the brilliant Odontioda Bohnhofiae, and a 
series of olher hybrids, the pretty Saccolabium bellinum, Cymbidium 
X Holfordianum, Brassocattleya Queen Alexandra, the handsome 
Cypripedium Beeckmanii, C. X Hitchinsia magnificum, C. X Baron 
Schroder, and other Cypripediums, some good Laeliocattleya Andromeda, 
a series of the beautiful Cattleya X Octave Doin, and various other hybrid 
Cattleyas. A First-class Certificate was given to C. Percivaliana Charles- 
worth's var., a beautiful white flower, with a rich reddish purple blotch on 
the lip in front of the yellow disc. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, included a few good Lycastes, 
Odontoglossums and Cypripediums, in a brilliant group of stove and 
greenhouse plants, which gained a Gold Medal. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a pretty group of Odontoglossums and Cypripediums, 
good forms of the latter being C. X triumphans, C. X Helen II., C. X 
Minos Youngii, C. x Ville de Paris, C. X insigne var. E. J. Seymour, 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 5 t 

Bulbophyllum mandibulare, the richly coloured Lycaste X Balliae 
superba, &c. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, staged a pretty little 
group of Cypripediums, including C. X aureum Surprise, C. X Maudiae, 
C. X Helen II., var. Armstrongise, the charming C. X Venus, Orchidhurst 
var., and two good seedlings of C. x insigne. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, sent a small group of Odontoglossum 
crispum, including a very good blotched form. 

Messrs. J. and A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, sent a small group, 
several forms of Cattleya Trianse and Laelia anceps, including a fine L.a. 
Schroederae, a good white form of Odontoglossum crispum, Cypripedium X 
Thompsoni superbum, C. X aureum excelsum, C. X memoria Jerninghamiae 
and other Cypripediums. 

M. Mertens, Ghent, sent a small group of seven hybrid Odontoglossums, 
including good forms of O. X Phoebe and O. x crispo-Harryanum. 

At the meeting held on January 26th the exhibits were rather less 
numerous, but included a number of interesting things, and the awards 
consisted of four medals, two First-class Certificates, and three Awards 
of Merit. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, received an Award of 
Merit for Cypripedium x Euryades, New Hall Hey var. (Leeanum X 
Boxallii),a fine hybrid, having the dorsal sepal white, tinged with rose and 
well blotched with dark purple. He also sent Cypripedium X Beryl, a 
pretty hybrid derived from C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn and C. X Beeckmanii. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received an Award of Merit for Cypripedium X Earl of Tanker- 
ville (exul X nitens Sander's var.), a very fine hybrid, having the large 
circular dorsal sepal white, with large purple blotches, and the lip and 
petals yellow tinged and veined with brown. He also sent C. X Alabaster 
(Alcibiades X Godseffianum), Sophrocatlaelia Danae, Holford's var., a pretty 
rose-coloured hybrid with the base of the lip yellow, and a fine bright form 
of Laeliocattleya Golden Oriole. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), received 
an Award of Merit for Cypripedium X Our Queen (Leeanum X Stevensii), 
a fine hybrid, most resembling the former, but with a more shining surface, 
and the dorsal sepal white, densely spotted with purple, and the petals 
broad, undulate and yellowish green, tinged with purple and the lip green. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
sent a pretty little group, including the bright yellow Spathoglottis x 
Colmanii aurea, the rare Dendrobium tetragonum, D. Kingianum album, 
Coologyne X Colmanii, Phaiocalanthe Colmanii and others. 



52 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

J. B. H. Goodden, Esq., The Manor House, Yeovil, sent cut flowers of 
two good forms of Lycaste Skinneri. 

F. Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent the 
handsome Cattleya Trianse var. The Premier, a very finely shaped flower, 
with broad, light rose-coloured petals, and the lip rich purple, margined with 
white and the throat deep yellow. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Hayward's Heath, staged a fine group, 
which received a Silver Flora Medal. It contained a fine example of 
Brassocattleya Cliftoni, Odontoglossum Uroskinneri superbum, O. X 
Venilia (cirrhosum X Pescatorei), a pretty white flower spotted with purple, 
O. X ardentissimum album, Cymbidium X Woodhamsianum, the rare 
Xylobium leontoglossum, and others. First-class Certificates were given to 
Laeliocattleya Felicia (L.c. Haroldiana X C. Trianae), a very handsome 
hybrid, with well-shaped light-rose sepals and petals, and the front of the 
lip dark purple crimson, and to " Sophro-Lselio-Cattleya " Marathon var. 
Vesuvius (Sophrolselia Psyche X C. X Empress Frederick), a very fine 
form, having brilliant crimson sepals and petals, tinged with violet, and the 
lip ruby crimson with a yellow throat. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Son, Cheltenham, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group of Cypripediums, including C. X Mrs. G. F. Moore, 
C. X aureum Lambeauianum, C. X Thompsoni, and various others, with a 
fine specimen of C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn in the centre. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group of Odontoglossum crispum, which 
included a few good rosy and spotted varieties. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, received a Silver Banksian Medal for 
an interesting group, containing the brilliant Laeliocattleya Charlesworthii, 
the rare Bulbophyllum Blepharistes, the coral-red Rodriguezia secunda, 
some good varieties of Cypripedium X aureum, C. X Sallieri, and various 
other Cypripediums. 

Mr. F. Hanson, Somerleyton Gardens, Lowestoft, sent cut spikes of two 
hybrid Calanthes, which unfortunately arrived in a damaged condition. 

Mr. F. McBean, Plumpton, sent a few good Odontoglossums, including 
a fine form of O. Hunnewellianum, and some pretty varieties of Cattleya 
Trianae. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
There was a very fine display of flowers at the opening meeting of the 
year, held on January 7th, in the Coal Exchange, Manchester. The 
following members of the Committee were present : Messrs. E. Ashworth 
(Chairman), Smith, Thorp, Ward, Cowan, Shill, Warburton, Keeling, 
Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, Ball, and Weathers (Secretary). 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 53 

O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), sent a 
specially fine group of Cypripediums and Lycastes, all of excellent quality 
and well grown. C. insigne was very strongly represented, in spite of the 
fog of a week or two ago, and I noted the varieties Mrs. F. \V. Moore, 
Hopkinsonianum, giganteum, Exquisite, Berryanum, Sanderianum, King 
Edward VII., Queen Elena, &c. C. X aureum was well represented by 
the varieties virginale, Monarch, (Edippe, Rogersii, and Monica Measures. 
I noted also the unique C. X Euryades incomparabile, and New Hall Hey 
var., a good C. X Archimedes, C. X Maudise, C. X Charlesianum, &c, 
also a batch of good Lycastes, the best of which were L. X Imshootiana, 
L. Skinneri alba, L. S. Glory, L. S. grandiflora, this very fine, L. S. Lovli- 
ness, &c. A special Vote of thanks was awarded to the group. 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a very 
bright and interesting group of Odontoglossums, intermixed with Calanthes. 
Two hybrid Odontoglossums of unrecorded parentage, viz., O. X Geo. 
Weatherby and O. X Martin both received Awards of Merit. I noted also 
O. X Vuylstekei, O. X ardentissimum, O. X Rolfeae, O. X waltonense, 
the bright Odontioda X heatonensis, Cypripedium X Sallieri Hyeanum, 
C. X Charlesianum, C. X aureum virginale, and many others (Silver-gilt 
Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), sent a group of 
Cypripediums, all of first-rate quality. The most interesting plant was C. 
Charlesworthii Bromilowia:, which obtained a First-class Certificate. Both 
plant and flower were rather small, the colour being pure white and pale 
apple green. It is a rare acquisition and good companion to the unique 
C. C. Bromilowianum. C. X /Eson giganteum also gained a First-class 
Certificate, and though a fine flower I must admit to a feeling of disap- 
pointment on seeing it, probably because it has been over-praised. The 
four following received Awards of Merit : C. X Juno Rann Lea var., C. X 
Euryades Heaton var., C. X Ainsworthii, and C. bellatulum var. Marjorie, 
the dorsal of the latter having a decided rose colour, and the lower parts 
being normal. I noted also C. X Troilus giganteum, C. villosum auriferum, 
C x Earl Tankerville, C. X Gaston Bultel var. King Edward VII. &c. 
(Silver-gilt Medal). 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), staged a 
group consisting of many choice plants, very tastefully arranged. Odonto- 
glossum X Lambeauianum var. Triton gained an Award of Merit, and 
Cymbidium X Holfordianum, though scarcely at its best, a similar award. 
There were arching sprays of O. X Lawrenceanum, O. X L. var. Miio, O. 
X Vuylstekei, O. crispum Miss Lucien Linden, O. c. Trissie, &c. I noted 
the albino Cypripedium X Maudise, and by its side, C. X M. var. R. Ash- 
worth (callosum Sanders; X Lawrenceanum), and this latter was actually 



54 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

darker and richer in colouring than Mr. Reeling's coloured C. Maudiae 
obtained from the two ordinary species. I also noted a good form of 
Cattleya Trianse, several plants of Dendrobium X Schneiderianum, 
and an unnamed species of Pleurothallis. The group deservedly received 
a Silver Medal. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), sent a fine group, 
chiefly Cypripediums, relieved with a few fine sprays of Odontoglossums. 
O. X loochristiense var. Empress Frederick, and C. X Mrs. Walker gained 
Awards of Merit, and C. X Mson giganteum a First-class Certificate. 
Included in the group were C. X Gaston Bultel King Edward VII., C. 
insigne King Edward VII., C. i. Chantini Lindeni, C. X Archimedes 
Warburton's var., C. X Stepmanii, C X Nandii, C. X Maudiae, &c, 
(Silver Medal). 

G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. Herdman), 
staged a good group of Cypripediums of high quality. A very fine Cypri- 
pedium X nitens Under Fell var. and C. X Leeanum Hercules both gained 
Awards of Merit. Other things noted were C. X San-Actaeus, C. X A. 
Dimmock, C. X Sir Redvers Buller, very good, C. X Ville de Paris, C. X 
aureum iEdippe, C. X A. Hyeanum, C. insigne Eric, C. i. Berryanum, C. 
X Alcibiades superbum, &c. (Silver Medal). 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), sent 
a nice group of Laelias and Cattleyas, mixed with a few good Cypripediums. 
A nice Cattleya choccensis alba gained an Award of Merit, and I noted 
a good Cattleya Percivaliana with a very fine lip, Laelia anceps alba, L. X 
Finckeniana, two plants of the new albino Cypripedium X Sanderae- 
Kimball, the distinct C. insigne Thompsoni, and several varieties of Cattleya 
chocoensis and Laelia anceps (Silver Medal). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), sent a nice 
mixed group of choice plants, including many varieties of Cypripedium 
insigne, Lycaste Skinneri, &c. (Silver Medal). Awards of Merit were given 
to Cypripedium X St. Vincent and Laeliocattleya Cranstounii. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, Preston, sent a small group of 
Cypripediums, in which I noted C. insigne Lucianum, C. i. heatonensis, C. 
X aureum virginale, C. X Parkerianum, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

S. Gratrix, Esq., Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), sent the fine 
Cypripedium X Charlesianum var. Queen Maude (Award of Merit), and 
the rare C. X Helena. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent two good 
hybrid Odontoglossums and O. crispum Daphne, the latter gaining an 
Award of Merit. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Pine Villa, Blackburn, staged a few good Cypripediums 
cS^c. The best were Cypripedium insigne Harefield Hall var., C. i. sylhetense, 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 55 

Cymbidium Tracyanum, and nice spikes of Odontoglossum crispum, O. 
Pescatorei, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent a 
strong plant with two fine flowers of C. X Archimedes var. Cravenianum, 
which was undoubtedly one of the finest things at the meeting. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Warrington, sent a fine Odontoglossum X Harryano- 
crispum, Cypripedium X aureurn varieties Etoile, CEdippe, Hyeanum, 
virginale and Thalia, with C. X Ville de Paris and several fine unnamed 
hybrids (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. J. Cypher & Son, Cheltenham, staged a group of Cypripedinms, 
in which I noted C. insigne Sanderianum, a fine C. x nitens, C. X 
Leeanum Corona, C. X Nogi, C. X Thompsonianum, C. x Mrs. Wm. 
Mostyn, C. X Fascinator, C. X Mr. F. Sander, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, sent a nice mixed 
group of interesting plants. A well-flowered plant of Angnecum 
sesquipedale received a First-class Certificate, and Awards of Merit went to 
Calanthe X Veitchii alba, Cypripedium X Courtauldianum, C. x Bruno, 
Reeling's var., and C. X Mons. de Curte, Reeling's var. I noted also C. X 
Hoyleanum magnificum, C. X Leeanum Reeling's var., a fine plant with 
six flowers, and the distinct Odontoglossum X ardentissimum var. 
Ingleborough (Silver Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent Cypripedium X Leeanum Chardwar 
var. (Award of Merit), C. x nitens Ball's var., and several fine unnamed 
hybrids. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, sent the new hybrid Cattleya X 
Maggie Raphael var. alba (aurea X Trianse), having white sepals and 
petals, and rose coloured lip veined with paler markings (First-class 
Certificate), also the rare Cypripedium venustum Measuresianum and C. X 
Juno. 

Messrs. W. Bull &Sons, Chelsea, showed Odontioda chelseiensis, of pale 
claret colour, which received an Award of Merit. [See figure on page 48.] 

Messrs. Sander & Son, St. Albans, sent Cypripedium X Lathamianum 
Sander's var., a fine flower of good proportion (Award of Merit). 

Messrs. Owen & Co., Northwich, sent a nice selection of Cypripedium 
insigne varieties- 

At the meeting held on January 21st there were evidences of the falling 
off of the Cypripedium family, but there was a good show, and over fifty 
plants were placed before the Committee, which sat as follows: E. 
Ashworth (Chairman), H. Thorp, Z. A. Ward, J. Cowan, A. Warburton, 
J. E. Shill, A. J. Reeling, W. Holmes, F. W. Ashton, J. Cypher and 
P. Weathers (Secretary). 



5 6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

H. J. Bromilovv, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), sent a very fine 
collection of Cypripediums, of his usual high standard, which was awarded 
a Silver-gilt Medal. A very fine C. X Boadicea magnificum gained a First- 
class Certificate, and C. X nitens var. Cecil an Award of Merit. Included 
in the group were a very fine C. X Beeckmanii, C. X Dora Crawshaw, C. X 
Minos Youngii, C. X Geo. Singer, C. X Leeanum Lavertonianum, C. X 
Venus, Rann Lea var., C. X Clio giganteum, &c. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a very bright 
group, consisting mostly of well-grown Odontoglossums, intermixed with a 
few Cypripediums. I noted O. X ardentissimum Lawrencei, O. X a. 
album, O. X Rolfese, a fine specimen plant of O. pulchellum, O. X amabile, 
O. X Lambeauianum, a fine form and well-flowered plant of O. X Harryano- 
triumphans, Odontioda heatonensis with two spikes, also Cypripedium X 
aureum virginale, C. X a. Ward's var., C. X Leonidas superbum, &c. 
(Silver-gilt Medal). 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a 
fine group of Cypripediums, which gained a Silver Medal. C. X 
Marguerite, C. X Euryades var. Tantulus, and C X E. var. Jacquard 
received Awards of Merit. I noted also a strong plant of C. X aureum 
virginale, C. X /Edippe, C. X A. Warburton's var., C. X Clio giganteum, 
C. X Mrs. Tautz, and Cattleya X Mont Blanc. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., AshlaDds, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), sent a 
nice group of mixed plants, in which I noted C. X aureum Hyeanum, C. X 
a. Robsoni, C. X Euryades var. Rossendale, C. X Minos Youngii, a strong 
plant with six blooms of C. X Leeanum Clinkaberryanum, Dendrobium X 
splendidissimum, several plants of spotted Odontoglossums, including O. X 
Solstice, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent Odontoglossum X 
Lillie Mayall, and Cypripedium X Lillie Mayall (a fine hybrid from C. X 
Minos Youngii X Euryades New Hall Hey var.), both of which gained 
Awards of Merit. I noted also a very good form of C. X aureum Surprise 
and C. X a. laekenense (Vote of Thanks). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), sent a nice 
mixed group. Cattleya Trianse var. Donald, a fine form with broad petals, 
gained an Award of Merit. There were also several well-flowered Laelia 
anceps Sanderiana and L. a. Stella, Cypripedium X St. Vincent, a fine 
flower of the Beeckmanii type, C. X Hoyleanum, C. X Niobe, Lycaste 
Skinneri, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, sent a group of Cypripediums, in 
which I noted C. insigne Sanderianum, C. X claptonense, &c. (Bronze Medal). 
H. Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, sent a nice group of Cypripediums, chiefly 
C. insigne, and cut spikes of Lselia anceps (Bronze Medal). 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 57 

Norman Galloway, Esq., Great Horton, Bradford (gr. Mr. Beaumont), 
sent a group of Cypripediums, in which I noted C. insigne Galloway var. 
and C. X aureum var. Ackeron (Bronze Medal). 

J. H. Craven, Esq., the Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent 
Cypripedium X Ville-Actseus (Ville de Paris X Actaeus langleyense), a 
good flower with green dorsal sepal, densely covered with small spots 
(Award of Merit). 

Messrs. Cypher & Son, Cheltenham, staged a good group of Cypri- 
pediums, in which I noted C. X Miss Louise Fowler, C. X Charlesianum 
Cypher's var., C. X George Moore, C. X nitens Perfection, &c, the group 
being relieved with spikes of Latlia anceps and Cattleya Trianae (Silver 
Medal). 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, sent Cypripedium X Euryades Rossen- 
dale, C. X Beeckmanii, C. X Thompsonianum, and several fine unnamed 
hybrids. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, sent a group of Cypri- 
pediums, in which I noted a fine C. callosum Colossus, C. X Prospero, C. X 
aureum virginale, C. insigne King Edward, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Messrs. A. J. Keeling & Sons, Bradford, sent a nice group of mixed 
plants. I noted Epidendrum polybulbon luteo-album, Cypripedium X 
Fowlerianum, C. X keighleyense, plants of Odontoglossum crispum, a 
well-flowered O. Pescatorei, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent Odontoglossum X Her Majesty 
(Award of Merit), and O. X eximium x var. Wardias, a very fine flower 
with good claret blotching, which gained a First-class Certificate. I noted 
also Cypripedium insigne Mary-Amelia and Lycaste Skinneri alba. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, sent Cypripedium villosum auriferum, 
C. X aureum virginale, and C. X triumphans Jules Hye's var. 

H. Thorp. 

THE HYBRIDIST. 

Miltonioda X Lindeni. — A very interesting and beautiful hybrid has 
been sent by M. Lucien Linden, of Brussels, but unfortunately there is a 
doubt about the parentage. M. Linden's grower had the record Oncidium 
Phalaenopsis X Cochlioda sanguinea, but it clearly came from some other 
cross, and thus may have been a stray seedling. It looks like a hybrid 
between Cochlioda vulcanica and a Miltonia, probably M. Phalaenopsis. Of 
the former genus there is not a shadow of doubt, for the brilliant deep rose 
colour tells its own story, and if character goes for anything the species is 
equally clear, for the resemblance is to C. vulcanica, not to the other 
species. The other genus is almost equally certain, for the shape and 
texture both show a great approach to Miltonia, and the distinct side lobes 



53 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

of the lip closely resemble those of M. Phalaenopsis reduced to half the 
size. There is an unmistakable resemblance to both parents, as was seen 
the moment the box was opened, and is strengthened by a comparison with 
flowers of the species mentioned. The flower measures if inches 
across its broadest diameter, and the sepals and petals are elliptical-oblong, 
somewhat acute, spreading, and of the most brilliant deep rose. The lip is 
distinctly four-lobed, over finch long by not quite as broad, with the apex 
of the side lobes rounded, and the colour bright rose, becoming almost flesh- 
coloured round the bright yellow disc, on which is situated an oblong crest, 
£inch long, and slightly bifid at the apex. The column is oblong, £inch 
long, with a pair of small membranous wings. The lip is entirely free from 
the column, and spreading, in which respect it resembles the Miltonia parent. 
M. Linden remarks that the habit of the plant is just that of Oncidium 
ornithorrhynchum, which would indicate the preponderating influence of 
the Cochlioda parent. The generic name Miltonioda is proposed as the 
most euphonious way of combining the names of the parent genera, and is 
analagous with Odontioda. The appearance of this brilliant little hybrid 
indicates the possibility of a new development. 

Odontioda gattonensis. — A charming hybrid raised in the collection 
of Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), from 
Odontoglossum Kegeljani (polyxanthum) and Cochlioda Ncetzliana, by Mr. 
Bound. It is most comparable with Odontioda Bradshawiae, but has a 
yellower ground colour and firmer texture. The sepals and petals are 
lemon yellow, with orange-scarlet markings, which occupy the greater part 
of the surface except at the base and tips. The lip has a large reddish 
blotch in front of the yellow crest, surrounded by a narrow primrose-tinted 
band, and a toothed orange-coloured margin, while the side lobes are 
striped with reddish brown. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 17. 

OBITUARY. 

George Field Morris.— The death is announced of Mr. G. F. Morris, 
F.S.I., one of the original founders of the firm of Messrs. Protheroe & Morris, 
auctioneers, of 67, Cheapside, London, and well known to many of our 
readers who attend their Orchid sales. He was born on September 2nd, 
1831, and at the age of 14 entered his father's nurseries at Leytonstone, to 
acquire a knowledge of the business. In i860 he conducted his first auction 
sale, and about the year 1874 the firm was extended, and opened a City 
branch at 98, Gracechurch Street, afterwards removing to the present 
premises at Cheapside. Until his retirement six years ago he pursued an 
active career as an auctioneer and valuer. He died at his residence, 
Cambridge Park, Wanstead, early on Saturday, January 2nd, of heart- 
failure, in his 68th year. 



February, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 59 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

A flower of the magnificent Cattleya Trianas var. The Premier, which has 
received both a First-class Certificate and a First Diploma from the 
R.H.S., is sent from the collection of Francis Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, 
Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins). It is generally considered to be the finest 
variety of recent years. It is of fine shape, and the sepals are 3£ inches 
broad, very prettily crisped, and of delicate blush pink, while the side lobes 
of the lip are rather darker, the front lobe rich amethyst, and the very open 
throat deep yellow, the disc behind being striped with broad purple lines. 

Dendrobium X Ainsworthii roseum.— A. pretty rosy form of 
Dendrobium X Ainsworthii has just flowered in the collection of H. Gurney 
Aggs, Esq., Pippbrook, Dorking, and a flower has been sent by Mr. Gill, 
who remarks that it was obtained by crossing Dendrobium aureum with D. 
nobile virginale. It affords another curious case of reversion, for the 
albinism of the pollen parent is completely lost, and the flower is most 
comparable with D. x Ainsworthii roseum. It will be interesting to hear 
if other seedlings behave differently. 

Several interesting flowers are sent from the collection of E. F. Clark, 
Esq., Teignmouth. Laelia Perrinii x Laeliocattleya Pallas is a seedling 
purchased at a sale at Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, in March, 1904, 
with the parentage given, and has now flowered for the first time. It is 
most like L. Perrinii and shows little if any trace of the C. Dowiana 
influence, in fact it bears a considerable resemblance to L. X Pilcheri (L. 
Perrini x crispa). The flower is small at present, but may be expected to 
improve as the plant becomes stronger. A seedling from Paphiopedilum X 
Leeanum X Godseffianum was raised in the collection, the seed having 
been sown in December, 1903. It is a form of P. X Hiawatha, apparently 
raised from the reverse cross. It shows its origin fairly well, though there 
is no trace of the rich colour of P. hirsutissimum in the petals. Other 
seedlings of it are yet unflowered. A third must be regarded as a form of 
P. X Brunianum, having been bought from the Winn collection over twelve 
years ago as a seedling from P. X Leeanum X cenanthum superbum, 
though Mr. Clark observes that the villosum and Spicerianum influence 
chiefly predominate. It has flowered on two or three previous occasions. 
A fourth was purchased at one of Messrs. Protheroe & Morris' sales as an 
unflowered seedling, and is of doubtful origin, though P. villosum is 
apparent, and perhaps P. Spicerianum. Mr. Clark has been told that it 
resembles a form of P. X Lathamianum that was exhibited at Ghent, 
though he scarcely thinks it can be a form of that hybrid. It is a fine thing, 
and flowered for the first time two or three years ago. Lastly may be 
mentioned a very beautiful Cattleya, one from the four-flowered inflorescence 



6o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

produced by a plane obtained from Messrs. Charlesworth & Co. as C 
amethystoglossa X C. labiata. The flower is remarkably similar to that 
of C. x Victoria-Regina, and we should like to know more of its history. 

A spray of the very pretty hybrid Odontoglossum x Groganiae, whose 
history was given at page 30, is sent from the collection of J. H. Grogan, 
Esq., Slaney Park, Baltinglass. In habit and colour it most approaches O. 
Edwardii, but in the broader flatter segments and the shape of the lip the 
influence of O. Uroskinneri, the mother plant, is very apparent. Mr. Grogan 
adds : " I think you will agree that the colour is quite beautiful, and that a 
spike of four to six dozen of these flowers is a very attractive sight." 

THE GERMAN ORCHID SOCIETY. 

Professor Dr. Otto N. Witt writes : " It may interest the readers of 
the Orchid Review to know that a complete reorganisation has taken place 
in the German Society of Orchidists, and its journal Orchis. The Society 
has joined our Horticultural Society, of which it will be in the future a 
section, and we have established an Orchid Committee similar to that of 
the Royal Horticultural Society, which will meet at regular intervals to 
discuss matters Orchidological. The Orchis will form part of the Gartenflora, 
the journal of the Horticultural Society, and will cease to publish its large 
and cumbersome plates. On the other hand we shall try to provide 
communications of general interest, besides, or instead of, the tedious Latin 
descriptions of purely botanical Orchids. I have taken upon myself the 
somewhat difficult task of looking after this. It would be very pleasant if at 
some future time we could establish friendly relations between English and 
German Orchidists." 

We hope that the new arrangements will prove successful, and we 
heartily reciprocate the sentiments expressed by Dr. Witt, and should 
rejoice in any movement that tended to increase the bonds of friendship 
between two great progressive nations. There is to be an exhibition at 
Berlin in April next, of which we hope to receive further particulars. 

CYPRIPEDIUM CALCEOLUS. 

The Lady's Slipper, Cypripedium Calceolus, is one of our rarest native 
plants at the present time — a fact not difficult to understand, seeing that it 
has not been plentiful for many years, and that it has been uprooted by 
hundreds, so that there are now few places where it is to be found wild, if, 
indeed, it has not wholly disappeared. Even on the Continent, where it 
was much more widely distributed, it is becoming scarce, so that its preser- 
vation as a garden plant is much to be desired. Its beauty and distinctness 
among hardy flowers render it worthy of a good place and a full considera- 
tion of its wants. Cypripedium Calceolus is a beautiful plant, with all the 



February, .909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 61 

characteristics of the Cypripedes in its growth and the form of its flowers. 
These are of a pure yellow on the exterior, but the interior of the labellum, 
or lip, is ornamented with some reddish brown dots in lines ; the petals and 
sepals being of a maroon colour. In height it is from a foot to a foot-and- 
a-half high, while the leaves are of a dark green. The Lady's Slipper 
requires so little in the way of special treatment that it might be more 
largely grown than it is, and many of the failures with it are caused by the 
plants being badly rooted to begin with, these being frequently dug up from 
their native haunts in the most careless and perfunctory way, and passed as 
soon as possible into the hands of the amateur, although this may not be 
until what roots were left have been shrivelled and dried up. 

With strong, well-rooted plants there will be little difficulty, and the 
following compost will induce them to grow well. As the name would 
indicate, this Cypripedium is a lover of calcareous matter, and in all cases 
it should have small pieces of broken limestone about the roots, and mixed 
with some good yellow loam. A good friend of my acquaintance once went 
to the trouble to bring a slab of limestone from a quarry several miles away, 
against which he planted this Cypripedium, the results being satis- 
factory. A few pieces of old mortar will, however, answer quite well, and 
if an eastern exposure is given, and a carpet of some low-growing plant 
above it, this Cypripedium should thrive. The roots should be about 3m. 
deep. A little sand about these will be helpful. Should all be well the 
plants should spear through the ground in April, and will, if strong enough, 
flower towards the end of June. This beautiful plant well repays any little 
attention it calls for, and when established will be a source of lasting 
pleasure.— S. A., in Journal of Horticulture. 

NOTES. 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during February, on the 
7th and 23rd, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. The exhibits will be open to inspection from 1 to 6 p.m. The 
Annual Meeting will be held on the former date at 3 p.m. The next meeting 
is fixed for March 9th. 

The following notes are taken from the Report of the Council for 1908, 
which have just been issued :— 

Contributions of Plants.— Contributions of Orchids have been 
presented to the Gardens by Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., V.M.H., K.C.V.O., 
Sir Jeremiah Colman, Hart., V.M.H., Colonel Holford, CLE., C.V.O., 
W. A. Bilney, Esq., J. P., P. Ralli, Esq., F. Wellesley, Esq., J.P., J. S. 
Moss, Esq., C. A. White, Esq., J. Sparkes, Esq., Messrs. James Veitch, 



62 THE OkCmD REVIEW. [February, .909. 

Messrs. Charlesworth, Messrs. J. W. Moore, Messrs. George Bunyard and 
Messrs. Sander. It is hoped that these will form the nucleus of a far 
larger collection in a few years to come. 

New Certificate. — Of late years the want has been increasingly felt 
of some way of recognising skilful scientific work amongst plants. Even if 
such work does not immediately result in any great horticultural advance, 
it may either disclose the steps by which existing results have been 
attained, or it may lay the foundation and prepare the way for future 
development ; and is, in either case, deserving of the Society's recognition. 
To meet this want the Council have created a New Certificate, to be called 
" The Certificate of Appreciation." 

It is also announced that the name of Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., has 
been added by the Council to the roll of the Victoria Medal of Honour, to 
fill one of the two vacancies. 

The great Annual Shows at the Temple and Holland House will again 
be held at the usual period. 

The Manchester and North of England Orchid Society will hold 
meetings at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on February 4th and 
18th. The Orchid Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits are open to 
inspection from 1 to 4 p.m. The next meeting will be held on March 5th. 

List of Orchid Awards.— The Orchid Committee of the R.H.S., per 
Mr. J. Gurney Fowler and Mr. J. O'Brien, has prepared a full list of the 
certificated Orchids of 1908, with particulars of parentage (in the case of 
hybrids), and the nature and date of award, and who staged the plants. 
The list is " for private circulation only." 

An American Orchid Exhibition.— We learn that a great exhibition 
of Orchids will be held at the Horticultural Hall, Boston, during May, 1910, 
under the auspices of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. A prize of 
1,000 dollars is offered for a group of Orchids, with many other prizes and 
Gold and Silver Medals, and it is hoped that American and foreign 
Orchidists will be well represented. We hope to have further particulars 

The following Notes on Orchids appear in recent reports of the Scientific 
Committee of the R.H.S :— 

November 24th, 1908 :— 

Peloria in Cattleya labiata.— From Mr. Gurney Wilson, F.R.H.S.. 
of Haywards Heath, came a perfect specimen of a peloric Cattleya labiata 
in which the perianth was perfectly regular, as is not unusual, and in 



February, 1909.] THE OkCHlV REVIEW. 63 

addition there were three properly developed stamens adnate to the column. 
Mr. Wilson also showed a dimerous specimen of Cypripedium insigne, 
which was not only a very perfect specimen of this rather common aber- 
ration, but was interesting on account of the fact that this is the second 
successive year in which the abberation has occurred in this plant. 

December 6th, 1908 :— 

Stamens of Orchids variable in number.— Mr. W. Fawcett showed 
drawings of the Orchid, Epidendrum Ottonis made from plants occurring 
wild in Jamaica. The flowers always there have three stamens, while in 
Trinidad five stamens are developed in the same species, and in Venezuela 
the structure (according to Reichenbach) is normal. 

Interesting Orchids.— Mr. F. W. Moore, of Glasnevin, sent two very 
interesting Orchids, Arachnanthe Lowii and Angraecum caudatum. In the 
former the first three or four flowers of the very long inflorescence are some- 
what smaller and of a quite different colour from those of the rest, from 
which they are separated by a considerable length of stem. No satis- 
factory suggestion as to the cause of this difference was given. The flowers 
of Angraecum caudatum are remarkable for the extraordinary length of 
their spurs — quite 12 in. in one of the flowers, and nearly as much in the 
others on the same inflorescence. 

January 12th, 1909 :— 

Malformed Orchid. — From Mr. Lynch, V.M.H., of Cambridge 
Botanic Garden, came a malformed flower of Cypripedium Dominianum 
with a normal flower for comparison. The flower had the sepals fused and 
a double lip ; it was taken by Mr. Saunders for further examination. 

Nomenclature of Multigeneric Orchid Hybrids.— The Chairman 
announced that the sub-Committee appointed to consider this question had 
arrived at the decision that the best solution of the question lay in coining 
names for each of the combinations of genera made, consisting of a com- 
memorative name and the termination " ara." The full text of their finding 
will be laid before the Committee at an early date. 

Dendrobium Goldschmidtii, Kranzl. — This is a pretty new species, a 
native of the island of Formosa, of which an inflorescence, leaf and 
photograph have been sent from the collection of Dr. Hans Goldschmidt, 
Essen Ruhr, Germany. The flowers are borne in short axillary racemes, 
of about a dozen each, and are about half an inch long, and deep rose-purple 
in colour. The plant grows to over a foot high, and is believed to be the 
only one yet in cultivation. The technical description has not yet appeared 



64 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [February, 1909. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Brassocattleya Cliftoni. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. pp. 33, 34, fig. 23. 

Bulbophyllum lemniscatoides, Rolfe. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 68, 
fig. 38. 

Calanthe X Angela.— Joum. Hort. , 1909, i. p. 3, with fig. 

Cattleya Percivaliana, Charlesworth's var. — Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 43, 
with fig. 

Cattleya Warscewiczi var. Sanderiana.— Joum. Hort., 1909, i. p. 69, 
with fig. 

Chrondropetalum Fletcheri.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. pp. 9, 10, fig. 12. 

Cycnoches maculatum. — Gard. Chron., 1909,1. pp. 26, 27, fig 19. 

Cycnoches pentadactylon. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 27, fig. 20. 

Cycnoches Warscewiczii. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. pp. 27,29, fig. 21. 

Cypripedium X Bianca superbum. — Joum. Hort., 1909, i., p. 25, 
with fig. 

Eriarhynchostyloides, O'Brien. — Bot. Mag., t. 8234. 

Odontioda chelseiensis.— Joum. Hort., 1909, i. p. 47, with fig. ; Gard. 
Mag., 1909, p. 70, with fig. 

Odontoglossum X ardentissimum, Norman CooKSON.—Gar^/, 1909, 
i. p. 53, with fig. 

Odontoglossum Magali Sander. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 37, fig. 25 ; 
Garden, 1909, i. p. 33, with fig. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

E.R. The cause of decay in the Lasliocattleya plant sent clearly came from the rhizome, 
and gradually worked upward. You are probably cone, t in attributing the cause to over- 
watering, and the fact of the plant being potted two months ago, when quite inactive. It is 
a canon of Orchid culture, that Orchids should only be potted when new roots begin to push. 

F.M.B. We have no record of the hybrid, P. X Atys rubrum X Leeanum, but the 
flower sent seems correct. As you remai otluence comes out strongly 

in the flower, and we suspect that of P. venustum amies out better in the foliage. 

W.G. A form of Dendrobium x Ainsworthii, which is noted on another page. 

A.C. We agree that the Odontoglossum sent is a yellow form of O. X Andersonianum, 
var. hebraicum. The Lasliocattleya seems to be a good form of L.-c. Clive (L. pumila X C 
Dowiana). The Paphiopedilum hybrid shows the influence of P. villosum very clearly, but 
we cannot make out the other parent. 

The Orchid Stud Book has been issued, and those who have not rilled up and returned 
the form sent out with our January issue, if requiring the work, are requested to do so as 

We should be obliged if any correspondent can give us the present address of Mr. 
C. J. S. Still, formerly of Walredden Manor, Tavistock, Devon, as we have a parcel for 
him, which cannot be delivered. 

Errata. 
" Mr. Thorp writes : The parentage of the albino hybrid mentioned on page 27 should 
have been Cypripedium insigne Sandera? with C. i. Laura Kimball (not " Kiinballianum 
and the spike of Odontoglossum crispum Stanley Rogerson had 43 flowers, not 30 as given 
at page 26. 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



Vol. XVII.l 



DIES ORCHIDIANI. 

The publication of the Orchid Stud-Book is an event in the annals of 
Orchidology. We have at last something like a guide to the vast literature 
of the subject, and whether one wants to know the history of any particular 
hybrid, or whether a certain cross has already flowered, the information 
can be turned up at once. The bringing together of all the different forms 
of the same hybrid, whatever the names under which they were recorded, 
with the list of published figures, is also very useful, because it gives an 
idea of the relative importance of the different hybrids that have been 
raised. The synonymy is in some cases extensive, as may be gathered 
from the statement on page iv. of the Preface that " the well-known hybrid 
between Cattleya Mossise and Lselia purpurata (Lseliocattleya X Canham- 
iana) has been recorded under nineteen different names, while Paphio- 
pedilum X aureum has nearly forty synonyms," and after this the authors 
may be forgiven for the remark that " generally speaking there has been a 
careless and even reckless multiplication of synonymy." The introductory 
chapters relating to the History of Orchid Hybridisation, the Specific 
Composition of Hybrids, Generic Hybrids, the Literature of Orchid 
Hybrids, and on Hybridising and raising Orchids from seed, with the 
numerous illustrations, serve to fill an ordinary volume, and form quite a 
text-book on the subject. 

And there is another important phase of the subject. The authors aim 
at making it a standard of nomenclature, and if they can succeed in this 
they will have done much to remedy the confusion which I and others have 
so often deplored, and which has been partly due to the absence of such a 
text-book as the one under notice. Now that the principle of a common 
specific name for the hybrids derived from forms of the same species has 
been adopted, one fertile source of confusion should vanish, and a common 
agreement that the said name should conform to the principles of binomial 
nomenclature would abolish another, while the question of synonymy pure 
and simple would settle itself if the records could be kept up to date, and 



66 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

the projected arrangement for continuing the work in the Orchid Review 
should secure that. 

The question of Nomenclature seems to be in the air just now, and a 
Committee of the R.H.S. has been considering it for some time, and has 
just issued a provisional report, with invitations for comment on the same. 
I believe the question arose through an appeal of the Orchid Committee to 
the Scientific Committee for assistance in the naming of some quadrigeneric 
hybrid which is in existence, but which has not yet flowered, and they 
wished to be fully prepared for the event. Be that as it may, we read that 
"The Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society of Great 
Britain believes that the time has come when some definite system of 
nomenclature, which shall be at once simple, euphonious, and distinctive, 
should be adopted, internationally, if possible." A Sub-Committee has 
been appointed by the Council, consisting of five members of the Orchid 
Committee and five of the Scientific Committee, with a Secretary, and to 
this Sub-Committee six different methods of dealing with multigeneric 
hybrids have been submitted, which are set forth, as follows : — 

" 1. That the name consist of parts of the genera which enter into the 

composition of the hybrid — the system at present in use. 
" 2. That a consonant be chosen to represent each of the genera used 
in producing the hybrid, as B for Lcelia, C for Cattleya, D for 
Sophronitis, and that these be followed by the vowel ' a ' when 
the genus is used once, 'e ' when it is used twice, and so on, as 
Dabaca for Sophronitis X Lseliocattleya, and Dabeca for 
Sophrolaelia X Laeliocattleya. 
41 3. That one letter, preferably the initial letter, should be chosen to 
represent each genus used in hybridising : thus L for Lselia, C 
for Cattleya, S for Sophronitis, and that these letters should be 
used to form the names of the resulting hybrids. Connecting 
vowels when necessary should be taken from the initial vowels, 
and the letter ' y ' should be used as a vowel sound between the 
components denoting the two sets of parents. Thus ' Lysoc ' 
would denote the product of Laelia X Sophrocattleya. 
" 4. That the name of one of the genera entering into the composition of 
the hybrid be retained for it, as is the practice in naming natural 
hybrids in other groups of plants, e.g., in the Gramineae (see 
Rules of Nomenclature, Vienna Congress, 1905, Art. 32). 
*' 5. That the name be a commemorative one with a conventional ending, 

such as "ara" or "orch," as Lavvrenceara or Lawrenceorch. 
"6. That the name be a commemorative one with the syllable " byb " 
prefixed to indicate the hybrid origin, as Hyblawrencea. 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 67 

The Sub-Committee consider that the suggestion No. 5, with the former 
ending, best fits the case, and are "prepared to recommend to the Council 
that it be adopted as the method of coining names for multigeneric hybrids, 
unless some more desirable method can be suggested." They add :— 

" The commemorative name chosen should be that of someone eminent 
as a student or as a grower of Orchids, and the conventional termination 
* ara ' should be used. 

"It is not proposed that this suggestion should interfere with the use 
•of names already in existence, or with the coining of names by combining 
parts of the names of the parent genera when two genera only are crossed. 

" The sub-Committee further think it desirable that the combinations 
such as Epidendrum X Sophronitis already in existence should be written 
without a hyphen, as Epiphronitis (see list). 

" They further suggest that if the specific name attached to a hybrid 
were of the Latin form, varietal names would be easier of addition, so that 
such forms as Lseliocattleya ' Phoebe ' illustrissima might in the future be 
avoided." 

The Sub-Committee gives reasons for not favouring the other sugges- 
tions. Names formed under No. 4 they think "would lack distinctive- 
ness," and those under No. 6, " while distinctive, the constant repetition 
of the syllable ' hyb ' would be likely to lead to confusion, and would be the 
reverse of euphonious. Those formed under the second suggestion, it is 
thought, " would not be euphonious or sufficiently distinct," while of No. 
3 it is remarked, " The names thus formed would seldom be euphonious, 
and the method of formation would not always prove sufficiently simple to 
grasp." But it is against suggestion No. 1 that the most fatal objection is 
urged. " This method will lead to the formation of such unwieldy names, 
as Dialaeliocattphronitis and 

Brassolaeliocattleysophroschomboepidialeptotes." 

I really had to give a separate line to that last word, and I don't mind 
-confessing that I cut it out of the report for fear of getting it wrong. I 
do hope the printer will be careful with it. 

I am glad to find that the Sub-Committee declines to interfere " with 
the use of names already in existence," because " Lysoc " is scarcely an 
improvement on Sophrocatlaelia, but why, oh why does the Nomenclature 
Sub-Committee spell it Sophrolaeliocattleya ? 

And why object to Lseliocattleya Phoebe ? If a name must be found to 
put in the pillory, why not something like Cattleya x William Harris 
fulgensor Laelia x Miss Murray E. Ashton ? Plants bearing very similar 



68 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909.. 

names have been certificated by the Orchid Committee, but are surely no 
improvement on the one held up as an example to be avoided. The Orchid 
Stud-Book says, " Hybrids between species should receive names, Latin or 
classical, consisting of a single word," and surely " Phoebe " is classical 
enough. Perhaps the Committee will find a better illustration for their 
final Report. 

The system of forming names from parts of the names of the parents, 
has been adopted a good deal of late, but may easily be carried too far. I 
noted last month the examples, Cypripedium X Sanderse-Kimball and C. 
X Ville-Actstus. The former indicates a cross between two yellow varieties, 
of C. insigne, Sanderae and Laura Kimball, and thus is a variety of C. 
insigne, and not a hybrid proper. The latter indicates a hybrid between 
C. X Ville de Paris and C. X Actaeus, but the first is said to be a form of 
C. X Romulus and the second a form of C. X Simonii. The other day I 
saw a hybrid called C. X Curtmanii, and naturally enough thought of C. 
Curtisii as one parent. But no, it was C. X M. de Curte, a form of C. X 
Schlesingerianum. Truly nomenclature is a thorny subject, and full of 
pitfalls. Argus. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM PAUWELSII. 
An interesting and pretty natural hybrid has appeared in the establishment 
of M. Th. Pauwels, Meirelbeke, Ghent, of which the inflorescence and an old 
pseudobulb has been sent. M. Pauwels states that it flowered out of an 
importation of O. Pescatorei received from Ocana last year, and is the only 
plant presenting any difference so far, though a good many plants are still 
unflowered. It is much nearer toO. blandum than to O. Pescatorei, having 
rather narrow acuminate sepals and petals, but the column wings are broad 
and strongly toothed, not extended into a simple cirrhus, as in O. blandum. 
The lip, again, has more cf the Pescatorei shape, and the characteristic side 
lobes of the crest are present in a reduced form. O. blandum is also a 
native of the Ocana district, and the present plant is evidently a hybrid 
between the two. The flower is rather larger than in O. blandum, and the 
sepals and petals rather broader and less acuminate, the colour being white, 
with about eight to twelve roundish dark purple spots. The lip has the 
almost typical Pescatorei shape and strong constriction at the sides, with a 
deep yellow, four-lobed crest, approaching that of O. blandum, and small 
side crests like those of O. Pescatorei reduced. The colour is white, and 
there are two purple spots on the front lobe, and a few others on the crest. 
The column wings are broad, strongly toothed, and end in a small cirrhus 
in front. It possesses the most unmistakable combination of characters of 
the two species mentioned, and those desiring to possess this pretty little 
plant should repeat the cross. R. A. ROLFE. 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 69 

EPIDENDRUM x KEWENSE: A MENDELIAN EXPERIMENT- 

Another of the self-fertilised seedlings of Epidendrum X kewense is now 
in flower, and shows partial reversion to the original E. evectum parent. 
The first came true (p. 13), and the second showed partial reversion to E. 
xanthinum (p. 37). Flowers of the reversionary forms, with such of the 
original parents as were available, were exhibited at a meeting of the 
Scientific Committee of the R.H.S. held on February 23rd, the others being 
E. X kewense, E. evectum, and a secondary hybrid obtained between them. 
Flowers of E. xanthinum and of the secondary hybrid between it and E. 
X kewense were not available. 

The object of the three experiments has already been explained, and I 
believe they are the first attempted among Orchids with a view of testing 
what is termed Mendelian Inheritance. The result was predicted in advance 
f rom a Mendelian standpoint, and on the assumption that the colour- 
bearers represent a Mendelian pair, namely that 25 per cent, of the 
seedlings should have purple flowers, like E. evectum, 25 per cent, yellow, like 
E. xanthinum, and the remaining 50 per cent, salmon-colour like E X 
kewense, without intermediates. The full results can only be given when all 
the seedlings have flowered, but there are already intermediates, in fact 
there are indications of the same variability and dissociation of parental or 
specific character that has been observed ever since the first batch of 
secondary hybrids flowered, and a few suggestions as to the probable cause 
may now be attempted. 

The basis of the Mendelian hypothesis, as I understand it, is the 
conception that the ultimate character-bearers of an organism are fixed or 
constant, and are handed on to their offspring pure or unmodified, though 
entering into new combinations between themselves during the sexual 
process — hence the term " unit-characters." The question of" Dominance" 
is of secondary importance. Such a definition at once invites questions. 

What is a Unit-Character? 
and what is its place in the economy of the organism ? Are unit-characters 
the machinery by which the great work of evolution is carried on ? or, 
conversely, the restraining influence by which stability of specific character 
is attained ? I once suggested to an ardent Mendelian, " What you term 
unit-characters can only be stages or stopping places on the evolutionary 
journey," and he replied, " I grant you that," but we got no nearer to a 
solution of the great mystery. Perhaps if we return to somewhat nearer the 
original starting point we shall be able to get a better view of the significance 
of the facts of this complex problem. 

In the simplest and most primitive plants the sexual process is unknown. 
They have not yet arrived at this evolutionary stage. They are unicellular, 



70 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

and consist of a minute speck of protoplasm, containing a nucleus, chloro- 
phyll (the green colouring matter by which nutrition is carried on), and 
cell sap, the whole being surrounded by a cell wall. Within the limits of 
this cell wall the whole life of the plant is carried on. Propagation is 
effected by division : the nucleus divides, each half secretes a new cell wall, 
and the cycle is complete. Progressing upwards we find forms in which 
the cells have begun to cohere in rows, and others in tissues, representing 
the first stage of co-operation between individual cells, and soon the stage 
is reached where individual cells, or aggregations of cells, are set apart for 
a special purpose, entailing differentiation of tissues within the organism. 
Here we find the first indications of the sexual process. Two cells, 
externally alike, though obviously differently organised, unite, and their 
contents coalesce, forming a zygote, which afterwards develops into a new 
individual, like the one from which it was derived. A greater differentia- 
tion of the conjugating or sexual cells follows, and the process has since 
passed through increasing degrees of specialisation, ultimately reaching the 
degree of complexity seen in the higher plants to-day. The original asexual 
method of propagation is still retained by some of the simplest plants. 

The earliest plants were aquatics (Algae), but the gradual adoption of a 
terrestrial habit led to a new stage of development, to meet the new con- 
ditions of existence. In the mosses this took the form of the production of 
what is known as the moss fruit, the production of a mass of minute 
asexual spores, contained within a capsule. On reaching maturity the 
spores escape, become disseminated, and on alighting on a damp place 
germinate directly, without any sexual process, into, the moss plant, thus 
introducing a marked alternation of generations. This moss fruit repre- 
sents a new or spore-bearing stage, called the sporophyte, the spores being 
minute, cheaply-produced reproductive cells, which are capable of inde- 
pendent growth without fertilisation, and can rest uninjured while the 
conditions remain unfavourable. In the ferns the sporophyte stage is 
carried much further, the sexual stage (or gametophyte) being reduced to a 
small cellular prothallus, which bears (in special receptacles) the sexual 
cells, the female after fertilisation developing into the fern plant (or 
sporophyte). This latter has a large branched vascular system, on which 
the asexual spores are borne in enormous numbers. These on germinating 
reproduce the prothalloid stage or gametophyte, thus completing the cycle. 
In the flowering plants the gametophytic stage is still further reduced, and 
has no longer an independent existence, being contained within the body of 
the sporophyte. Fertilisation is effected there, after which further develop- 
ment takes place, a seed is formed and ripened, after which, with certain of 
its envelopes, it separates from the parent, giving rise to a new and highly 
complex generation, the spermatophyte. 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 7 r 

These changes have been accompanied by the gradual and progressive 
degradation of the sexual stage, or gametophyte, through countless genera- 
tions of individuals — alga, moss plant, fern prothallus, pollen and ovules of 
flowering plants— and the corresponding increase of the asexual stage, or 
sporophyte— the moss fruit, fern plant, and the enormously developed 
vascular system of flowering plants. The gametophyte has not developed 
a vascular system. The latter change began with the adoption of a land 
habit by plants that were formerly aquatic, and is due to the totally different 
environmental conditions. This high degree of specialisation has been 
accompanied by an increasing provision for the protection of the germ cells, 
and their nutrition within the body of the second generation, by which they 
are withdrawn from all external influences. But both are phases of the same 
cycle, and produce each other alternately. The cycle has been continuously 
and progressively enlarged by the addition of new phases of development, 
and the modification of existing ones, but all are phases of the same cycle, 
and are subject to the laws which gave them birth. 

The individual cycle is a kind of recapitulation of the phases through 
which countless generations of the ancestors of an organism have passed in 
their evolutionary history, back to the most remote stages, and their 
permanence is due to what is known as the law of heredity, which is a kind 
of inertia, compelling an organism to follow a certain path or line of least 
resistance until diverted by the operation of changed conditions. Growth 
and reproduction are inseparable properties of living protoplasm, but are 
limited and directed by the conditions mentioned. Phases of development 
are only manifestations of the forces that are at work— sign-posts along the 
path of progress, whether we call them Mendelian units or not. Unit 
characters are supposed to be in some way bound up with what is termed 
the "germ plasm," but even the germ plasm is a phase of development, 
whose beginnings can be traced, and neither the one nor the other are 
independent of the great law of evolution. 

Species may be considered to be organisms whose characters have 
become stable through having followed the same cycle of existence for 
numerous successive generations, such cycle being different, in some respect, 
from that of any allied species, and the phrase in italics is used intentionally, 
for it is held that allied species follow the same path during part of their 
course, deviating therefrom at certain definite points in response to some 
change in the environment. 

Hybrids are, or may be, unstable, because combining different hereditary 
tendencies, and as each tries to follow its own course, there is a struggle for 
the ascendancy, which may result in a compromise, or the stronger force 
may prevail, hence the various phases of dominance so often witnessed. The 
nature of the compromise may differ greatly according to the degree of 



72 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909 

relationship between the parents, and their antecedent history, but whatever 
the nature of the modification may be in any individual case the question is 
whether the new character is stable, and this can only be ascertained by 
raising a new generation from self-fertilised seeds. This is what has been 
attempted in the experiment now under discussion, and of which the results 
are now beginning to appear. 

The two control experiments described, namely the crossing of the 
hybrid with each of its parents, seem to me to be important, because Ii 
believe that, under the Mendelian expectation, the results, at least 
qualitatively, should be identical in each case, while on the other 
explanation outlined they should be different. Several cases are known 
of the re-crossing of a hybrid with both its parents, and the offspring have 
been again intermediate. 

R. A. Rolfe. 



CYPRIPEDIUM BOXALLII AS A ROOM-PLANT. 

AN Orchid which has seen some curious vicissitudes has been sent from the 
collection of W. H. St. Quintin, Esq., Scampston Hall, Rillington, Yorks 
(gr. Mr. F. Puddle). Mr. St. Quintin writes :— 

" My gardener is sending you a plant of Cypripedium Boxallii that has 
been absolutely without water for over a year. It flowered in January, 1908, 
and being a poor form, was given to one of the young men to throw away. 
Being in flower he took it into the bothy as a table plant. On going into the 
sitting room some weeks later, my gardener found that it had been placed 
on a shelf near a window and forgotten, and although it had had no water 
it still looked quite fresh. He therefore asked that it might be allowed to 
remain there, and there it has remained unwatered, and now it is 
actually pushing up new growths. Perhaps you will kindly let me have it 
back again when you have seen it, as after all it has gone through I shall 
keep it. It shows how even Cypripediums are much more independent of 
frequent watering than gardeners generally suppose, and even in the dry 
atmosphere of a dwelling house." 

It is a good strong plant, with over a dozen leaves, which have become 
much shrivelled, but the younger are healthy, and the young growths are as 
vigorous as needs be. The ball of compost seems quite dry and light, and 
the plant does not seem to have suffered more than some imported plants* 
The roots, of course, remain intact, and there is good reason to believe that 
it will soon be a good plant again, though the older leaves can scarcely 
; that the plant has not suffered more under the 
Boxallii is an easily grown species, which succeeds 
under moderately cool conditions, and although the treatment described is 
far from ideal, a lesson may possibly be learnt from it. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



73 



MACODES PETOLA. 

The annexed figure represents the beautiful Macodes Petola, one of the most 
easily grown and popular species of the Anoectochilus group, and is repro- 
duced from a photograph taken by Mr. C. P. Raffill of a plant grown at Kew. 
The species is a native of Java, and has been known for a very long period, 
being described by Blume in 1825 under the name of Neottia Petola {Blume 
Bijdr., p. 407, fig. 2). It was then thought to be identical with an Amboina plant 
figured and described by Rumphius as long ago as 1750, under the name of 
Folium Petolatum (Herb. Amb., vi. p. 93, t. 41, fig. 3), but Blume afterwards 




discovered this to be an Anoectochilus, which he named A. Reinwardtii {Coll. 
Orch. Archip. Ind., p. 48). Lindley had already separated the preceding 
plant from Neottia, under the name of Macodes Petola {Gen. & Sp. Orch. PL, 
p. 497). The habit of the plant is well shown in the photograph, as well as 
the shape and veining of the leaves. The colour has been described as very 
lustrous, and resembling light-coloured green velvet, enriched with well- 
defined netted lines and bands of a pale or yellowish hue, deepening to a 
golden hue, and covering the whole surface. The racemes grow to about 



74 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

eight or ten inches high, and the flowers are light reddish brown. There is 

another species of the genus in cultivation, namely M. javanica, Hook. f. 

(Bot. Mag., t. 7037), which has silvery veins and deep red flowers. It grows 
well under the usual Ancectochilus treatment. 

THE ORCHID STUD-BOOK. 

I have just received the Orchid Stud-Book, and beg to congratulate the 
authors on the most interesting work achieved on behalf of Orchid lovers 
and hybrid raisers. Although unfortunately compelled to abandon my 
hobby, my glass houses having been surrounded with high buildings which 
transformed my garden into a pit, and deprived my plants of air and sun- 
shine, I nevertheless retain the keenest interest in my old favourites. May I 
point out the omission from the " Literature of Orchid Hybrids " of a paper, 
of but small importance, which appeared twelve years ago in the Semaine 
Horticole (i. pp. 48, 58), under my name, and with the title " A propos de 
l'hybridisation des Orchidees." It was written without any scientific 
pretension, but rather from a practical and humouristic point of view, and 
has proved since to be quite prophetic with regard to the probable influence 
of Orchid-hybridising on the future of Orchid culture and trade. Might 
anyone have believed that the time, which I anticipated as a mere joke, 
should arrive so quickly, when Orchid seedlings should be sold by hundreds 
from a single batch, with an additional discount for thousands! "Orchids 
for the million " is no more a vain fancy. It has been the work of 
hybridisers to realise it, perhaps to the prejudice of importers, certainly to 
the great advantage of all those who sincerely admire the beauties of nature. 
The Orchid Stud-Book gives a complete record of their work, and they may 
be thankful to the authors for its production. 

J. Ragot. 
Villenoy, France. 

A casual glance through the work satisfied me as to its value, but a 
closer reading disclosed the stupendous character of the work involved in 
the compilation of such a book. The numerous notes of reference, the 
searching of records to ascertain the " rock bottom " name of hybrids, and the 
classification of synonyms, all speak eloquently of the labour and pains 
taken, and can only be fully appreciated by the Orchid expert. The thanks 
of all Orchid lovers are due to you and your collaborator, and all Orchid 
growers must have the book, or they will be hopelessly out of date, though 
with its limited circulation I am afraid the labour can never be fully repaid. 
I am eagerly looking forward to the next instalment. 

H. Thorp. 
Boothroyden. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



75 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR MARCH. 
By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Shading.— All the softer-growing sections should be well shaded from the 
direct rays of the sun, for carelessness at the beginning of the season will 
cause a lot of unsightly scalds. Where blinds are not used the houses can 
be shaded with flour and water, either brushed on or put on with the 
syringe. If green shading is required green colour, as used for paint, can 
be added. I much prefer flour to lime, as it is so much easier got off at 
the end of the season, and yet does not wash off with rain. It also has the 
advantage of being transparent in damp weather. Where blinds are used 
they can be left up longer in the morning, and drawn up earlier in the 
afternoon, if the glass is stippled over lightly. If canvas blinds are used it 
will be better to shade several panes just where they join, as even if enough 
is allowed for overlapping in fixing they generally shrink in the centre, 
where they meet, and often leave a gap, and thus damage is soon done to 
tender foliage plants. 

Plants that have been placed up near the glass for the winter months 
will be better lowered a little, and where they have been stood on pots the 
pots can be taken from under them, which will give them a good bit more 
air space between them and the glass. Where movable stages are used 
they can easily be dropped a brick or so during the summer months. Six 
inches or so further away from the glass gives a lot more air space, and 
heat from the glass does not affect the plants so badly, especially where 
blinds are not used. 

Calanthes should be potted as soon as they commence to grow. Shake 
all old material from the roots, which latter roots can be shortened, leaving 
just sufficient to hold them firm in the pot. Any bulbs that are diseased 
should be discarded, as they are only an eyesore and can never be cured. 
Good varieties can be propagated by the old bulb. Place the back bulbs 
in pans, and fill round with crocks to hold them in place till they break, 
when they can be potted up singly, and will make nice bulbs by the end of 
the season. Good fibrous loam, dried cow manure, broken up fine, and 
leaves, with plenty of broken charcoal and crocks, makes a good compost. 
Use about two-thirds loam. They can be potted singly, or several in a 
pot where specimens are required, but do not overpot them. Keep the 
base of the bulb about an inch below the rim of the pot, as they like plenty 
of water when in full growth. Where a house is not provided for them a 
melon house suits them to grow in, or a warm corner in the stove house. 
They must be very carefully watered until the pots get full of roots, then a 
plentiful supply should be given. Should the black spot make an appear- 
ance give a little extra ventilation, and water more carefully for a time, 



76 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

which will check it before it gets hold. When once it gets a firm hold 
the plants are better burnt, as they are useless and only eyesores, but a 
little care will prevent it if taken in time. 

Thunias, as soon as they commence to grow, should be potted. These 
are very quick-growing Orchids, and can be had in flower in from six 
weeks to two months from the time of starting, and will make growths 
three or four feet long. The flowers are very beautiful, and they make a 
fine display, and are very useful both as foliage and flowering plants for 
groups. A compost similar to that advised for Calanthes will suit them, 
and they must be carefully watered till they make a good many roots, and 
are growing strong, then they like plenty of water. Liquid manure in 
alternate waterings will produce fine growths and abundance of flowers. 
The foliage should be kept well syringed whilst they are growing, as they 
are rather subject to attacks of red spider if grown in a dry atmosphere. 
They should be staged in a nice sunny corner in the stove, and must not be 
heavily shaded at an}- time if flowers are wanted. When shaded they make 
sappy growths, and do not flower so well. 

Lycastes are among the best winter flowering plants we have, as they 
will stand fog or any sort of weather, and either for cutting or decorative 
work they are most useful. They are not difficult to grow, and do not get 
bothered with insect pests like many others do. They will grow well in an 
intermediate temperature. A batch of the different varieties makes a very 
pretty group. L. Skinneri alba is a beautiful subject when well grown. 
Plants that have passed out of flower should be examined, and those that 
require potting or top-dressing should be attended to. A compost of turfy 
loam and peat in equal quantities, with plenty of crocks and lumpy char- 
coal to keep it open, will suit them well. Plants that are in good condition 
should not be disturbed, but old material should be picked out from the 
top of the pot and a surfacing of new compost added. Plants that are 
pot-bound should be shifted into pots about two sizes larger, so as not to 
want shifting again for two years or so, and plants which have got into bad 
condition should be shaken out and given a fresh start. Generally these 
will need a smaller-sized pot. In potting them the plant should be kept 
quite an inch below the rim of the pot, so that plenty of water can be given 
in the growing season. They enjoy a good syringing when they are grow- 
ing, which also keeps the foliage clean. 

Seedlings of different sorts should be pushed along now the bright 
weather is coming, and any that are getting pot-bound should be given a 
shift on. Plenty of moisture in the atmosphere and fairly high temperatures 
should soon help them to make good sturdy plants before the winter is 
here again. They must be carefully shaded during the summer months. A 
movable shading is better for these than permanent shading. Double 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 77 

blinds can easily be fixed up, and one lot can be rolled along the glass, on 
runners, and the other lot can be raised above them again, and either 
worked with cords or run along the house the same way as the lower blinds. 
Dendrobiums, as they pass out of flower, should be examined, and 
potted or top-dressed, as they soon start to make roots from the young 
bulbs, and the sooner they are done the better. A compost of peat, leaves 
and crushed crocks, with a little moss, will suit them. In potting these,, 
too, we find they are better potted below the rim of the pot rather than 
moulded up. Dendrobes should not be given larger pots than necessary,, 
just large enough to get them in without breaking their roots. When 
imported plants are being potted as small pots as possible should be used 
until they start to root, then if they require a larger pot the one they are in 
can be smashed and the pieces removed, and then they can be dropped into 
a larger pot. Dendrobes like plenty of sun, and whether suspended from 
the roof or grown on stages they must be given plenty of light if they are 
expected to flower. For the little trouble they give there are not many 
other Orchids which yield a larger return of flowers than Dendrobes, and 
they last a long time in perfection. They require abundance of water and 
ventilation in the growing season, especially when they are grown with very 
little shade, as the sun soon dries up small pots, which seems to be what 
they like. 

L.ELIA anceps will be commencing to grow. They should be given 
plenty of sun, and very light shading just in the middle of the day will be 
all the shade they require. The harder they are grown the better and more 
flowers they produce. They do not like being disturbed much, so that 
unless the new growth has run over the edge of the pot or basket, and the 
compost is in good order, resurfacing will be all they require. They are 
beautiful Orchids, either for cutting or grouping, as their long graceful 
spike make them almost indispensable for autumn and winter work. They 
like plenty of water during their growing season. 

Ventilation.— During this month great care must be used in ven- 
tilating, as generally we get all sorts of mixed weather. When the blinds 
are dropped the ventilation should be reduced considerably, or taken off 
altogether. If there is a cold wind just while the blinds are down do not 
in any case let the temperatures drop suddenly. 

Damping down will have to be done more frequently as the days 
lengthen. Do not let the houses become dry or red spider and thrip will 
soon make an appearance, and play havoc with the young growths, leaving 
marks which can never be effaced. 

TEMPERATURES should not be allowed to drop below the figures advised 
in the previous Calendar, especially at night, as the weather is so- 
changeable. 



78 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

ORCHID EXHIBITION AT BOSTON, U.S.A. 

I enclose an advance prize list for a special Orchid Exhibition which the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society will hold in the Horticultural Hall, 
Boston, on May 26-30, igio. Our idea is to stimulate the growing interest 
in Orchids, and we are offering what we consider fairly good prizes. We 
anticipate a very fine show, the best of its kind ever held in America, and 
are already assured of the hearty co-operation of a number of our largest 
trade and private growers. In addition to the prizes offered, there will be 
special awards of Gold and other Medals for exhibits outside the limits of 
the classes provided. 

We would like very much to interest a few of your trade and commercial 
houses sufficiently to send a few plants or cut flowers over. We assure them 

3 the "Hub 

We are well aware that owing to our hot summers we cannot produce 
Odontoglossums and other Cool Orchids as in Britain, but we can show 
Cattleyas and some other varieties growing better than anywhere else in the 
world, and we hope that there are a few on your side who will essay the 
journey, if only to see what is being done with Orchids in the New World. 

I may say that we will have extensive honorary displays of Azaleas and 
other seasonable plants in addition to the Orchids, although the latter will, 
however, be the leading feature. 

Professor C. S. Sargent, of Brookline, who is a frequent visitor to the 
Vincent Square and Temple Shows, first suggested the holding of this 
Show. The committee acting with him in arranging the details are : 
J. K. M. L. Farquhar (Chairman), Wm. J.Stewart, Edward McNulkin, and 

I will be glad later to send you any additional notes of interest on this 
proposed Show, and will be pleased to send you a report of the same, and a 
few photos if you would care for them. William N. Craig. 

Superintendent Gardener, 
F. L. Ames' Estate, 

North Easton, Mass. 

Schedule of Prizes. 
For the best display of Orchid plants in bloom, arranged for effect, 
embracing at least twenty Orchid genera and bi-generic hybrids, and 
unlimited as to number of species, varieties and hybrids, to fill 400 square 
feet of space. Cut blooms of rare sorts not exceeding in number five per 
centum of the total number of varieties of Orchid plants in the exhibit will 
be admissible. 



"March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 79 

In the arrangement, other stove and greenhouse flowering and foliage 
plants may be used, and the general effect produced (with or without such 
plants) will be considered by the judges in making awards as per the 
following scale of points : Variety of Orchids, 20 points ; quality of Orchids, 
25 ; arrangement and decorative effect, 40 ; novelty of Orchids, 15. 

First prize, Gold Medal and 1,000 dollars ; Second prize, Silver Medal 
and 500 dollars : Third prize, Bronze Medal and 250 dollars. 

For the best display of Orchid plants in bloom arranged for effect, 
embracing at least ten Orchid genera and bi-generic hybrids, and unlimited 
as to number of species, varieties and hybrids, to fill 150 square feet of 
space. Cut blooms of rare sorts not exceeding in number five per centum 
of the total number of varieties of the Orchid plant in the exhibit will be 
admissible. 

In the arrangement, other stove and greenhouse flowering and foliage 
plants may be used, and the general effect produced (with or without such 
plants) will be considered by the judges in making awards as per the 
following scale of points : Variety of Orchids, 20 points ; quality of Orchids, 
25 ; arrangement and decorative effect, 40 ; novelty of Orchids, 15. 

First prize, Gold Medal and 200 dollars ; Second prize, Silver Medal and 
100 dollars; Third prize, Bronze Medal and 50 dollars. Commercial 
growers are excluded from competition. 

For the best recently introduced Orchid plant not previously exhibited 
in the United States— Gold Medal. 

For the best new seedling Orchid plant not previously exhibited in the 
United States— Gold Medal. 

For the largest and best display of cut Orchid blooms arranged with 
ferns or other foliage. Variety and decorative effect will be considered. 

First prize, Gold Medal and 100 dollars ; Second prize, Silver Medal 
and 50 dollars ; Third prize, Bronze Medal and 25 dollars. 

For the best collection of cut Orchids of new varieties ' not before 
exhibited in the United States. Ferns or other foliage may be used in the 
arrangement. First prize, Gold Medal. 

There are also substantial prizes offered for the best group of flowering 
and foliage stove and greenhouse plants arranged for effect ; for the best new 
stove or greenhouse plant in bloom not previously exhibited in the United 
States ; for the best new stove or greenhouse foliage plant, exclusive of ferns, 
not previously exhibited in the United States ; for the best Coniferous 
plant not yet disseminated, and likely to be hardy in Massachusetts ; for 
the best new shrub or climber in bloom likely to be hardy in Massachusetts, 
and not previously exhibited in the United States ; and for the best new 
herbaceous plant in bloom likely to be hardy in Massachusetts, not 
previously exhibited in the United States. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



[Ma 



190.1. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM x SMITHII. 
This very distinct and striking hybrid is now in the collection of J. Gurney 
Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), and was exhibited 
in fine condition at a meeting of the R.H.S. held on February 23rd last, the 
inflorescence bearing four flowers. It was raised by Messrs. Charlesworth 
& Co. from O. Rossii rubescens ? and O. X crispo-Harryanum $ , and 
received a First-class Certificate from the R.H.S. on December 5th, 1905, 
when it flowered for the first time, and when the annexed photograph was 



i 

r 


Km 


3&K 









taken. It is quite 
and of the petals c 
violet-purple, with 
lip is violet-purple 
shows some of the 



ODONTOGLOSSUM X SMITHII. 

1 colour, the disc of the sepals being light green, 
3ur, while the apex and margin are of a peculiar 
Lckish purple blotches. The front lobe of the 
w blackish spots on the lower half, and the crest 



u-hi<-h 



also 



vhile the column and 
-nbles 



tin 



igog.] 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



DENDROCHILUM GLUMACEUM VAR. VALIDUM. 
At a meeting of the Manchester Orchid Society, held on February 18th last, 
a fine plant of Dendrochilum glumaceum var. validum was exhibited from 
the collection of G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. 
Herdman), and received a First-class Botanical Certificate and a Cultural 
Certificate. We cannot give an illustration of the actual plant certificated, 
but may repeat one ot a plant which flowered in the collection of O. O. 
Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury. It differs from the type in its stouter 




Fig. 8. Dendrochilum glumaceum var. validum. 
habit and much broader leaves. It is a native of the Philippine Islands. It 
is a robust grower, and a good plant to grow on into a specimen, under which 
circumstances its graceful character is seen to the best advantage. It thrives 
well in the Cattleya or Intermediate House, in well-drained pans, in a compost 
of fibrous peat and sphagnum moss, and any potting that may be required 
should be done after flowering, when the young growths begin to push. 
During actual growth a liberal supply of water should be given, and at 
other times there should always be enough to keep the compost moist. It 
is a charming companion for the equally graceful D. filiforme/ 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



Royal Horticul 



A meeting of this Society was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent 
Square, Westminster, on February gth last, when there was a magnificent 
display of Orchids, and the awards consisted of one Gold and seven other 
Medals, one First-class Certificate, and two Awards of Merit. The award 
made to Cypripedium X Earl of Tankerville at the last meeting (p. 51) was 
reconsidered, and raised to a First-class Certificate. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), staged a fine group of Odontoglossums and other Orchids, to 
which a Silver-gilt Flora Medal was given. It contained a fine series of 
blotched forms of O. crispum, including the handsome O. c. Mossia;, and 
another very distinct form with deep reddish purple blotches, some good 
O. X ardentissimum, Cypripedium X Chapmanii Oakwood var., Brasso- 
catlselia Cooksoni (Brassolaelia Gratrixiae x Cattleya Dowiana), having a 
handsome yellow flower tinged with copper-red, and other good things. A 
First-class Certificate was given to O. X ardentissimum Phcebe, a very 
handsome form, having rich claret-coloured sepals and petals, with white 
margin and apex, and a well marked lip. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. Alexander), 
sent a few choice things, including a beautiful example of Cymbidium X 
Holfordianum with two spikes, Laeliocattleya Goldfinch var. Argus, having 
deep yellow flowers with an Indian-red lip, Cypripedium X Helen II., 
Holford's var., and a magnificent specimen of Odontoglossum X crispo- 
Harryanum, bearing four branched spikes and an aggregate of 125 flowers, 
the largest bearing as many as sixty-one. It was a magnificent example of 
good culture, and a Lindley Medal was awarded to Mr. Alexander. An 
Award of Merit was given to Laeliocattleya Goldfinch superba (L.-c. 
warnhamiensis x C. Dowiana aurea), a beautiful free-flowering hybrid, 
having deep yellow sepais and petals and a deep crimson-purple lip, with 
some orange lines at the base. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq. Exhims, Northchurch, sent Cypripedium X 
Helen II., Exhims var., C. X Leonid, Gratrix's var., and C. X Leander, 
Exhims var. (villosum x Leeanum), the latter receiving an Award of Merit. 
It had a large circular white dorsal sepal, blotched with rose-purple, and 
broad yellow petals, while the lip was tinged with purple-brown. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford (gr. Mr. White), 
showed a branched inflorescence of Epidendrum erubescens, a rare Mexican 
species with pink flowers, which had been in bloom for some time. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a very interesting group, including two varieties of Pleione 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 83 

yunnanensis, Restrepia striata, the pretty little Pleurothallis astrophora, 
Masdevallia cucullata, M. Chimaera, M. C. aurea, Dendrobium macro- 
phyllum, D. Kingianum album, the graceful little D. semulum, with some 
good hybrids, including the pretty Phaiocalanthe Colmanii and others. 

The Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock (gr. Mr. 
Hunter), sent Cattleya Trianae, Blenheim var., a large and richly coloured 

Sir William Marriott, Down House, Blandford, sent cut spikes of the 
brilliant Sophrocattleya warnhamiensis var. Cerise, and Sophrolaelia 
Marriottiana. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent a 
form of Odontioda Bradshawiae, having rather broader segments, and more 
distinct markings than the original form. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a magnificent 
group, to which the Society's Gold Medal was awarded. The centre con- 
sisted of about one-hundred fine specimens of Phalaenopsis Schilleriana, 
excellently grown and profusely flowered, making a most beautiful display, 
and with them were the pure white P. S. vestalis, P. Stuartiana, P. X 
intermedia Portei, and others. At one end of the group was a fine lot of 
hybrid Odontoglossums, Odontiodas, Miltonias, Brassocattleyas, &c, and 
at the other end a number of good Laeliocattleyas, with a batch of Cattleya 
X Enid, the brilliant Renanthera Imschootiana, &c. In front were 
arranged a row of the pretty yellow Oncidium cheirophorum, edged with 
the scarlet Sophronitis grandiflora, the whole forming a very beautiful 
exhibit. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, consisting largely of choice Cypripediums, and 
including some good C. X aureum, C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn, C. X Vandyke, 
C. X Miss Louisa Fowler, with some good Lycaste Skinned, Angraecum 
eburneum, Vanda Amesiana, some good Odontoglossums, and a number 
of well-grown Sophronitis grandiflora, with some good Calanthe X Bryan 
in the centre. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group of white Laelia anceps varieties, very well grown and pro- 
fusely flowered, and making a fine display. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, also received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a fine group, including some good Dendrobium x 
Wiganiae xanthochilum, D. nobile virginale, D. specie-sum, Bulbophyllum 
cupreum, Cypripedium X aureum virginale, with eight flowers, C. X a. 
Surprise, examples of Sophronitis grandiflora, and other good things. 

Messrs. J. W. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, consisting largely of Cypripediums, noteworthy 



84 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

among them being the fine dark C. X Mrs. Francis Wellesley, C. Roths- 
childianum Dulcote var., C. X Tracyanum, C. X Chapmanii, C. X aureum 
Hyeanum, C. X a. compactum, C. X Sallieri varieties, &c. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, also received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a nice group of Odontoglossums and Cypripedium X Countess 
of Carnarvon, the latter showing much variation. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, sent the fine Cypri- 
pedium X Euryades New Hall Hey var. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington (gr. Mr. Caen), sent Cypri- 
pedium X Iris magnificum (Chamberlainianum X Maudiae), a very pretty 
form, most like the former, but larger, and having the dorsal sepal lined 
with purple on a white ground, becoming green at the base, the undulate 
petals yellowish veined with purple-brown, and the lip densely spotted 
with purple. 

Messrs. Duchesne, Lanthoine & Co., Watermael, Belgium, sent 
Cattleya Schrcederae, The Giant, with many pale lilac flowers of good 
size and shape. 

Mr. F. McBean, Plumpton, sent several good varieties of Cattleya 
Trianae and Odontoglossum crispum, the latter including a very prettily 
spotted variety. 

M. Mertens, Ghent, sent a small group of hybrid Odontoglossums. 

At the meeting held on February 23rd, there was a very fine display of 
Orchids, and the awards consisted of four medals, three First-class Certifi- 
cates, six Awards of Merit, one Botanical Certificate, and one Certificate of 
Appreciation. 

Lieut-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received First-class Certificates for Laeliocattleya Pizarro 
Westonbirt var. (L. Jongheana X C. Dowiana aurea), a very fine and 
richly-coloured form, and for Cattleya Trianae Mooreana, a beautiful variety, 
having rosy-lilac petals of excellent shape, becoming darker at the apex, and 
the lip rich crimson-purple in front of the yellow disc. 

G. F. Moore, Esq., Bourton-on-the-Water (gr. Mr. Page), received 
Awards of Merit for Cypripedium X Bridgei magnificum (Godsefnanum X 
Argus), a large and handsome form, having a green dorsal sepal suffused 
with dusky brown and margined with white, and the apex of the petals 
rosy-purple, and for C. x Curtmanii (M. de Curte X Beeckmanii), having the 
dorsal sepal green, blotched with dark brown below and white above, the 
broad petals shining mahogany brown with a few spots, and the lip brown 
in front. He also sent C. X Graceae var. W. F. Page, having white flowers 
prettily marked with purple. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 85 

sent a very interesting little group, including Bulbophyllum comosum bearing 
five racemes of its pretty white hairy flowers, Cirrhopetalum Mastersianum, 
the rare C. retusiusculum, a brightly-coloured Zygocolax, Angrsecum 
hyaloides, Masdevallia erythochaete, the rare Dendrobium Mortii, and D. X 
Lady Colman (Artemis X Findlayanum), the latter a very large and hand- 
some form, having light rosy flowers with a very large dark maroon blotch 
on the lip, which gained an Award of Merit. He also sent single flowers of 
twelve pretty varieties of D. nobile. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 
the fine dark Odontoglossum X Queen Alexandra var. Theodora, O. X 
Zena, and O. cariniferum, the latter gaining a Botanical Certificate. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham Hill (gr. Mr. Black), 
sent Dendrobium X chessingtonense, and the variety Kingcup, having deep 
orange-coloured flowers, with a large maroon blotch on the lip, D. X 
Artemis, and D. atro-Brymerianum (atroviolaceum X Brymerianum), a very 
curious hybrid to which the new Certificate of Appreciation was awarded. 
It most resembles the former parent, and the flowers are greenish with 
small purple spots, and the lip shows some purple veining. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), sent 
the handsome Odontoglossum X Smithii with a four-flowered inflorescence. 

J. H. Hill, Esq., Burgess Hill, Sussex, sent Cypripedium X Richmanii 
superbum. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, sent a very fine group, to which a 
Silver-gilt Flora Medal was given. It contained a fine lot of Odonto- 
glossums, noteworthy among them being the fine O. X crispo-Harryanum 
brugense, O. X Irene (triumphans X Kegeljani), a pretty yellow flower 
barred and blotched with reddish brown, O. X Vuylstekeae, O. X gemmatum 
(triumphans X elegans), O. X Nysa (Hunnewellianum X triumphans), O. x 
hellemense(harvengtense X crispum), O. X Vulcan (crispum X Vuylestekei), 
O. X Hellenus (harvengtense X crispum), O.X Hesperus (Harryano-crispum 
X Vuylstekei), O. pulchellum, a good O. Pescatorei, some fine 
Phalaenopsis Schilleriana and Lycaste Skinneri, Saccolabium bellinum, 
the rare Waluewa pulchella, Polystacha pubescens, Cattleya amethysto- 
glossa, Brassocattleya Rowena and Thorntoni, Oncidium splendidum, the 
pure white Calanthehololeuca and other good things. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, sent a fine group, to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained a fine specimen of 
Trichopilia suavis, some good forms of Odontoglossum X Ossulstoni, O. X 
amabile, O. X crispo-Harryanum, Angraecum citratum with three spikes, 
Lseliocattleya Myra, Miltonia X Bleuana, Oncidium cucullatum, Cypri- 
pedium X Rossetti, some good C. X aureum, C. villosum auriferum, 
Dendrobium infundibulum, and other good things. A First-class Certificate 



86 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

was given to Odontioda Lutetia (0. luteopurpureum X C. Ncetzliana), a 
large and handsome hybrid, having yellow flowers, tinged and splashed with 
cinnabar red, and an Award of Merit to O. keighleyensis (O. cirrhosum 
X C. Noetzliana), having the flowers almost dark scarlet, but most like 
O. cirrhosum in shape. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, including Dendrobium X Melpomene, D. X 
Leechianum, Masdevallia macrura, Miltonia X Bleuana, M. vexillaria, Ada 
aurantiaca, Cattleya Trianae, Platyclinis violacea, Sophronitis grandiflora, 
Oncidium splendidum, Cypripedium X villexul, C. X Beeckmanii, &c. 

M. Mertens, Ghent, received a Silver Banksian Medal for a group of 
about a dozen good hybrid Odontoglossums, including forms of O. X 
amabile, O. X laudatum, O. X Vuylstekei, and others. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, received an Award of 
Merit for Cymbidium X Woodhamsianum Orchidhurst var. (Lowianum X 
eburneo-Lowianum), a very good form bearing five spikes of bloom. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, received an Award of Merit for 
Cycnoches peruvianum Tracy's var., the plant bearing five short dense 
racemes of male flowers. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, sent Cattleya Trianae Lowiae, Cypri- 
pedium X aureum, C. X chrysotoxum Victor, Cymbidium X Woodham- 
sianum, Dendrobium chessingtonense, and a few others. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, sent a small group of Odonto- 
glossums, including a good white O. X ardentissimum, a very fine spotted 
O. crispum, a good hybrid from O. X Wilckeanum X crispum, having 
yellow flowers blotched with brown, and others. 

Mr. F. McBean, Plumpton, sent two good forms of Cattleya Trianae, 
one having blush white sepals and petals, and the lip rose-purple in front. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
As compared with the splendid meetings held by this Society recently 
there was only a moderate exhibition on February 4th at the Coal 
Exchange. The following members of the Committee were present : — 
Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Thorp, Ward, Sander, 
Cowan, Shill, Warburton, Holmes, Upjohn, Keeling, Ashton, Cypher, 
Parker, and Weathers (Sec). 

S. Gratrix, Esq., West Point, Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), sent the 
fine hybrid Cypripedium X memoria Jerninghamiae, which gained a First- 
class Certificate. The dorsal sepal has a clean white ground with a green 
base, and a large purple-brown blotch tapering to a point at the apex, and 
the lateral sepals are a rich warm brown, lighter on the lower half, and 
quite 1 i-8th inches broad. Mrs. Mary Gratrix sent a fine Cypripedium 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 87 

Actseus Gratrixise, which also gained a First-class Certificate ; a fine well- 
balanced flower, with broad round dorsal sepal, the upper half white, and 
the lower apple green, and well spotted, and the lip of pale salmon shade 
(Vote of Thanks). 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a beautiful 
group, in which Odontoglossums predominated. I noted O. X Phcebe, 
O. X amabile, O. X Adrians, O. X Charlesworthii, O. X armainvillierense 
xanthotes, several well-grown O. crispum with large round flowers, with 
Cypripediums X aureum virginale and Hyeanum, and several Dendrobiums 
(Silver-gilt Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), sent a fine 
group of well-grown Cypripediums, all of excellent quality, which gained a 
Silver-gilt Medal. I noted the fine C. X Flamingo (Award of Merit), two 
fine plants of C. X chrysotoxum var. Victor, also C. X Victory, C. X 
Venus Rann Lea var., C. X Zeno Craven's var., C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn, 
C. x Leeanum Lavertonianum, C. X Beeckmanii, C. X Boadicea 
magnificum, C. X Ainsworthii, and many others of equal merit. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), sent a nice 
group of mixed plants. Cattleya Trianae Holmesii, a finely-shaped flower, 
with broad petals, and a lip of rich rose-purple, received an Award of 
Merit. I noted Lselia anceps Schrcederiana and several well-grown Cypri- 
pediums, the chief of which were C. X St. Vincent and C. X Hoyleanum 
(Silver Medal). 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a group in 
which high quality Cypripediums predominated. C. X aureum Vine House 
var., C. X Winnianum Vine House var., and C. Spicerianum all gained 
Awards of Merit. I noted also well-grown plants of C. X aureum 
Hyeanum, C. X a. virginale, C. X bingleyense, of fine colour, a good C. 
X Thompsoni, C. X Ilione (Clio) giganteum, C. X Nandii, and Odonto- 
glossum sceptrum Masereelianum (Silver Medal). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent several 
fine Cypripediums. C. X Transvaal Oakdene var., of rich colour, C. X 
memoria Lord Burton, and C. X Dicksonianum all gained Awards of Merit. 
I noted also C. X aureum Hyeanum and C. X a. laekenense (Vote of Thanks). 
J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent 
Cypripedium X Euryades New Hall Hey var., and a good flower of C. X 
Thompsoni. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Fern Bank, Ashton-on-Ribble, sent a small group 
of Cypripedium varieties (Bronze Medal). 

H. Arthur, Esq., Pine Villa, Blackburn, staged a mixed group of Cypri- 
pediums, in which I noted C. insigne Sanderianum (Bronze Medal). 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, gained a Silver Medal for a 



88 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

good group of Cypripediums. I noted a fine plant of C. X Thompsoni, C. 
X Clio Chardwar var., C. X aureum virginale, C. X a. Hyeanum, C. X 
Vandyke, C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn, C. X Charlesianum Cypher's var., &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, gained a Silver Medal for a nice 
group, in which I noted Cypripedium X Deputy Galpin, C. X Actaeus 
superbum, C. X aureum Surprise, C. a. Hyeanum, C. X Thompsoni, &c. 
Cymbidium X Wiganianum received an Award of Merit. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, staged a few good Cypri- 
pediums, which included C. X conco-callosum var. McNabianum, C. X 
Euryades Rossendale, C. X Fascinator nobilius, C. X Thompsoni, &c, 
with a fine cut spike of Cymbidium Sanderi (Vote of Thanks). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Bradford, gained a Bronze Medal for a group 
of mixed plants, incluiing Odontoglossum X aspersum, O. Cervantesii, a 
well-flowered O. Pescatorei, Dendrobium X Luna, D. X Doris, Cypripedium 
X aureum The Pearl, C. X Jupiter, &c. C. X Actaeus Grangefield var. 
and C. X Leeanum var. Dorothy gained Awards of Merit. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent Zygocolax Amesianus (Award 
of Merit), Scelochilus variegatus (Botanical Certificate), Mormodes badium 
luteum, and Cattleya Trianas alderleyense, an almost white variety. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent a nice unnamed Cypripedium hybrid, 
and an Odontoglossum crispum of good quality. 

There was a very good show of flowers at the meeting held on February 
18th, almost every group containing some plants of Odontoglossum, which 
gave the room a very bright appearance. The Committee sat as follows : — 
Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), Thorp, Ward, Cowan, Shill, Keeling, 
Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, Ball and Weathers (Secretary). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a 
group consisting of many choice Cypripediums, Cattleyas and Laelias. 
Cattleya Trianae var. Sir Lees Knowles gained an Award of Merit. I 
noted many varieties of C. Schrcederae, one beautiful form having an aurea- 
like lip. The best of the Cypripediums were, an unnamed hybrid from C. X 
General Buller X Minos Youngii, very densely spotted, C. X Leeanum 
Clinkaberryanum, C. X Ville de Paris, C. X aureum virginale, Dendrobium 
nobile virginale, &c. The group, divided for Cup purposes, gained Silver 
and Silver-gilt Medals. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), sent an interesting 
and effective group of Odontoglossums, excellently grown and flowered. 
The five following gained Awards of Merit : — O. X loochristiense, Ward's 
var. (very fine), O. X amabile var. Georgius, O. X a. var. Willie, O. X 
spectabile Ward's var., and O. X s. album. The latter is a fine creamy- 
white flower, with dark chocolate markings, though I doubt the recorded 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 89 

parentage, as the lip showed no trace whatever of Harryanum. I noted 
also O. X Adrianae, O. X Rolfese, O. X Phoebe, O. X Lambeauianum, 
and many others of equal merit (Silver-gilt Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), was 
awarded a Silver-gilt Medal for a choice group of Cypripediums. C. 
X Rajah, Rann Lea var. (callosum X triumphans), received a First-class 
Certificate. It was a very effective and richly-coloured flower, most like 
triumphans in colour, perhaps richer, and the influence of callosum had 
considerably improved the shape of the dorsal sepal. C. X Lenora gained 
an Award of Merit. I noted also C. X Victor, C. X Beeckmanii, C. X 
triumphans, C. X Olga Bagshawe, C. X Clio giganteum, C. X Boadicea 
magnificum, C. insigne King Edward VII., and many others. 

G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. Herdman), 
staged a very pretty group, full of varied interest, which gained a Silver^gilt 
Medal. A model plant of Dendrochilum glumaceum validum gained a 
First-class Botanical Certificate and Cultural Certificate, Coelogyne sparsa 
a First-class Botanical Certificate, and Bulbophylum comosum a Second- 
class Botanical Certificate. A Cultural Certificate also went to Lycaste 
plana Measuresiana, a fine plant with thirteen open flowers. I noted also 
the rare Lycaste X Balliae and L. Skinned alba, a fine Cypripedium X 
Euryades splendens, C. X aureum Surprise, C. X Leander (Leonidas), C. X 
Minos Youngii,C.Curtisii var. Excelsior, Dendrobtum X xanthocentrum,&c. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), staged a 
tastefully-arranged group of choice Odantoglossums, which gained a Silver- 
gilt Medal. The bright scarlet Odontioda Bradshawise gained a First-class 
Certificate and Odontoglossum X armainvillierense var. Ashworthianum 
an Award of Merit. I noted also O. X a. xanthotes, O. X spectabile, O. 
X waltonense, O. X Ruckerianum splendens, O. crispum Starlight, Cypri- 
pedium X Minos Youngii (very fine), C. X aureum Hyeanum, and a fine 
hybrid from C. X Maudiae X C. gigas, &c. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged 
groups of Odontoglossum and Cypripedium, each gaining a Silver Medal. 
Odontoglossums X venustulum and O. X Primus, of unrecorded parentage, 
were given Awards of Merit. I noted a fine plant of O. X Andersonianum, 
O. X Wilckeanum, O. crispum Owenianum, Cattleya X Marjorie, Cypri- 
pedium x Euryades versicolor, C. X aureum Cyris, C. X Evansianum, 
C. X Lathamianum var. Thompsoni, &c. 

E. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent Cypri- 
pedium X Prospero Oakdene var., C. X aureum Vertumne, and Odonto- 
glossum X W. C. Price, all of which received Awards of Merit. Included 
in the small group were Cypripedium X Thalia Mrs. F. Wellesley, and C. 
X Minos Youngii, with the colour finely developed (Vote of Thanks). 



9 o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

S. Gratrix, Esq., West Point, Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), sent a 
fine new hybrid Cypripedium X Lady Ursula (Schlesingerianum var. Mrs. 
Tautz X insigne Harefield Hall). The dorsal sepal had retained much of the 
insigne, both in shape and spotting, but Boxallii was distinctly traceable in 
the lateral sepals. This, when grown stronger, should make a handsome 
flower (First-class Certificate). 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent the 
chaste Cattleya Trianae ccerulea, Cypripedium X Minos Youngii, &c. 

C. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, gained a Bronze Medal for a small 
group of Cypripediums. 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, received a Silver-gilt 
Medal for an excellent and varied group of plants. Cypripedium villosum 
Reeling's var., Sophronitis grandiflora maxima, and Spathoglottis X aureo- 
Vieillardii all gained Awards of Merit. Bulbophyllum Careyanum nigrum, 
a model little plant, received a Second-class Botanical Certificate. The 
group included many fine plants of Odontoglossum crispum, Cattleyas, Cypri- 
pediums, Odontoglossum X Wiganianum, Tainia penangiana, Ccelogyne 
sparsa, Masdevallia floribunda, Brassolaelia X Helen, Dendrochilum 
glumaceum, and many others of equal interest. 

Messrs. Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham staged an interesting group, chiefly 
Cypripediums, with an effective edging of well-flowered plants of Sophronitis 
grandiflora. I noted a fine variety of Cattleya Trianae, Brassocattleya X 
Maroni, Cypripediums X aureum Hyeanum, C. X A. virginale, C. X 
Mastersexul, C. X Leeanum Lavertonianum, C. X vileexul, &c. (Silver 
Medal). 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, received a Silver Medal for a good 
group, in which I noted several fine Cattleya Trianae, Lycaste Skinneri 
alba, Cymbidium X Holfordianum, Dendrobium nobile virginale, Cypri- 
pedium X Euryades splendens, C. X aureum Surprise, C. X chrysotoxum, 
&c. 

Messrs. Heath & Sons, Cheltenham, sent a fine group of Cypripediums 
which contained varieties of C. insigne, C. X aureum virginale, C. X a. 
Hyeanum, C. X Aureole, C. X Leander, C. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn, and C. 
cailosum Sanderae (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, staged a bright little group of 
choice plants, including Dendrobium x Wiganiae album, D. nobile 



Cooksonianun 


a, D. X Ainsworth 


ii, D, 


. X 


Owenian 


ium, Cypripedium X 


Fowlerae, C. 


X Maudiae, several 






of C. x 


aureum, and C. X 


Traceyanum. 












Mr. Wm. 


Bolton, Warrington, 


sent 


Cypripedium 


X Iris magnificum, 


which gained 


an Award of Merit. 


I noted 


also C. i 


nsigne King Edward 


VII., C. X M 


audi*, C. X aureum 


Hyea 




1, &c. 





March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 91 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent two hybrid Odontoglossums, well- 
blotched with claret-colour. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Gt. Horton, Bradford, sent a good plant of 
Odontoglossum crispum. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent Cattleya Trianae, Dendrobium 
nobile Ballianum, and Zygocolax Amesianus. 

THE HYBRIDIST. 

In connection with the continuation of the Orchid Stud-Book, as outlined at 
pp. 326, 327 of that work, we have received flowers of some additional 
hybrids, with schedules of their origin and parentage, in the desired form. 
The records will be included in the List of Addenda which is being prepared. 
Meantime short descriptions are given here, as it is desirable to place on 
record at once the characters of the novelties that appear from time to 
time. 

L.ELIOCATTLEYA x Ginoti. — A brilliantly coloured hybrid raised in the 
collection of M. Joseph Ginot, St. Etienne, France, from Cattleya 
amethystoglossa 2 and Laeliocattleya Hippolyta var. Phoebe <? , which 
flowered for the first time in January last. The sepals and petals are 
orange-coloured, and the lip strongly three-lobed, with the broad front lobe 
deep crimson-purple, margined with lilac, and the greater part of the side 
lobes yellow. The crimson extends down the disc as a broad band, and there 
are a few crimson lines on either side, becoming stronger at the apex of the 
side lobes. The petals are an inch broad, by nearly 2! inches long. It is a 
fine thing, and the scape at present is two-flowered, and evidently not fully 
developed. 

L^liocattleya x Linossieri. — A very richly-coloured hybrid, raised in 
the same collection as the preceding, from Laelia cinnabarina £ and 
Cattleya X Parthenia $ , and now flowering for the first time with a five- 
flowered raceme. The sepals and petals are nearly 2.\ inches long, and of 
a brilliant reddish orange colour, and the strongly three-lobed lip of a 
lighter shade, except at the margin of the obovate much crisped front lobe, 
which is reddish. The scape is about a foot long, and owing to the free, 
growing habit of the plant and the brilliantly coloured flowers it is a highly 
decorative hybrid. 

Dendrobium x atro-Brymerianum. — This is the name given to a 
remarkable hybrid raised in the collection of R. G. Thwaites, Esq., of 
Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), from D. atroviolaceum $ X D. Brymer- 
ianum <y , to which the new Certificate of Appreciation was given at the 
R.II.S. meeting, held on February 23rd last. It is most like the former 
in habit, structure, and in bearing a terminal raceme of several flowers, but 
the ground colour is changed to greenish yellow, with minute dusky spots, 



92 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

on the sepals and petals, while the violet-colour has gone from the lip, 
which is lined throughout with confluent lines of deep brown spots, rather 
more scattered on the front lobe. The lip is slightly denticulated, but not 
fringed. Mr. Black remarks that it has been something like eight years 
in reaching the flowering stage. 

Dendrobium X Austinii. — A richly-coloured hybrid, raised in the 
same collection as the preceding, from D. X Cybele nobihus and the form 
of D. X Ainsworthii known as splendidissimum illustre, and is thus 
composed of half D. nobile and a quarter each D. aureum and D. 
Findlayanum. It is most like a richly coloured D. nobile, having the 
sepals, petals, and apex of the lip deep rose-purple, with a blackish-maroon 
disc. 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 
Several interesting flowers are sent from the collection of J.J. Neale, 
Esq., of Penarth, and among them five forms of Odontoglossum X 
Adrianae, and two of O. X Andersonianum, which Mr. Haddon remarks 
have flowered out of a batch of imported O. crispum. One of the former 
has a sulphur yellow ground colour and unspotted petals, with a sngle 
small blotch on each sepal, and about three others on the front of the lip. 
A second is bright yellow with a few blotches on each segment. The rest 
have a white ground, two being heavily blotched with dark brown, while 
the third has fewer and paler spots. One O. X Andersonianum has a clear 
white ground with a few dark blotches, the other is the variety Rucker- 
ianum, with a rosy ground and very numerous linear spots, which are very 
nearly absent from the lip. A beautiful pure white O. crispum with only a 
few spots on the lip is also enclosed, with flowers of O. naevium, 
Hunnewellianum, sceptrum, triumphans, Pescatorei, Rossii and pulchellum. 
Mr. Haddon remarks that the houses are now quite gay with Odonto- 
glossums, Dendrobiums, Cypripediums, Cattleya Trianse, and Schroederae, 
with numerous botanical species. The plant of Epidendrum polybulbon is 
covered with flowers again this year, and is beautifully fragrant at certain 
times of the day, and a plant of E. Stamfordianum with six spikes is quite a 
picture. Among other interesting things sent may be mentioned 
Masdevallia triangularis, M. X Heathii, Pleurothallis elachopus, Oncidium 
Cebolleta and splendidum, the brilliantly coloured Ada aurantiaca, Laelia 
harpophylla, Restrepia maculata, and Maxillaria variabilis. 

Three very distinct and beautiful flowers of Dendrobium X chessington- 
ense (D. X Wiganiae var. xanthochilum X aureum), are sent from the 
collection of R. G. Thwaites, Esq., of Streatham, by Mr. Black. One is 
the typical light yellow form with blackish-maroon disc, a second the 
variety Kingcup, in which the ground colour is deep orange buff, and the 



1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



93 



disc rich deep brown, and the third is primrose-coloured, with alight maroon 
disc. The difference in colour is remarkable. A light rosy variety of D. X 
Ainsworthii is the result of crossing D. nobile virginale with D. aureum. 
Mr. Black asks where the rosy colour has come from as it does not appear 
in D. aureum. A correct answer would solve many difficulties, but we 
consider it to be another case of reversion, like that recorded at page 57, 
excepting that in this case the cross has been reversed. 

Four hybrid Paphiopedilums are sent from the collection of H. T. Pitt, 
Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill, by Mr. Thurgood, three of which are forms 
of hybrids already known. P. X nitens giganteum x villosum aureum is 
a very handsome form of P. Colossus, and has regained much of the 
villosum character, from which it is three-fourths derived. The dorsal 
sepal, however, is broader, and green with a lighter margin and some large 
dark brown blotches. The broad petals, as well as the lip and staminode, 
strongly recall P. villosum. A second is from P. x Harrisianum x 
villosum, and thus is a form of P. X conspicuum. This also is three- 
fourths derived from P. villosum, with which it most agrees in shape ; the 
dorsal sepal, however, is much suffused with deep shining brown, in which 
the character of P. barbatum is seen. The third is said to have been 
derived from P. insigne Brownii x nitens var. Almos, which would make 
it a form of P. Romulus, but from the general shape of the flower and 
the colour of the dorsal sepal it might well be a form of the preceding. 
The fourth is said to be from P. exul x Calypso, and bears a general 
resemblance to the seed-parent in shape and colour, in fact the influence 
of P. Spicerianum and P Boxallii is scarcely apparent. The parentage of 
the two last seems to require confirmation. 

A flower of a brilliantly-coloured form of Odontioda Bradshawiae is 
sent from the collection of R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Streatham, having 
rather broader segments than the original form, and with distinct crimson 
markings on a yellow ground. Mr. Black remarks: "The pollen parent 
was a full rosy Odontoglossum crispum, and it is curious to know where 
the marbling has come from, as it resembles in this respect the original 
Odontioda Vuylstekeae. Had a blotched crispum been used the markings 
would have been readily explainable." 

VANDA x MOOREI. - 
Another plant of this very interesting natural hybrid has appeared, a 
flower having been received for determination from Messrs. Sander & Sons, 
St. Albans, though without any note of its history. The hybrid originally 
appeared in the establishment of Messrs. J. W. Moore, of Bradford, nearly 
twelve years ago, in an importation of V. Kimballiana, and was described 
by the writer {O.R., v. p. 329). It received an Award of Merit from the 



94 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [March, 1909. 

R.H.S. on October 12th, 1897. The original plant is most like V. Kim- 
balliana in habit, but the leaves are twice as broad and nearly flat. The 
flower is also most like the latter, except as regards colour, and the shape 
of the front lobe of the lip. The sepals and petals are lilac, and the front 
lobe of the lip like V. ccerulea in shape, but rather broader, and dull purple 
in colour. The elongated spur quite recalls V. Kimballiana. The flower 
sent by Messrs. Sander is much brighter blue than the original, but quite 
agrees in shape. It is a very handsome thing, and we would suggest that 
our hybridists should try to raise a batch of it by crossing the two species. 
R. A. Rolfe. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM x GROGANIiE. 

In further reference to Odontoglossum X Groganiae (pp. 30, 60), I should 
like to add another good quality it possesses, and that is the length of time 
the spike lasts in flower. We bought a plant on December 10th last, which 
to our certain knowledge had been open from about November 20th, and 
possibly longer. We fertilised two flowers on December nth, two more on 
January 22nd, and a fifth (the last flower to open) on February nth. Thus 
the one spike had been bearing flowers about three months, and is now 
carrying four pods, the fifth having failed to set. In our opinion this is 
decidedly the best O. Edwardii hybrid yet seen, and the secondary crosses 
obtained from it should produce some very fine things. Unfortunately, as 
far as our experience goes, the pollen of O. X Groganiae is useless, just as we 
found the pollen of O. X Thompsonianum (Edwardii X crispum). I have 
tried it with various Odontoglossum flowers, but without any result, and it 
looks just as Thompsonianum pollen looked, hard and dark. 

Streatham Hill. E. Thwaites. 

BULBOPHYLLUM NEWPORTII. 
An interesting little Australian Orchid was described in 1902 by Mr. F. M. 
Bailey, under the name of Sarcochilus Newportii {Queensl. Flora., vi. p. 2014), 
but an examination of an original specimen received at Kew shows that it 
belongs to Bulbophyllum, with which it agrees both in habit and structure. 
It was found on Mt. Alexandra, Queensland, by Mr. Howard Newport, after 
whom it was named. It approaches B. exiguum, F. Muell., in habit, but 
has much stouter rhizomes and flowers twice as large. The flowers are 
borne on a short slender scape, about three inches high, and are described 
as pinkish, with three longitudinal darker lines. The pseudobulbs are 
rather small, and the leaves oblong, and about an inch long. It is not 
known to be in cultivation. 

R. A. Rolfe. 



March, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 95 

ERIA ERI^OIDES. 

This is the Dendrobium eriseoides, F. M. Bailey {Syn. Queens. FL, suppl. 2, 
p. 56), a species described in 1888 from a plant collected by Dr. T. L. 
Bancroft, at the Johnstone River, Queensland. The author remarked : 
" The pollen masses correspond, both in form and number, with those of 
Dendrobium, but the general aspect of the plant is so unlike that of any of this 
genus with which the author is familiar that its final inclusion under 
Dendrobium is a matter of uncertainty." A specimen at Kew, sent by Mr. 
Bailey, has all the flowers fertilized, so that the pollen masses cannot be 
made out, but the habit, structure and hairy flowers agree so completely 
with Eria that I believe it must be transferred there. It seems to be a 
somewhat anomalous species of the section Urostachya. The description 
was made from a plant which flowered at Bowen Park, Queensland. 

R. A. Rolfe. 
CYPRIPEDIUMS. 
The monthly meeting of the Bolton Horticultural and Chrysanthemum 
Society was held on Tuesday, February 2nd, at the Spinners' Hall, St. 
George's-road. The subject was the cultivation of Cypripediums, by a 
well-known expert grower, Mr. Robert Johnson, lately of Stand Hall, 
Whitefield, Manchester, now of Southport. The Chairman, Mr. R. Smith, 
commented upon the subject as one that had rapidly come to the front. 
Mr. Johnson said anyone who had attended the Orchid meetings in London 
and Manchester during the last three months would agree that eighty per 
cent, of the plants exhibited had been Cypripediums, a proof that Cypri- 
pediums were greatly prized. Commenting on the most beautiful varieties 
that had been raised from seedlings and by hybridisation, he expressed a 
firm belief that still better results would be obtained in the future. He 
said division was the best method to adopt for increasing the stock. 
Cypripediums were a most valuable family, especially for flowering in the 
dull months of the year. They remained uninjured by fog, whilst many 
other Orchids were destroyed.— Journal of Horticulture. 

NOTES. 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during March, on the 
9th and 23rd, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. The next meeting will be held on April 6th. 

The Manchester and North of England Orchid Society will hold 
meetings at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on March 4th and 18th. The 
Committee meet at noon, and the exhibits are open to inspection from 1 to 
4 P-m. The next meeting will be held on April 1st. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 







ORCHID 


PORTRAITS. 


Angrjb 


CUM AUGUSTUM 


.-Gard. 


Chron. 


, 1909, 


This is A. . 
Cyprip 


EDIUM 


i, Rolfe. 
x Earl 


of Tan 




le. — Go 


ioi, fig. 49 


EDIUM 


x Mrs. 


Wm. Mostyn- 


-Journ. 



p. 157, with 

Cypripedium x Our Queen.— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 102, with fig. 

L^liocattleya Elinor.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 120, with suppl. t. 

L^eliocattleya Felicia. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. 100, fig. 40 ; Gard. 
Mag., 1909, p. 101, with fig. 

Lycaste Skinnerl— Garden, 1909, i. p. 99, with fig. 

Odontioda Lutetia. — Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 159, with fig. 

Odontoglossum x ardentissimum var. Phcebe. — Gaid. Chron., 
1909, i. p. 132, fig. 57 ; Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 134, with fig. ; Journ. Hort., 
1909, i. p. 137, with fig. 

Odontoglossum X crispo-Harryanum.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. pp. 
132, 133, fig- 58 ; Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 144, with fig. 

Oncidium corynephorum. — Jrurn. Hort., 1909, i. pp. 91, 92, with fig. 

Oncidium SARCODES.— Journ. Hort., 1909, i. p. 92, with fig. 

SOPHRO-CATT-L^LIA MARATHON VAR. VESUVIUS.— Joum. Hort., 1909, 

i. p. 113, with fig. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

nt if a reply by post is desired (abroad, reply postcards should be used). Subjects of special it 



1 find the characteristic features of C. 
Lueddemanniana (speciosissima) in it. If a seedling, the parentage requires confirmation. 
H. H. Masdevallia triangularis and M. melanopus (not the true M. polysticta). 
H. C B. Unavoidably postponed until next month, with several other matters. 
H. A. Oncidium macropetalum, Lindl. 
Photographs received with thanks. H. H. 
G. S. S. Flowers received with thanks. 

We have received from the Agricultural and Horticultural Association, Ltd., 9 2 > 
Long Acre, London, a copy of the fourteenth issue o( One and All Gardening for 1909, edited 
by Edward Owen Greening. It contains articles on a wide scries of horticultural subjects, 
and is, as usual, profusely illustrated, but we do not find anything about Orchids. The 
price is twopence. From the same source comes two more of the One and All Garden 
Books, entitled " Stocks," by R. P. Brotherson, F.R.H.S., and "Lawns," by W. J. Stevens, 
F.R.H.S. Price one penny. 

Catalogue received.— Fratelli Rovelli, Lago Maggioie, Pallanza, Italy Prezzo Corrente 
pel, 1909, containing a price list of many popular species of Orchids. 



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ORCHID REVIEW: 

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Answers to Correspondents 128 Bulbophyllum campanulatum 100 

Calanthes, noteworthy 101 Sobralia valida 100 

Cycnoches densiflorum (fig. 9) 104 Obituary 125 

Dies Orchidiani ... 101 , OdontiodaBradshawiae,Cookson : svar.(ri-.io 1 13 

Douglas. Mr. Tames. V.M.H 112 Odontoglossum Uroskinneii, leaf spot of in 

Hybridist 105 Odontoglossums from Walton Grange ... 107 

Brassocattleya Siren 105 ! Orchid Culture 122 

Brassocattleya Vesta ... 105 ' Orchid Portraits 128 

Ladiocattleya Arbaces 105 , Orchids in season 123 

Laeliocattleya Electra 106 j Orchids of a Brazilian Island 97 

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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



NOTES ON ORCHIDS OF A BRAZILIAN ISLAND. 
By J. J. Keevil, Santos, S. Brazil. 
The island of Santo Amaro is situated off the coast of Brazil, lat. 23 south, 
long. 46 west. The annual rainfall is about no inches, of which the greater 
part occurs in the summer months of January and February. The 
temperature ranges from 6o° to 95 Fahr., average about 8o°. The relative 
humidity of the atmosphere often exceeds 90 per cent. 

On the south and east it faces the Atlantic, with hilly islets, lovely sandy 
bays and coves, interspersed with steep granite headlands. On the west 
and north it is separated from Santos Island and the mainland by narrow 
sea channels. It is about eighteen miles long by six broad. 

The interior consists of mangrove swamps, granite hills up to 1,000 feet 
high, covered with forest and old raised sandy beaches with low shrub. 

Orchids are abundant, though not easy to find or obtain. The 
professional collector has not so far ravaged them. Woodcutters destroy 
scores daily. Wanton forest fires and obnoxious insects also claim their toll. 
During the summer (October to April), when the majority flower, the woods 
are stifling and steamy ; snakes, poisonous and otherwise, not rare, mosquitoes 
and innumerable microscopic ticks, which burrow under the skin and 
irritate there for days, temper one"s enthusiasm. 

From May to September inclusive the climate is usually perfection. 
Reptiles and insects more quiescent, and the undergrowth less dense, 
enabling an easier transit through the woods. 

Cattleya intermedia, of several varieties, including alba, exists in a 
variety of positions. I have found them occasionally on beds of sphagnum 
(in marshy depressions of raised sandy beaches under the low shrub), which 
shows that nature anticipated man as to this method of cultivation. They 
will colonize a few square yards on the top of a bare granite boulder, 
surrounded by the tide, dashed by spray and subjected to scorching sun and 
every wind. They also exist high on the branches of trees r.000 feet above 

swept, marshy valley, with the ocean at both ends, and a steep granite head- 
land and hill at the sides. In the space of an acre there are many thousands. 



9 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

One has to wade to the knees in mud and swampy water. The gnarled, 
crowded trees are stunted by the wind to a seven foot growth. Every trunk 
and branch teems with sturdy intermedias, their roots stretching to the 
perennial moisture below. In April and May their flowers are resplendent. 

Cattleya guttata prefers the higher trees, which would take hours to cut 
down. Their roots will descend the trunk forty feet or more, and their 
pseudobulbs attain to five feet and corresponding thickness. The perianths 
of different specimens vary in colour from very dark spotted brown to light 
greenish spotted yellow. Some are quite free from spots and of bright brick 
red or a delicate yellow with vein-like markings. 

C. Harrisoniana is found in a similar situation, but is scarce, as also are 
Laelia purpurata and elegans. C. Forbesii favours plentifully the low- 
shrub at the edge of the high tide mark. A few yards inland and on higher 
ground Oncidium barbatum, micropogon and longipes will be discovered. 
O. sarcodes, pubes aurea, and various other Oncidiums, prefer the lower 
trunk of large trees in dense shade, their racemes shooting up yards for more 
light. 

Gongora bufonia likes the fork of a low tree about three feet from the 
ground; another Gongora, whose name I know not, accompanies it. They 
are fertilised by a big blue bee. 

Zygopetalum (Huntleya) Meleagris is not scarce, but like many other 
Orchids is difficult to spot on account of its resemblance at a short distance 
to Bromelias of numerous species, which cover nearly every tree. (Some of 
the smaller Bromelias flower beautifully enough to merit more horticultural 
attention. They should give little trouble in an Orchid house, and roots 
seem superfluous to them). 

Zygopetalum Mackayi (or intermedium) abounds in the sand. I have 
never seen it as an epiphyte, though some books deny it as a ground 
Orchid. When a patch of shrub is burned its pseudobulbs seem to suffer 
little, and it is the first of vegetable life to show green shoots among the 
cinders. 

In sheltered, higher-lying, well-timbered valleys the gorgeous Stanhopea 
insignis will be found, its large and curious flowers giving a faint odour like 
French polish. Why did Veitch and Williams doubt its existence in 
Brazil ? 

Three or more species of Catasetum specialise themselves by their 
needle-like upright air roots, and by preferring a dead tree to a live one. 

Epidendrum fragrans is delightfully easy to obtain, and after Cattleya 
guttata is the most perfumed of local Orchids. Epidendrum Capartianum 
flourishes in many directions. Another Epidendrum of dark bronzed stem 
and foliage gives a large line flower with pure white lip, resembling, if not 
identical with, E. nocturnum. It is self-fertilizing, sometimes forming the 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 99 

pod without the flower opening. A pretty red Epidendrum belies its name 
by plentifully growing in the soil at the edge of the cliffs. Many other 
species of the genus of lesser beauty abound, also Maxillaria, Pleurothallis, 
and other genera, some with very minute flowers and horticulturally un- 
interesting. 

Cyrtopodiums of large dimensions grow in the arid sands, and 
occasionally their glue is used by natives. Two or more species of Vanilla 
start in life as ground Orchids, and after climbing thirty feet or more up 
large trunks, cut off connection with the soil and become epiphytes. 

Sophronitis cernua masses itself round many yards of tall trunks. 
When in flower, the numerous little points of dazzlingly brilliant colour 
excite deep admiration. Tree ferns are beautified in spring and autumn by 
the flowers of Zygopetalum maxillare, which grows on them. 

According to a legend, a ship from the far East, with Phaiusgrandifolius 
on board, was wrecked a few leagues to the south. The Phaius survived, 
and its descendants are to be met with in many directions. 

Amongst the grass there are many flowers resembling Orchis. In the 
woods again, three or more species of beautiful Miltonia and Rodriguezia 
will reward the patient searcher, and on the adjacent higher ranges of the 
mainland, Scuticaria Hadwenii, Colax jugosus, Leptotes bicolor, Bifrenaria 
Harrisonise, Houlettia Brocklehurstiana, Sophronitis grandiflora, S. 
violacea, and many other gems will greet him. 

Well over one hundred distinct species of Orchids exist within a six 
mile radius, but many months of careful toil through pathless dense forest, 
climbs over precipitous granite hills, and plunges into evil-smelling swamps 
are necessary to acquiring an exhaustive local collection. J. J. KEEVIL. 

[We thank Mr. Keevil for this graphic and very interesting account of 
the Orchids of this small islet, which contains several new facts about the 
distribution of Brazilian Orchids. The islet is about 200 miles south-west 
of Rio de Janeiro, and 300 north-east of the island of Santa Catherina, the 
well-known locality of Laeliocattleya X elegans, which it now appears 
occurs also at Santo Amaro. We suspect that the Cattleya guttata 
mentioned is really C. Leopoldi, that being one of the parents of L.-c. X 
elegans. From the facts stated it seems probable that other natural hybrids 
occur there. The doubt about the habitat of Stanhopea insignis alluded to 
probably arose through a confusion made by Lindley. The habitat was 
originally given as S. America only, and Lindley at first confused with it a 
plant collected at Quito, by Humboldt and Bonpland, which he afterwards 
transferred to S. bucephalus. Epidendrum Capartianum is synonymous 
with E. amictum, Rchb. f. We should like to know more about the 
Catasetums and Gongora mentioned, also the name of the bee which 
fertilises the latter.— Ed.] 



ioo THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

NOVELTIES. 

A THIRTY-THIRD decade of New Orchids is described in the last issue of the 
Kcic Bulletin, seven of the species being in cultivation, as follows:— 

Octomeria arcuata, Rolfe. — A Brazilian species, introduced by Messrs. 
Sander & Sons, and flowered at Kew in November, 1908. It is allied to O. 
sarcophylla, Rodr., and has light yellow flowers, with the keels and side 
lobes of the lip, and the column dark red-purple. The leaves become 
purplish on both surfaces on reaching maturity. — Kew Bulletin, 1909, p. 61. 

Oberonia umbraticola, Rolfe. — A Siamese species, allied to O. 
pachyrachis, Rchb. f., and having minute buff-orange flowers, arranged in 
a narrow spike. It was collected at Doi Govtep, in very shady jungle, at 
1,500 m. elevation, and flowered at the Trinity College Botanic Garden, 
Dublin, in November, 1908.— I.e., p. 62. 

Bulboi'HYLLUM (Cirrhopetalum) campanulatum, Rolfe.— A Sumatran 
species, sent from the Brussels Botanic Garden, and flowered at Kew in 
October, 1908. It is an elegant little plant, and the strongly decurved 
united lateral sepals give the inflorescence a campanulate shape, in allusion 
to which the name is given. The lateral sepals are pale pink, with many 
minute darker dots, and the other segments are pale whitish yellow, striped 
and fringed with dark purple. — I.e., p. 62. 

Polystachya stricta, Rolfe.— A species from British East Africa, which 
flowered at the Cambridge Botanic Garden in August, 1903. It is allied to 
P. Rivae, Schweinf.. and has light greenish yellow flowers, with a few faint 
purple streaks on the base and side lobes of the lip.— I.e., p. 63. 

Cycnoches densiflorum, Rolfe. — (Seep. 104 of the present issue). 

Ornithidium bicolor, Rolfe. — A Colombian species, allied to O. 
coccineum, but having bright yellow flowers, with a large crimson blotch on 
the front lobe of the lip. It was introduced by Messrs. Linden, of Brussels, 
who flowered it in June, 1901, and presented it to the Kew collection. It is 
remarkable for producing two kinds of growth, the first an ordinary pseudo- 
bulb, and the second a leafy flowering branch, which produces a succession 
of flowers from the leaf axils, as in O. coccineum. — I.e., p. 65. 

Sobralia valida, Rolfe. — A very distinct species, belonging to a small 
group having an arrested inflorescence, glabrous leaf-sheaths and crested 
veins to the lip, of which only five species were previously known. The 
stems are under a foot high, stout, and the flowers whitish yellow, with a 
deeper yellow band on the lip, becoming orange-coloured in front. A plant 
flowered at Kew in June, 1907, having been received through Messrs. Sander 

Darien Gold Mines, Panama, with a few other Orchids.- I.e., p. (.5. 

The three other species are Eria sou >m<>nknsis, Rolfe (p. 63), a Solomon 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. iot 

Island species of the Eriura group, collected by Mr. C. M. Woodford, and 

said to be a common species there ; Stauropsis Quaifei, Rolfe (p. 64V, a 
native of the New Hebrides, collected at Santo Peak, Espiritu Santo, at 
1,370 m. elevation, by Mr. W. T. Quaife ; and Phal.exopsis YYilsoxi, 
Rolfe (p. 65), discovered in Western China, by Mr. E. H. Wilson, on cliffs 
at 1,200 m. elevation. The sepals and petals are described by Mr. Wilson 
as pink, suffused with purple, and the lip purplish crimson. The leaves, 
which are absent from the Kew specimen, are described as few and small, 
and, owing to the very copious roots, the plant has much of the habit of a 
Dendrophylax. 

Noteworthy Calanthes.— Visiting the gardens of J. P. Laird, Esq., 
J. P., of Oxton, Birkenhead, I noticed some excellent plants of Calanthe 
X Veitchii, the flowering racemes of which, when measured, were 43^ inches 
from base to apex. Throughout the growing season the robust character of 
the plants was generally observed by gardeners, and the flowering phase was 
eagerly awaited to note results. The pseudobulbs are 8h inches- in girth, 
and proportionate in length. The following notes on the cultivation of this 
most useful Orchid were kindly given by Mr. J. Campbell : " Compost 
three parts loam, one of leaves, and one of old cow manure, the remaining 
part made up of equal quantities silver sand and bone-meal. In July the 
pots are top-dressed with loam and bone-meal. Soot water is freely used 
during the growing season.— Journal of Horticulture. 

DIES ORCHIDIANI. 

The long-expected " scarlet crispum " is a step nearer realisation, if not 
already here, for the remarkable Odontioda Bradshawise Cookson's var., 
which received a First-class Certificate from the R. H. S. on March gth, 
goes a long way towards realising that much desired ideal. It is not a 
crispum, and it is not entirely scarlet, but it makes a near approach to both, 
as might have been seen by the illustration given on page 113 if only it 
could have been done by the new colour photography, which may one day be 
available. The scarlet crispum is as ardently longed for as the blue rose, 
and much more likely to be achieved. Congratulations to Mr. Cookson on 
another marked step towards that goal of the Orchidist's ambition. 

From hybrids to Nomenclature is a very short step nowadays, and we 
have now another suggestion for the naming of multigeneric Orchid hybrids. 
Mr. C. T. Druery thinks that a much simpler and more intelligible plan 
might be adopted than any of those already described. It is, however, only 
a modification of the existing one, and consists in shortening the compound 
names already in use, "without, however, sacrificing, for the Orchid expert, 



102 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

their significance." He thinks (Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 171) that "each 
generic name has a single syllable or dissyllable which could be adopted as 
its symbol, and be used in such a way that there would hardly be more 
syllables than genera." He suggests shortening — 

Angulocaste to Angcaste. 

Ancectomaria ,, Haemecta or Anasria. 

Dossinimaria ,, Dossaria. 

Macomaria ,, Macaria or Macria. 

Chondropetalum ,, Chonalum. 

Zygobatemannia „ Zygannia or Batalum. 

Zygocolax „ Zygolax. 

Zygonisia ,, Aganalum or Zygisia. 

Odontioda ,, Cochlossum or Odontoda. 

Odontonia ,, Miltossum or as hitherto. 

In the case of the two trigeneric hybrids he suggests shortening — 

Brassocattlselia to Brassattlia. 

Sophirolaeliocattleya „ Sophrattlia. 
These, he thinks, could be read off instanter, and quite as readily as the 
longer form. 

By a little ingenuity he thinks that even eight genera could be combined, 
and by way of test he gives an example of uniting the first eight genera in 
the list, as follows : — 

" Chondoszygangochaemagalum." 

But whatever does it mean ? If he thinks that any Orchidist, expert 
or otherwise, can read it off or tell its meaning "instanter," without looking 
at the list, he must be very sanguine. True, he admits that it is " bad 
enough," but he considers it " only about half as long as the seven generic 
names combined in the circular as an example of unwieldiness." Here's a 
paragon of moderation ! I think that the authors of that circular have 

I fail to see the improvement in the amended list, either on the score of 
euphony or lucidity. It is true that some of the names are a little shorter, 
but brevity can be purchased too dearly, and the system that can change 
Odontioda and Odontonia into Cochlossum and Miltossum, and call it " a 
step in the right direction," is suggestive of a step backward. It is a 
delightfully free and easy system, too, considering that it provides an 
alternative rendering in six out of the ten examples given. 

Are the recommendations of the Nomenclature Sub-Committee to be 
regarded as merely pious opinions, or as something to be carried into 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 103 

practice ? At the R.H.S. meeting held on March 9th the Orchid Committee 
(so it is reported) gave an Award of Merit to " Brasso-Laslio-Cattleya 
Cooksonii." But in that famous circular, the ink on which had hardly had 
time to get dry, we were recommended to write " Brassocattlselia " (it 
should have been Brassocatlaelia), and "without a hyphen." Is history 
going to repeat itself, or is there some mistake in the report ? (After the 
above was in type came the report that at the next meeting a First-class 
Certificate was given to Sophro-Lselio-Cattleya X Olive. And yet 
" Sophrocatlaelia " is the proper form of the generic name, dating from 1900 
(O.R., viii. p. 354). Perhaps the official report will put things straight). 

The worst of setting up a standard of nomenclature and then not acting 
up to it is that things quickly get into a tangle, and then, when everbody 
begins to cry out about it, and somebody attempts to set it right, he 
generally gets a good wigging for his pains. Years ago the R.H.S. 
appointed a Nomenclature Committee, who after long consideration drew 
up a set of rules, and said the Orchid Committ ee should decline'to recognise 
any name not in conformity with the said rules. But the rules were some- 
times neglected or forgotten, and now that the authors of the Orchid Stud- 
Book have attempted to put some of the names right, the Gardeners' Chronicle 
remarks " such alterations will cause no small amount of unnecessary 
confusion." They cite the change of Cattleya X Lady Ingram into C. X 
Ingrami®, and of Brassocattleya x Digbyano-Mossiae into B.-c. X Veitchii 
(with various others), as examples of the alterations that cause unnecessary 
confusion. But the former change is in accordance with the R.H.S. 
rules — and the Orchid Committee should have refused to recognise the 
other name when they gave an Award of Merit to the plant— and the 
latter change was made on the advice of the Chronicle itself. The hybrid 
originally appeared under the name of Laelia X Digbyana-Mossiae, and 
when it became Leeliocattleya X Digbyano-Mossiae the Chronicle remarked : 
" The generic name is felicitous, but we hope some means may be taken to 
render the specific name less cumbrous." Very good advice, too, and it was 
taken when the plant became Brassocattleya X Veitchii (Q.R., x. p. 83), but 
note the result ! 

They also cite an article from the Vienna rules that " No one is 
authorised to reject, change or modify a name," &c, but overlook the fact 
that it only applies to names which come under the binomial system— and 
even those rules permit the correction of an error. The Chronicle, however, 
concludes by saying " The Stud-Book makes a definite step toward the 
evolution of order out of chaos," and that would not have been possible by- 
leaving things just as they were. Argus. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

CYCNOCHES DENSIFLORUM. 
aber last the Rev. J. C. B. Fletcher, Mundham Vicarage, 
-, sent male and female flowers of a Cycnoches, cut from a plant 
been obtained from Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. a week earlier, 
ugh Low & Co. had also just sent us the photograph reproduced 
which represent- the plant in question. An enquiry as to the 




Fig. 9. Cycnoches densiflorum. 
origin of the plant elicited the information that it was obtained from Mr. J. 
Birchenall, of Alderley Edge, and the latter states that it was collected by 
himself at Simacota, near the River Opon, in Colombia, among some species 
of Mormodes. It proved to be a new species, and has just been described 
under the above name (Rolfe in Kcw Bulletin, 1909, p. 64). The same 



April, 1909] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 105 

photograph has been published under the name of C. maculatum {Gard. 
Chron., 1909, i. pp. 26, 27, fig. 19), but it is not Lindley's plant of that name, 
which is a native of Venezuela, and has larger flowers. C. densiflorum is 
nearer to C. Rossianum and C. peruvianum, but the male inflorescence is 
shorter, and much more dense. As regards habit., shape and structure of 
the flowers, the photograph speaks for itself, and as regards colour it is only 
necessary to add that the female flower is green with an ivory-white lip, and 
the males lighter green with brown spots. The diversity between the sexes 
is remarkable — character of inflorescence, and number of flowers, with their 
shape, size, texture and colour, are so different that nothing short of their 
production upon the same pseudobulb would convince some people that they 
belong to the same species. It is probable that the female inflorescence 
shown weighed more than the male, but this much is certain, one female 
flower was sent with about half the male inflorescence, carrying 23 flowers, 
and the two were carefully weighed on a letter balance, when the female 
flower proved slightly heavier than all the others together. 

It is certainly interesting to obtain both the sexes at the outset, because 
there are several species of which the females are still unknown. In this 
connection Mr. Fletcher makes the very interesting remark : " Two plants 
of C. Egertonianum had both forms of flowers on with me this year." 

R. A. Rolfe. 



THE HYBRIDIST. 

In connection with the continuation of the Orchid Stud- Book, as already 
outlined, we have received from the collection of Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, 
Westonbirt, Tetbury, flowers of a series of beautiful hybrids raised in the 
collection, with full particulars of their parentage, &c, and we now 
place their characters briefly on record. None of them are included in the 
Stud-Book, though a few of them have already been exhibited. 

BRASSOCATTLEYA X Siren.— Raised from Cattleya Skinneri ? and 
Brassavola Digbyana $ , and received an Award of Merit from the R.H.S. 
in December, 1907. The flower is rather larger than in C. Skinneri, and 
bright rose-purple in colour, with a sharply defined pale primrose throat to 
the lip, which is prettily undulate and neatly fringed. It is probably the 
darkest Brassavola Digbyana hybrid yet raised. 

Brassocattleya X Vesta. — Raised from Brassavola glauca ? and 
Cattleya Percivaliana $ , and flowered for the first time in February, 1908, 
but has not been exhibited. It is much like the Brassavola parent in shape, 
and has rose-purple sepals and petals, while the front of the lip is rich 
crimson, the disc orange-yellow, becoming lighter at the sides, and the base 
of the throat reddish. 

L^liocattleya X Arbaces.— Raised from Cattleya labiata ? and 



106 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

L.-c. Cassiope $> and exhibited at the R.H.S. meeting held on March 9th 
last. It has broad lilac-rose sepals and petals, and an open, undulate, rich 

ge behind. It is a hybrid of great promise, and 
should develop into a fine thing. 

L.-c. X Dorothy.— Raised from C. Schrcederse 2 and L.-c. Doris $ , 
and flowered in February, 1908. It was exhibited at the Ghent Quin- 
quennial Show in April following. It has flame-coloured sepals and petals, 
the latter being very broad, and a nearly entire undulate lip, with a very large 
deep yellow area in the throat, while the front lobe is rich purple, and the 
apex of the side lobes somewhat paler. 

L.-c. X Pizarro. — Raised from L. Jongheana 2 and C. Dowiana 
aurea 3 , and flowered in March, 1908, when it received an Award of Merit 
from the R.H.S. It also received a First-class Certificate in February of 
this year. The sepals and petals are bright purple, and much broader than 
in the seed parent, while the lip is mostly deep buff-orange, with the much- 
crisped margin light purple. The disc is veined with dull red. It is a very 
handsome thing. 

L.-c. X Electra. — Raised from C. Trianse 2 and L. X Latona 3 , and 
first flowered in March, 1908. It is said to be producing a great variety in 
shape, size and colouring. The flower sent has the sepals reddish salmon- 
colour, the sepals rather more purple, and the front of the lip rich deep 
purple, rather darker in the throat. 

L.-c. X Radium. — Raised from L.-c. Antigone 2 and C. Warscewiczii 
3 , and flowered during 1908. The sepals and petals are rather elongated, 
and bright purple in colour, and the lip deep purple with a paler throat. 

L.-c. X Tigris. — Raised from L. Cowanii 2 and L.-c. Dominiana d 
and flowered in January of this year. The flowers are medium-sized, with 
deep orange-yellow sepals and petals, and a very undulate nearly entire lip, 
which is much suffused with claret-colour on the sides, and orange-yellow in 
the front and along the disc, with a few crimson streaks. 

Paphiopedilum X Alabaster.— Raised from P. x Godseffianum 2 
and P. X Lasellei (Alcibiades) 3 ■ The flower is of fine shape and great 
substance. The dorsal sepal is white, with a green base, and some purple 
veining up the centre, and again about half way towards the margin; the 
nearly horizontal petals greenish yellow, with lines of numerous dark purple 
dots ; and the lip greenish. It was exhibited at the R.H.S. meeting held on 
January 26th last. 

P. X Bantam.— Raised from P. X nitens 2 and P. X Hera (Euryades) $ , 
and not yet exhibited. It shows a good deal of the original P. villosum 
character, which comes in through both parents. The dorsal sepal is broadly 
margined with white, and the disc marbled with brown on a greenish 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 107 

yellow ground : while the petals arc greenish yellow, lined with brown on 
the upper margin, and the lip suffused with brown in front. 

P. X Beryl.— Raised from P. X Mrs. Wm. Mostyn ? X Beeckmanii 3 , 
and received an Award of Merit from the K.H.S. in December, 1907. 
The dorsal sepal is almost that of a small spotted P. Leeanum ; the petals 
are very broad, yellow on the lower half, brown on the upper, and spotted 
throughout with deep brown, and the lip greenish, mottled with brown in 
front. This plant illustrates the difficulty of dealing with plants of doubtful 
parentage, as both the parents are. In the Stud-Book the seed parent is 
considered a form of P. X Evelyn, and the pollen parent of P. X Berkeley- 
anum (which if correct it must supersede). This would give to P. X Beryl 
a composition of P. bellatulum 3 parts, Boxallii 2, insigne 1, and Spiceri- 
anum 2 (out of eight), and as all four parents can be very clearly traced the 
fact so far confirms the supposed origin. 

Respecting the above hybrids Mr. Alexander remarks : " Each flower has 
a number attached corresponding with the enclosed tickets, which give full 
particulars of each cross, as desired. Under this system all new hybrids 
will in future be forwarded for entry in future instalments of the Orchid 
Stud-Book. It is a great accomplishment, and a useful book that should 
be recognised by all hybridists. I can plainly see why we waited so long 
for it. The work involved in its compilation must have been stupendous." 

Epidendrum X Leda. — Raised in the collection of E. Ashworth, Esq., 
Hareheld Hall, Wilmslow, from E. X Sedeni (Wallisio-ciliare) re-crossed 
with the pollen of E. Wallisii. The sepals and petals are lanceolate, 
acuminate, bright yellow, and i^in. long, while the blade of the lip is 
broadly elliptic-oblong, apiculate, minutely denticulate, iin. long by ^in. 
broad, and primrose-coloured, with a few purple streaks along the centre, 
and a deep yellow crest. Although three-fourths derived from E. Wallisii, 
it shows an approach to E. ciliare in the shape of the petals and sepals, but 
the lip is entire, though very different from that of E. Wallisii in shape. 
Mr. Ashworth remarks that it is still a small plant with a' stem only five 
inches high. 

ODONTOGLOSSUMS FROM WALTON GRANGE. 
A BEAUTIFUL series of Odontoglossums has been sent from the collection 
of W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, by Mr. Stevens, being, 
with one exception, seedlings flowering for the first time. A hybrid from O. 
sceptrum X triumphans has a light yellow ground, densely spotted and 
blotched on all the segments with bright red-brown. It is a very attractive 
flower, and fairly intermediate between the two parents. Another of the 
seedlings from O. cirrhosum X Pescatorei has reproduced the character of 
the seed-parent very closely, having narrow, very acuminate white segments, 



ro8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

prettily blotched with dark purple. This cross might be repeated, to see 
whether the Pescatorei influence would not come out better another time. 
O. crispum X Vuylstekei has a white ground colour, with very large reddish 
claret blotches on all the segments, while the white margin and tips, and a 
pure white area at the base of each segment, gives the flower a very bright 
and attractive appearance. A seedling O. X amabile, has broad, very 
acuminate cream-white segments, with many small chestnut red spots on the 
petals, larger blotches on the sepals, and a crescent-shaped blotch in front 
of the yellow crest of the lip. A seedling of O. X waltonense has a light 
yellow ground colour, with several chestnut brown spots on the sepals, and 
a large blotch on the lip. A seedling of O. crispum has good broad rosy 
sepals and petals, with a red-purple blotch in the centre of each, those on 
the petals being crescent-shaped. The remaining one is an inflorescence of 
O. odoratum, having bright yellow, very acuminate segments, much spotted 
with red brown. It is a Venezuelan species, and is quite distinct from O. 
gloriosum, which has sometimes been confused with it, under the same 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR APRIL. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Cattleyas and Lm lias. —Many of the early-flowering varieties will need 
repotting or top-dressing this month, and this should be seen to as soon as 
they commence to root, for, if left too long, many of the young roots will be 
broken, and growth will be checked. Great care should be taken in turning 
the plants out of the pots, and in most cases the pots will have to be 
smashed, and the pieces carefully removed from the roots. The old material 
must be carefully picked out, and if at all sour the roots will be better 
washed in tepid water. In repotting good sound fern or Osmunda 
fibre should be used, and this should be carefully worked in between the 
roots, and not just crushed down in the pots. If the plants are well rooted 
there should be enough roots to fill the pots when spread out. Pot firmly, 
and keep the material about half an inch below the rim of the pots. Plants 
that have not been disturbed for some time will have several old bulbs 
which are of no use to the plants, and these should be removed, and can be 
used for propagating. The plants must be firmly staked or made fast in 
some way, as if allowed to move about the young roots soon get broken, and 
then they will be more of an eyesore than a success. Back bulbs which are 
required for propagating must, of course, have a good, sound eye, and thus 
should be removed with a piece of the rhizome attached. They should be 
placed in pots filled with crocks and topped with a little moss, and 
placed in a frame where a good heat can be kept. 

In making up specimen plants the back bulbs should also be removed, 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. to 9 

and three leading bulbs left. The pieces should be of about equal strength 
if good results are expected, and the smaller-sized bulbs should be potted in 
a separate pot, and will soon make as fine specimens as the larger ones, and 
can then be dropped into a larger pot without disturbing the ball of com- 
post. In making up specimen pots the young' bulb should be turned 
towards the centre of the pot, not outwards, or the first bulb it makes will 
be over the side of the pot, and then the roots get so easily damaged, and 
the need of repotting again throws the plants back. Each plant must be 
firmly potted and staked so that it does not move about when being 
syringed or staged. When the plants are out of the pots, and all the old 
compost is picked off, they should be examined before being repotted, to see 
that no scale is on the rhizomes. The skin can then be removed, and the 
rhizome thoroughly cleansed, for if scale is left on the plants it soon attacks 
the new growths. Plants that only need top-dressing should have the old 
material carefully picked out, and replaced with fresh Osmunda fibre and a 
little moss. These plants should be staged separately from newly-potted 
plants, so that no mistakes arise in watering. Stage them so that the 
syringe can be used between the pots, either in straight lines or angles, 
whichever the grower prefers. If the plants are sorted out this can easily 
be done by staging pots and plants in their sizes, and syringing both over- 
head and between the pots. This is far better than watering so much, and 
the plants soon re-establish themselves, and there is no danger of getting 
the new compost sodden. 

A good compost can be made with Osmunda fibre or Fern fibre three 
parts, oak leaves (not leaf-mould) one part, and just a little moss, with plenty 
of crushed crocks, and all mixed well together. If the material feels dry it 
should be well damped before use. A good plan is to prepare compost 
several days before it is wanted, and damp it to get it into a nice condition 
for using. Fibre of any kind when used dry needs a lot of water to wet it 
through, and newly-potted plants do not like sodden material, as they have 
not sufficient root action to absorb the moisture from the compost. When 
it is used in a just damp condition there is sufficient moisture to keep the 
plants going for some time with the aid of the syringe either overhead or 
between the pots. 

Chysis are pushing their flower buds, and should be given a little more 
water till the flowers are developed. As the plants flower from the young 
growths they must not be potted until the flowers are over, then they 
should be attended to, and as they make very tender roots delay in potting 
or top-dressing will injure instead of benefiting the plants. They should be 
potted in a compost of good fibrous loam and peat in equal proportions, 
adding plenty of crushed crock and charcoal. Suspend them near the glass 
in the Cattlcya house, and give plenty of water while the roots are active. 



no THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

The tender growths are liable to attacks of thrip, and should be sprayed 
occasionally. Care must be taken not to let the insecticide lodge in the 
young growths, as it will cause them to rot off if left there for any length of 
time. They are very little trouble to grow, and the flowers are curious and 
give beautiful contrasts in colour. 

Catasetums need similar treatment, and should be examined as soon 
as the flowers are past. Their curious flowers always attract attention, and 
the powerful scent is admired by some growers. Cattleya-house treatment 
will suit them, and a compost similar to that advised for Chysis. The light 
and air of the Cattleya house ripens the bulbs well, and they will produce 
good flowers, but if grown soft they will not produce flowers, and the leaves 
will spot. 

A.NGULOAS, or Cradle Orchids, as they are commonly called, owing to 
the peculiar shape of the flowers, arc very curious, and always attract a 
good deal of attention, though one does not often see them exhibited now. 
The more showy hybrids seem to be replacing many of the old species, yet 
in their way many of the latter are more beautiful. A showy flower one 
sees all at once, but with many Orchids the oftener one looks at them the 
more beautiful they seem. These should also be grown in the Cattleya 
house, in a nice sunny position. Care must be taken not to let water lodge 
in the growths when they are just starting, or they soon damp off. They 
like plenty of syringing when further developed, and the water cannot then 
lodge in the growths. A compost of loam and peat suits these, and the 
material should be kept below the rim of the pot, as they like an ample 
supply of water when in full growth, and plenty of sunshine. 

Cycnoches, or Swan Orchids, are also very interesting, and the flowers 
give off a powerful perfume. They are interesting flowers to most people, 
whether Orchid growers or not, as the formation of the flower and the 
resemblance of the column to a swan's neck always arouses interest. They 
require Cattleya house treatment, and if suspended near the glass will give 
abundance of flowers. They should be potted as soon as they commence to 
grow, and not after they flower, for the flowers appear after the bulbs are 
made, and then the plants rest for the winter. Plump back bulbs should 
not be removed, as they will often push out spikes, although to look at they 
appear useless. These also like a peat and loam compost, and plenty of 
water and syringing in their growing season. 

Cypripediums which were potted early will be getting nicely rooted 
now, and should be given an ample supply of water and well syringed over- 
difficult class of Cypripede to get on with, but very satisfactory when once 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. til 

the right place is found for them, and a little care taken with watering in the 
winter months. They should not be syringed so heavily or watered as much 
as other Cypripedes, nor do they need so heavy a shading. A similar 
shading to that used for Cattleyas will suit them, and plenty of air during 
the summer months. 

Damping down must be done frequently, or thrip will soon become a 
nuisance ; it also helps to keep the pots from drying so rapidly. Walls and 
pathways should be thoroughly saturated during the hot weather. 

Ventilation.— Houses can be more freely ventilated after March is out, 
as we do not get such keen winds, but care must be taken not to chill the 
houses. Commence early in the morning with a little air, and not leave the 
houses shut up until they get hot and then put a lot on, as a sudden check 
is more harmful than too much heat. 

Temperatures should be kept as even as possible at night, allowing 
enough fire heat to maintain the proper figures. These should run about as 
follows at night : Stove or East Indian House, 70 ° : Cattleya house, 65 ; 
Intermediate house, 6o° ; Odontoglossum house, 55 . Allow from 5 to 
io° rise during the day time, the latter when sun heat is available, but at 
other times the former will suffice. 



LEAF-SPOT OF ODONTOGLOSSUM UROSKINNERI. 

An interesting and important account of the well-known spot-disease of 
Odontoglossum Uroskinneri, by Mr. M. C. Potter, M.A., F.L.S., has just 
appeared {Garcl. Chron., 1909. i. pp. 145, 146, fig. 62-65). A fter describing 
the appearance of the affected leaf, and its microscopical structure, Mr. 
Potter remarks : " In the leaf-spot of Odontoglossum there was no sign of 
any fungus to be found. But special staining and examination under a 
high power of the microscope revealed the presence of numerous bacteria. 
These occupied notably the cells surrounding the tissues in the initial stages 
of gum formation, and could be seen almost filling the cavity of the cells. 
Although the subject requires further investigation, it is probable that these 
bacteria have some destructive action upon the protoplasts, and that from 
this action results the escape of the cell contents, and their conversion into 
the gummy substance, filling up the intercellular spaces. . . . 

" Attempts have been made to induce the disease upon healthy plants 
by inoculation with bacteria isolated from the diseased leaves, but have been 
unsuccessful. It must be remembered, however, that infection is often 
critical and uncertain, and depends upon conditions sometimes difficult to 
approximate. It has been noted that the spot is more prevalent when 
the plant is grown in a very moist or almost saturated atmosphere, and 
in such conditions it is very liable to spread. In a dry atmosphere, on the 



II2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

contrary, the spot does not increase, and if a plant affected with it is 
removed to a drier atmosphere, the spot already developed is checked. . . . 

" Clearly bacteria play a considerable part in the development of the 
disease and the formation of the gum, but unsuitable cultural conditions 
are also largely responsible for its prevalence in the first place. This Orchid, 
in its native habitat, Guatemala, exists at a high elevation, in cool, shady 
places. Cultivation in too moist and, possibly, too heated an atmosphere 
produces conditions which are inimical to the health of the plant." 

The materials investigated were from the collection of Mr. Norman C. 
Cookson, who also communicated the observations upon the effect produced 
by a change in cultural conditions. 



Mr. James Doit. las, V.M.H.— An interesting biography of this veteran 
horticulturist appears in the Journal of Horticulture for March 4th, and 
among other things it points out that Orchid growing is included among 
his many activities. " Many of his older friends can also recollect his 
specimen Orchids. The one he appears to have been proudest of was a 
magnificent plant of Miltonia vexillaria with .;(><> ilowers. This was figured 
in some of the gardening papers, the Journal of Horticulture among them. 
It was purchased in a thumb pot, so that Mr. Douglas deserved all the 
credit due to him as the cultivator. In several successive seasons he annexed 
the £20 prize for a selection of sixteen Orchids : and won several prizes for 
Orchids at the opening of the Royal Aquarium. Yet his only houses were 
one for Cattleyas, 30ft. long, and another for cool Orchids, 15ft. in length. 
It is known to very few indeed that through the instrumentality of Mr. 
Douglas, who was then on the Council of the Royal Horticultural Society, 
the foundation of the Orchid Committee in March, iNNq, was due. It had 
been brought to his notice that great dissatisfaction prevailed at the manner 
in which certificates were awarded to Orchids by the Floral Committee, 
who had hitherto adjudged them. It was said, with good reason, that many 
men upon that body were voting against Orchids the precise merit or value 
of which they were not in a position to judge. Mr. Douglas urged the 
importance of a change, and suggested an Orchid Committee ; and the 
other members of the Council concurring, the new body was duly instituted. 
Mr. Douglas became one of its first members. He continued upon this 
Committee until Richard Dean's death caused a gap in the ranks of 
the Floral Committee, and as it was thought advisable to add a 
florist of long experience, an invitation was extended to our veteran, who 
accepted. As he is also a member of the Scientific Committee, he has sat 
on every committee except that of the Narcissus and Tulip, which perhaps 
constitutes a record." Laelia X Briseis and Laetiocattleya x Apollonia are 
also included among plants submitted and certificated in his name. 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 113 

ODONTIODA BRADSHAWI/E, COOKSON'S VAR. 

At the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society held on March 9th last, 
a First-class Certificate was awarded to Odontioda X Bradshawiae Cookson's 
var., a very handsome hybrid raised in the collection of Norman C. Cookson, 
Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chapman). A photograph and 
flower have been forwarded by Mr. Cookson, who remarks : " The photo 
shows the exact size of the flowers when taken, and was carefully checked 
with callipers. The cross is a good typical O. crispum 2 X Cochlioda 
Ncetzliana 3 . It is curious that the reverse cross, with O. crispum 
Graireanum as the pollen parent, should give very much smaller flowers, 




Fig. 10. Odontioda Bradshawiae, Cookson's var. 
with no spotting or blotching, and showing much of the seed-bearing 
parent's influence, whereas with a good-sized, well-shaped, typical crispum 
(unspotted and unblotched) as seed-parent, a fine crispum-shaped Odontioda 
should be the result." Mr. Chapman writes : " This is the only occasion 
that we have been fortunate enough to get a seed vessel on any Odonto- 
glossum, species or hybrid, but with the Cochlioda as seed-parent there is 
little difficulty in getting seed. In fact it rarely fails when intercrossed 
with Odontoglossum or Oncidium. The plant flowered about three years 
from sowing the seed, but O. X Bradshawiae Oakwood var. (C. Ncetzliana 



ii 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

? X O. crispum Graireanum <? ), was four years old when it flowered. 
This is a purely scarlet flower, less than half the size of the other. I am 
giving you this information because the impression has got about that O. c. 
Graireanum is one parent of the certificated plant. The first flower opened 
on February 23rd." 

The photograph is reproduced exact size, and shows the remarkable 
character of the variety. The greater part of the flower is taken up with 
the cinnabar-scarlet blotches, but the tips and margins of the sepals and 
petals are light purple, the two colours being seperated by a narrow irregular 
band of light yellow. There are also a few light yellow markings at the 
base of the petals. The crest of the lip is bright yellow, and the rest of the 
ground colour paler, while the markings are cinnabar-scarlet. The back of 
the column and the distinctly-toothed wings are brownish-red. It is a 
very great horticultural acquisition, and should encourage further 
experiments. 

SOCIETIES. 
Royal Horticultural. 
There was a remarkably fine display of Orchids at the Royal Horticultural 
Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on March gth last, and the awards 
consisted of one Gold and five other Medals, five First-class Certificates, 
two Cultural Commendations, two Awards of Merit, and one Botanical 
Certificate. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a remarkably fine group, to which the Society's Gold Medal was 
awarded. It consisted largely of hybrid Dendrobiums raised in the collec- 
tion, Phaiocalanthes, Spathoglottis, Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, and 
numerous interesting rarities, with a very good clump of Epidendrum X 
O'Brienianum and E. X Boundii, brightening up the centre. Among note- 
worthy forms may be mentioned the beautiful Dendrobium X Lady Colman, 
D. X Duchess of Albany, a pretty blush white form, D. X Purity, white 
with a dark purple disc, D. x sulphureum, a pretty yellow form, D. X 
Goldfinch, D. X Thwaitesise, D. X chessingtonense Gatton Park van, D. 
X Cybele Gatton Park var., a cluster of the chaste D. nobile virginale, D. 
n. Cooksonianum, the rare D. tetragonum, the beautiful Cymbidium X 
Lady Colman, a yellow form of Sophronitis grandiflora, Bulbophyllum 
comosum, Epidendrum polybulbon, and numerous other interesting things, 
the whole forming a most brilliant display, and affording a fine example of 
good culture. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chap- 
man), received a First-class Certificate for Odontioda Bradshawiae Cook- 
son's var. (Odontoglossum crispum (typical) $ X Cochlioda Noetzliana <?),a 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 115 

magnificent hybrid, having the typical crispum shape, with the greater part 
of the sepals and petals cinnabar-scarlet, and the tips and margins of the 
segments cream-white, freckled with rose, the lip blotched and marked with 
red on a cream white ground, and the crest yellow. A second form, called 
Oakwood var., had the flower almost uniform reddish scarlet, with a yellow 
crest. He also sent Odontoglossum X percultum Oakwood var., a fine 
white, beautifully blotched with purple. 

F. M. Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), 
received a First-class Certificate for Cattleya Trianae Grand Monarch, a 
very large and finely shaped form, having rosy-lilac sepals and petals, and 
the front of the lip purple-crimson, with an orange throat, and some dark 
lines at the base. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham Hill (gr. Mr. Black), 
received a First-class Certificate for Sophrocattleya Thwaitesii (S. grandi- 
flora X C. Mendelii), a very beautiful hybrid, most like the Cattleya in 
shape, and having the sepals and petals carmine-red, and the lip yellow, 
with a bright red margin and apex. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
received an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum X Wiganianum, a pretty 
white flower with clusters of dark red-purple blotches in the centre of the 
sepals and petals, and the crest of the lip yellow, with some red-brown 
markings. He also sent the finely blotched O. crispum Carmania. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, sent Cypripedium X W. 
Hopkins, a distinct and striking form. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent Cattleya 
Schrcederas The Prince, a very pretty variety, and Odontioda Goodsoniae, a 
very beautiful hybrid of doubtful origin. It had a large rosy-red flower, 
with some irregular cream-coloured markings on the upper part of the 
segments, and the crest of the lip yellow, with some red markings in front. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), sent Laeliocattleya Arbaces (C labiata X L.-c. Cassiope), a very 
handsome hybrid, with rosy lilac sepals and petals of good substance, and 
the lip rich rose-purple, and very much crisped in front. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Rusper (gr. Mr. Salter), received a Cultural 
Commendation for a magnificent plant of Ccelogyne cristata alba, covered 
with flowers. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), received 
a Cultural Commendation for a sturdy plant of Cymbidium insigne, bearing 
•three fine spikes. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged an excellent group 
•of choice things, which gained a Silver-gilt Flora Medal. It contained a 
•brilliant series of Odontoglossum X armainvillierense, and other good forms, 



n6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

the brilliant Odontioda Cravenise and O. Bradshawiae, the pretty yellow 
Lseliocattleya Katie, L.-c. Sheila, Cattleya X Empress Frederick, Brasso- 
cattleya Veitchii Queen Alexandra, and other fine things. A First-class 
Certificate was given to Brassocattleya Cliftoni magnifica (B.-c. Veitchii X 
C. X Trianae Uplands var.), a very large and beautiful form, having the 
segments silvery white, tinged with rose, and the broad, well-fringed Jip 
ruby-crimson in front. An Award of Merit was given to " Brasso-Laelio- 
Cattleya" Cooksoni (Brassolaelia Gratrixise X C. Dowiana aurea), a very 
pretty hybrid, having yellow flowers tinged and veined with copper -colour, 
and the lip fringed. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
very fine group, containing a good series of Cattleya Trianae, one very beau- 
tiful white form being called Queen Alexandra, Zygonisia Sanderi (Aganisia 
lepida X Zygopetalum ?), a very pretty hybrid having cream white flowers 
heavily blotched with violet, and many good Odontoglossums, the more 
noteworthy being O. X Hebe (Lindleyanum X Rolfeae), O. X Helenus 
(harvengtense x Coradinei), having primrose-yellow flowers densely spotted 
with cinnamon-brown, O. X Solon (Adrians X ardentissimum), a fine 
white, heavily blotched with purple, O. X Thalia (Andersonianum x 
exceilens), a bright canary-yellow flower, regularly spotted with red-brown, 
and O. x Verona (Adrianae X Vuylstekei), a pretty cream-white flower, 
well spotted with chestnut-red. Among imported plants was a fine light 
yellow flower most like O. triumphans, but with a broad, fringed lip, having 
a large chestnut blotch in front of the crest. A First-class Certificate 
was given to Cattleya Schrcederae Mrs. F. Sander, a large and beautiful 
white variety, and a Botanical Certificate to Chytroglossa Marileoniae, a 
pretty Brazilian Orchid whose history was given at page 159 of our last 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
fine group, including Dendrobium nobile virginale and other Dendrobiums, 
varieties of Cattleya X Trianae, Aerides Vandarum, Cymbidium X Hol- 
fordianum, C. X Wiganianum, Odontoglossum crispum Queen Victoria, 
Cypripedium X auriferum, &c. 

Messrs. Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a good group of Cattleya Trianae, Odontoglossum Cervantesii, and other 
good Odontoglossums, Epiphronitis Veitchii, Aerides Vandarum, Sophro- 
nitis grandiflora, Cypripedium X Milo Westonbirt var., and others. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont St. Amand, Ghent, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group of hybrid Odontoglossums, Cattleyas, 
and Cypripediums. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, sent a good group of 
Odontoglossums, Cymbidium eburneum, C. X Woodhamsianum. Laeha 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 117 

Jongheana, Cypripedium callosum Sanderae, C. glaucophyllum, C. X 
aureum Surprise, and others. 

Mr. W. P. Horton, Cravenhurst, Seaford, sent a good group of Dendro- 
biums, Odontoglossums, and Cypripediums. 

Mr. H. A. Inness, Croft Spa, Yorks, sent a good Lycaste Skinned alba, 
a fine dark Masdevallia Chimaera, and two light forms of Cattleya Trianae. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, sent a very good group, including 
varieties of Cattleya Trianae, Laeliocattleya callistoglossa, Brassocattleya 
Thorntoni, Odontoglossum crispum, O. Pescatorei, O. triumphans, and 
some good examples of Cypripedium X Countess of Carnarvon. 

At the meeting held on March 23rd there was a fine display of Orchids, 
though not much in the way of novelty, and the awards consisted of ten 
Medals, three Awards of Merit, and two Cultural Commendations. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. Alexander), 
received a Silver Flora Medal for a choice group, including Cattleya Trianae 
Empress of India, a beautiful white form with the front of the lip mauve- 
purple, Laeliocattleya Tarquinius (L.-c. callistoglossa X C. Schilleriana), a 
large and brilliantly-coloured hybrid, L.-c. Tigris (L. Cowanii X L.-c. 
Dominiana), and various other hybrids. There were also two remarkable 
Cymbidiums, C. X eburneo-Lowianum, with 32 spikes and 115 flowers, the 
best of them bearing seven, and C. X Lowio-eburneum Westonbirt var., 
with 19 spikes and 91 flowers, and for these Cultural Commendations were 
given to Mr. Alexander. Awards of Merit were given to Dendrobium X 
Schneiderianum Westonbirt var. (aureum X Findlayanum), a very beautiful 
variety, most like D. Findlayanum in shape, the colour white, with rosy 
tips to the segments, and the disc of the lip deep orange-yellow, and to 
Brassocattleya Digbyano-Mendelii perfecta, a model flower, of delicate 
blush-pink tint, with the disc of the lip cowslip yellow. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a fine group of Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, Odontoglossums, 
and others, noteworthy among them being a pretty albino form of Laelia 
Jongheana, called Nellie Blanche, white, with the disc of the lip orange- 
coloured, a form of Odontioda Goodsoniae, with the flowers uniformly red, 
Cattleya Sohrcederae The Prince, Odontoglossum crispum Ernest Henry, 
white, with violet-purple blotches, and other good things. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
received an Award of Merit for " Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya Olive " (Sophro- 
laelia Psyche X Cattleya X Enid), a promising hybrid bearing a three- 
flowered inflorescence, the flowers being reddish-mauve, with deep yellow 
markings on the lip. He also sent the brilliant Sophrolaelia Psyche fcr 



n8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Northchurch, sent a hybrid Cypripedium of 
doubtful parentage, having greenish ground colour, blotched with dark 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent a 
fine form of Odontoglossum X Lambeauianum. 

Mrs. Haywood, Woodhatch, Reigate (gr. Mr. Bassett), sent two hybrid 
Dendrobiums. 

Mrs. Temple, Leyswood, Groombridge (gr. Mr. Bristow), sent two light- 
coloured forms of Lycaste Skinneri. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver-gilt Medal for 
a very beautiful group, consisting largely of Dendrobiums and Odonto- 
glossums, the varieties of O. crispum, both white and spotted, all being of 
excellent quality, and remarkably well grown. A seedling from O. c. Franz 
Masereel had deep violet-purple markings, and was very beautiful. Other 
noteworthy things were examples of O. Pescatorei, O. Hallii, O. X 
Ruckerianum Pitt's var., a beautiful variety of O. crispum of the Lady Jane 
type, with some fine examples of O. Edwardii, and many others. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, including four beautiful examples of Angraecum 
modestum, with graceful pendulous racemes of white flowers, the handsome 
Ccelogyne Sanderae, Phalaenopsis X Lady Rothschild (intermedia X 
Sanderiana), a very pretty hybrid, having delicate blush-white flowers, 
Maxillaria praestans, Lseliocattleya Hypatia and others, a good plant of 
Phragmopedilum caudatum Lindenii, bearing six of its remarkable flowers, in 
which the lip is represented by an ordinary petal, Odontoglossum X 
Thompsonianum Charlesworth's var. (crispum X Edwardii), a very fine 
form with claret-purple flowers tipped with lilac, Brassocattleya Digbyano- 
Schrcederae Bradshawiae, a beautiful white form, and other handsome 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, including numerous well-grown Dendrobiums, some 
fine forms of Cattleya Trianae and Schrcederae, a good C. Mendelii, 
Epiphronitis Veitchii, some good Sophronitis grandiflora, the handsome 
Cymbidium insigne, the rare Bulbophyllum tremulum, with a hairy lip» 
approaching that of B. barbigerum, Notylia bipartita, Odontoglossums, 
Brassocattleyas, &c. 

Messrs. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a good group of Dendrobiums, &c, including some very pretty hybrids 
one called D. X Austin being very large and richly coloured. It also 
included the plant known as D. Donnesiae, like a large-flowered form of D. 
infundibulum. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, received a Silver 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 119 

Banksian Medal for a good group of Cattleya Schrcederse, Odontoglossum 
crispum, and others. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a choice group, including the dark violet Bollea 
coelestis, Cymbidium insigne, C.X Holfordianum, Odontoglossum cordatum, 
the rare Bulbophyllum miniatum, with feather-like lip, some good Sophronitis 
grandiflora, Dendrobiums, Cypripediums, &c. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont-St.-Amand, Ghent, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a group of hybrid Odontoglossums, with two plants of the chaste 
white Cattleya X Suzanne Hye de Crom. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for an interesting and pretty group, including some good Dendrobium 
crassihode, D. c. album, Cymbidium Schrcederianum, Phragmopedilum 
caudatum Lindenii, Eria monostachya, a rare Javan species with whitish 
flowers, E. densiflora, Polystachya pubescens, Hexadesmia fasciculata, and 
various other botanical rarities. 

Messrs. A. J. Keeling & Sons, Bradford, sent a good Odontoglossum 
apterum (nebulosum), and examples of glass tubes used for storing Orchid 
pollen. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
Only a moderate number of exhibits were staged at the meeting held on 
March 4th. The Committee sat as follows : Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chair- 
man), Thorp, Ward, Cowan, Keeling, Warburton, Holmes, Upjohn, 
Ashton, and Weathers (Sec). 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged an excel- 
lent group of Odontoglossums, one of which, called O. X Beaute-Celeste 
var. " Oxo," gained an Award of Merit. I noted also many varieties of O. 
crispum, white and rosy types, O. X Phoebe, O. X Adrians, O. gloriosum, 
O. Hunnewellianum, O. X Rolfeas, also several fine plants of Dendrobium 
Wardianum, Oncidium olivaceum, &c. The group was awarded a Silver- 
gilt Medal. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged an interesting 
and varied group which, being divided for "Cup" purposes, gained two Silver 
Medals and one Bronze Medal. A fine Cypripedium X Euryades var. King 
Edward VII., gained a First-class Certificate. Other noteworthy plants in 
the group were C. X aureum Hyeanum, C. X Minos Youngii, C. X 
Leeanum Hercules, C. X Beeckmanii, Phragmopedilum X grande atratum. 
Leliocattleya X Captain Percy Scott, Odontoglossum X harvengtense, O. 
crispum, and various Dendrobiums. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), sent a 
very pretty group, chiefly Odontoglossums, which gained two Silver Medals. 



120 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

I noted Odontoglossum X Japonais, O. X Rolfeae, O. crispum, 0- 
triumphans, Odontioda Bradshawiae, &c, with a few Dendrobiums, including 
D. Wardianum album, D. nobile Ballianum, Cymbidium concolor, Lycaste 
Skinneri alba, Cypripedium X Minos Youngii, C. X Titian, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), sent a good 
group of Cattleyas of good quality, many varieties of C. Triana;, C. 
Schrcederae, &c. (Silver Medal). Cattleya Trianse var. Lowiae, a richly- 
coloured flower, gained an Award of Merit. 

J. Stott, Esq., Radcliffe, sent a small group of Cypripediums, mostly C. 
villosum and C. X Lathamianum, for which he received a P^ronze Medal. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury, sent a good plant of Cypri- 
pedium X Beeckmanii. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, sent Laelia anceps var. Schrcederiana. 

Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, staged an excellent miscellaneous 
group of Cypripadiums, Odontoglossums, &c. O. x Lawrenceanum Dis- 
tinction gained an Award of Merit. I noted a distinct O. X Rolfeae, a 
good O. X Adrians, O. X altum, O. X percultum, Dendrobium X Wiganias 
xanthochilum, Cypripedium x Maudiae, C. x Olga Bagshaw, &c. (Silver- 
gilt Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, sent a small but 
interesting group, including Dendrobium x Wiganise, Scaphyglottis Behrii, 
Pleurothallis ornatus, and many others of botanical interest. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, sent several varieties of 
Odontoglossum crispum, Cypripedium x Thompsoni, C. X Charlesianum, 
C. insigne Sanderianum, C. i. King Edward, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent an Odontoglossum triumphans 
with rich dark markings. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, gained Awards of Merit for Odonto- 
glossum crispum Supreme and Cypripedium X Actaeus Robson's var. He 
also sent Odontoglossum x armainvillierense xanthotes. 

At the meeting held on March 18th, the room was well filled with 
exhibits, several of the groups being specially interesting. The Committee 
present were Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), Thorp, Cowan, Ward, 
Warburton, Sander, Upjohn, Shill, Keeling, Holmes, Collier, Ashton, 
Parker, and Weathers (Sec). 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart, Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), sent 
about fifty plants of very choice varieties of Dendrobiums. The remarkably 
fine D. X Lady Colman, a flower of fine form and size, is probably one of 
the best hybrids yet raised, while for colour effect D. X Sybil is hard to 
displace. I noted several varieties of D. x Thwaitesiae, also I), x chessing- 
tonense, D. X Wiganise, D. x Cybele, Gatton Park var., a very fine, D. X 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 121 

Rubens, D. X Eleanor, and many others. All were well grown and 
flowered, and attracted much attention. A special Vote of Thanks was 
awarded by the Committee. 

O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), sent a splendid 
group of miscellaneous plants, including some excellently-grown Lycaste 
Skinneri, ranging from deep crimson to pure white, one bulb bearing sixteen 
flowers and buds. I noted also Oncidium Weltoni album and the ordinary 
form, several well-flowered plants of Cypripedium Rothschildianum, C. 
villosum, C. X Maudiae, fine specimen pans of Laelia Jongheana, &c. The 
group was awarded a special Vote of Thanks. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a fine group, 
which contained some good Cypripediums, Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, &c. 
O. crispum " Lucie-Marie," O. c. " Hofer," and O. x armainvillierense 
var. Vanguard, all gained First-class Certificates. The plants were only 
small, and carried one flower each, which was of excellent shape and size, 
the blotches being very solid and dark. O. c. Brutus received an Award of 
Merit. Cattleya Schrcederae var. " Ulysses " and C. Percivaliana, "Little 
Gem," each gained a First-class Certificate. A good plant of Dendrobium 
Bancroftianum, bearing several trusses of white flowers, gained a First-class 
Botanical Certificate. Included in the group were Cypripediums x Minos 
Youngii, X Maudiae, X Beeckmanii, X Euryades, &c, several well-flowered 
Odontoglossum crispum, &c. Two Silver-gilt Medals were awarded. 

J. Talbot Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float) sent a fine group 
of seasonable plants, which gained a Silver Medal. I noted Odontoglossum 
bictoniense and O. Edwardii, both well-flowered, a beautiful little pan of the 
rare O. (Erstedii, carrying a dozen flowers, Odontioda heatonensis, Den- 
drobium dixanthum, D. Wardianum album, Laeliocattleya X Dominiana, 
and many others. 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), sent a bright 
group of Odontoglossums. O. crispum Meteor received an Award of Merit. 
Very effective for decorative work are O. X Elaine and O. X Phcebe. I 
noted strong plants of O. Hallii, O. luteopurpureum, O. X Adrianae, 
O. crispum, O. Pescatorei, O. X Beaute-Celeste, &c. (Silver Medal). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a group 
of Cattleyas, which included varieties of C. Schrcederae, C. Trianae, and 
Laelia hybrids, and gained a Silver Medal. C. Trianae Lucifer and C. T. 
Fascinator gained Awards of Merit 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), sent a group of 
Cypripediums, which gained a Silver Medal. Cypripedium X Alcibiades 
var. Illustrious, a flower with a very broad dorsal sepal, received a First- 
class Certificate. I noted the fine C. X Rajah, C. X Victor, C. x Venus, 
Rann Lea var., C. X Leonora, C. X Euryades New Hall Hey var., &c. 



i22 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, sent a small group, which was awarded a 
Bronze Medal. The chief things were Lycaste Skinneri alba, Odonto- 
glossums, Cypripediums, &c. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), sent 
Odontoglossum x Japonais var. Fletcheri and O. X J. ashlandense, both 
gaining Awards of Merit. 

Rev. J. Crombleholme, Clayton-le-Moors (gr. Mr. Marshall), received 
an Award of Merit for Cypripedium X apiculatum var. atratum. 

J. Leemann, Esq., West Bank House, Heaton Mersey (gr. Mr. Smith), 
sent the fine Cattleya Trianae West Bank House var., a flower of fine pro- 
portion and highly coloured. 

Messrs. Low & Co., Enfield, sent a nice group, in which I noted a 
richly-coloured form of Cymbidium insigne (Sanderi), C. X Holfordianum, 
Dendrobium crassinode album, D. nobile virginale, D. x Wiganianum, 
and several varieties of Cypripedium X aureum (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, staged a pretty and effective 
group, in which I noted well-flowered plants of Odontoglossum X Wilcke- 
anum, O. sceptrum, O. luteopurpureum, Dendrobium nobile Ballianum, 
Dendrochilum glumaceum, Sophronitis grandiflora, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a quaint and 
botanically interesting group, including Cypripedium Dayanum, C. Bullen- 
ianum, C. glaucophyllum, C. venustum, Masdevallia Shuttleworthii, 
M. Arminii, &c. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent three good varieties of 
Cattleya Trianae. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Gt. Horton, Bradford, staged a group of Cypri- 
pediums, which gained a Bronze Medal. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent a few choice plants, including a fine 
hybrid Odontoglossum from O. crispum Graireanum X Rolfese, and 
another from O. c. Madouxianum X Rolfeae, O. X ardentissimum albens, 
and Cypripedium x Leoniae Highfield var. (Vote of Thanks). 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent the rare and quaint Uropedium 
Lindenii, which was awarded a First-class Botanical Certificate. 

H. Thorp. 

Orchid Culture.— On Friday, the 12th inst., Mr. W. P. Bound, late 
of Gatton Park, Reigate, lectured before the Beckenham Horticultural 
Society, on "Orchid Culture." A very full audience eagerly and atten- 
tively followed the lecturer through a splendid extempore discourse, lasting 
for upwards of an hour. If one thing more than another was insisted on, 
it was the constant propagation of Orchids, so that at all times one had 
youth and vigour. It was pointed out how futile it was to expect fine spikes 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. T23 

of flower of Phloxes or Delphiniums from old plants, with their centres all 
decayed ; and Mr. Bound reasoned that in a similar way to taking off the 
outside wherewith to form vigorous plants, so, by taking off the "leads" 
of Cattleyas and Odontoglossums at the proper time, (i.e., when the young 
growth is well started), with one or two back bulbs attached, they soon 
make vigorous plants under good management. The lecturer has weaned 
himself from using moss in the potting compost for Cattleyas, and now uses 
and recommends fibre and crocks only, with a bit of moss on top. Mr. 
Bound showed a sample of this fibre, which seemed exceedingly tough and 
lasting. A very hearty vote of thanks was accorded both lecturer and 
chairman.— T. C, in Journal of Horticulture. 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

Two beautiful Orchids are sent from the collection of G. Hamilton Smith, 
Esq., Finchley. Lycaste Skinneri var. Mrs. G. Hamilton Smith is a very 
fine form, having very broad elliptical sepals and petals, the former being 
nearly 2 J inches across. The sepals are blush pink, and the petals rosy 
purple, while the lip is marked with crimson on a cream-coloured ground. 
Mr. Coningsby remarks that the plant was imported about eighteen months 
ago, and is carrying three flowers and two buds, and is by far the best form, 
both for size and shape, that they have yet flowered. The other is a very 
beautiful form of Odontoglossum X Andersonianum, with pure white 
ground colour, and large dark purple blotches. Both are plants to be taken 

The three upper flowers of a light yellow, well-spotted form of Odonto- 
glossum X Andersonianum is sent from the collection of W. R. St. Quintin, 
Esq., Scampston Hall, Rillington, to show the change of colour effected by 
fertilisation, one flower having a bright yellow ground colour. Mr. Puddle 
remarks that two days after opening he fertilised a flower with the pollen 
of O. nebulosum, the result being to change the flower to a deeper yellow, 
and the effect on a spike of seventeen flowers was very remarkable, as all 
remained fresh. We have noticed the same effect on other plants of O. X 
Andersonianum when a flower has been accidentally fertilised by some 
insect, and it is independent of the nature of the pollen used. Fertilisation 
seems to have the effect of intensifying the yellow colour lent to the hybrid 
by the O. gloriosum parent. 

Two pretty Laeliocattleyas are sent from the collection of E. F. Clarke, 
Esq., Teignmouth. A seedling from Laslia Cowanii X Cattleya Trianae is 
a form of Laeliocattleya Oriens, though it differs from the original in having 
a deep red-purple front lobe to the prettily undulate lip, while the side 
lobes are also margined with a lighter shade, and the disc deep yellow. 
The sepals and petals are light yellow, with a slight buff tinge. The seed 



i2 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

was sown in June, 1903. The other is a form of L.-c. Myra, and was pur- 
chased from Messrs. Charlesworth, in 1900, as a small seedling, with the 
parentage C. Trianse formosa X L. flava. It has light yellow flowers, with 
the front lobe of the lip reddish-maroon, much crisped, and margined with 
light yellow. 

Dendrobium X Ainsworthii var. Mary McCartney is a beautiful white 
variety, with a rich purple-maroon, slightly feathered disc to the lip. A 
flower has been sent from the collection of J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, 
Bolton, by Mr. Holmes, who remarks that it was raised from D. nobile 
Cypheri X D. heterocarpum philippinense. Lgelia X Marjorie is a pretty 
little hybrid from the same collection, which is said to have been raised 
from L. praestans X L. flava, and was exhibited at a meeting of the Man- 
chester Orchid Society on March 18th last. It should be a form of L. X 
Flavina (L. praestans being a form of L. pumila), but it differs so completely 
in colour that there is a doubt if the two can be identical. L. X 
Flavina has a primrose yellow flower, with an orange-yellow disc 
to the lip, while L. X Marjorie has purple sepals and petals, smaller than 
L. pumila, but otherwise similar, the undulate lip is yellow, with some 
reddish-purple marking and veining on the front, and there are four obtuse 
keels in the orange-coloured throat. It remains to be proved if both are 
forms of the same hybrid. Mr. Holmes remarks : " We have now in 
flower 150 fully expanded Cattleya Trianse and Schrcederae, one of the latter 
with an inflorescence of five grand flowers, while some have six spikes of four 
flowers each ; also a fine lot of Dendrobium Wardianum in bloom. 

Two secondary hybrid Paphiopedilums are sent from the collection of 
O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury, by Mr. Rogers. One is from P. 
villosum aureum X Buchanianum, and flowered for the first time in 
March, 1908. It bears a certain resemblance to P. X Lathamianum, but 
the flower is smaller and more yellow, while the petals as well as the 
dorsal sepal show a dark purple band down the centre, a character 
derived from the pollen parent, which is a hybrid from P. Spicerianum 
and P. Druryi, both of which have the dark band in the dorsal sepal, 
while in P. Druryi it is only present in the petals. The second hybrid is 
from P. X Measuresianum Amesianum X exul, and flowered for the first 
time in March, 1909. It is most like the latter in general character, and 
bears distinct purple blotches on the dorsal sepal. The influence cf P. 
villosum is chiefly seen in the villous ovary. 

A fine form of Dendrobium X Ainsworthii is sent from the collection of 
James Geddes, Esq., The Lodge, Red House, Ascot. It has blush-pink 
sepals and petals, and a very large feathered reddish maroon disc to the 
lip. It may be referred to D. X Ainsworthii splendidissimum. 

A Cattleya is sent from the collection of Sir John Edwards-Moss, Roby 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 125 

Hall, Torquay, which was purchased some months ago as C. Percivaliana, 
and which it is said to resemble in its bulbs and narrow leaves, though the 
segments, and especially the lip, are more elongated. We suspect that it 
is an anomalous form of the species, and it would be interesting to know 
if it was imported with it. 



OBITUARY. 

Edward Shuttleworth. — The death is announced of Mr. Edward 
Shuttleworth, who was well known to the older generation of Orchidists as 
a collector of Orchids and other plants, originally for the late Mr. William 
Bull. After some time spent with Messrs. Knight & Perry, at Chelsea, he 
entered the service of Mr. Bull, afterwards taking charge of the collection 
of G. H. Bunney, Esq., of Stratford. When that was dispersed, in 1872, he 
again entered Mr. Bull's service, and in the following year was sent to 
Colombia on a collecting expedition, during which, and on subsequent trips, 
he sent home quantities of Cattleyas, Masdevallias (including several new 
species), Odontoglossums, and various other Orchids, &c. Later on he was 
in partnership with the late Mr. John Carder, under the title of Shuttle- 
worth, Carder Sc Co., and afterwards with Mr. J. Charlesworth, as 
Charlesworth, Shuttleworth & Co. Some fifteen years ago he retired. Mr. 
Shuttleworth had been ill for a considerable time, and his death took place 
on March 5th, when he was in his eightieth year. He was interred at 
Mortlake on March nth. His name is commemorated in Masdevallia 
Shuttleworthii, Stanhopea Shuttleworthii, and two or three other things. 

MEGACLINIUM BUFO AND M. EBURNEUM. 

It is interesting to record that the singular Megaclinium Bufo, which for so 
many years was only known from the original description, has been 
re-imported, and singularly enough, intermixed with another species only 
recently described, of which the habitat was unknown. M. Bufo was 
originally described by Lindley, from an inflorescence sent to him by Messrs. 
Loddiges, and of which a drawing was made. It is said to have been 
introduced from Sierra Leone. The plant itself was not described, and for 
a long time nothing more was heard about it. Not very long ago a plant of 
it flowered at Glasnevin, though I do not know its origin. In 1907 some 
Orchids were sent to Kew from the Gold Coast, by Mr. J. Anderson, of the 
Agricultural Department, and when the other day one of them flowered it 
was a source of great satisfaction to recognise in it the long-lost plant. But 
a different inflorescence was also pushing up in the clump, and this proves 
to be M. eburneum, Pfitzer {Orchis, ii. p. 134), described from the 
Lichtenstein collection, at Eisgrub, a species allied to M. leucorachis, Rolfe, 
but having smaller ivory-white flowers, with a tinge of yellow at the apex of 



126 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

the dorsal sepal and petals. The rachis is also ivory-white, narrow, and the 
flowers rather crowded. The flowers of M. Bufo are arranged at distant 
intervals on a much broader rachis, and are green, spotted with dull brown, 
while the lateral sepals are greenish-white, with very minute dusky dots. 
Its history has already been given (O.R., viii. p. 293). The vegetative organs 
are very similar in the two species, the pseudobulbs being oblong, 4-angled, 
with two oblong leaves, those of M. eburneum four to five inches long, and 
those of M. Bufo about five to eight inches. R. A. Rolfe. 



Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent-square, Westminster, during April, on the 6th 
and 20th, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. The following meeting will be held on May 4th, and the 
subject of the afternoon lecture will be Mendel's Law and its Application 
to Horticulture, by Mr. C. C. Hurst, illustrated by lantern slides. 

Three meetings of the Manchester and North of England Orchid 
Society will be held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, during April, on 
the 1st, 15th, and 29th. The Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits 
are open to inspection from 1 to 4 o'clock p.m. 

The remarkable group of Phalsenopsis Schilleriana, for which Messrs. 
Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Gold Medal from the 
R.H.S. on February 9th last, is illustrated in the Gardeners' Magazine for 
February 20th (p. 146). It is very well pointed out that no such group has 
previously appeared there. 

R. H. S. Orchid Committee. — Some interesting Orchids have appeared 
at recent meetings, which are mentioned in the following report : — 

January 26th, 1909 : — 

Cattleya malformed. — A flower of a Cattleya having three stamens 
and a much reduced perianth was received from Mr. Gurney Wilson, and 
referred to Mr. Saunders for further examination. 

February 9th, 1909 : — 

Malformed Orchids. — Mr. Saunders reported that the flower of 
Cattleya Trianse referred to him from the last meeting showed three perfect 
stamens surrounding the pistil, three very short and regular petals, and 
three sepals shorter still. Mr. Saunders showed drawings illustrating these 



-Mr. Gurney Wilson exhibited specimens 
t albinism in Uendrobiums. He found that 



April, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 127 

Dendrobium nobile murrhiniacum crossed with D. n. Ballianum gave seed- 
lings almost exactly like typical D. nobile. D. n. virginale, which when 
selfed gives quite white seedlings, when crossed with D. Findlayanum 
gives D. X Cybele, all the seedlings being alike, and no light forms being 
among them. Similarly, Dendrobium Wardianum album crossed with D. 
nobile album gives all coloured flowers. Such " reversions " to coloured 
forms are becoming very common. 

February 23rd, 1909 : — 

Malformations in Orchids.— Mr. Gurney Wilson, F.L.S., sent the 
apical portion of a pseudobulb of Dendrobium nobile bearing a shoot from 
which roots had grown as in a vegetative shoot, and a flower, the lateral 
petals of which were coloured like the labellum. He also sent a dimerous 
flower of D. nobile, with the lip suppressed and the two lateral sepals 
coherent. A Cypripedium from Sir Jeremiah Colman having two dorsal 
sepals was also shown. 

Mendelism in Orchids. — Mr. R. A. Rolfe showed flowers the result of 
crossing Epidendrum evectum and E. xanthinum. The former of these is 
purplish in colour, the latter yellow. The first cross gives E. x kewense, 
and flowers of this were shown. Seedlings had been raised from E. X 
kewense after self-fertilisation, and of these, one which flowered earlier was 
practically a reproduction of E. X kewense, while of two others (flowers of 
which were shown) one showed partial reversion toward the purple E. 
evectum, the other toward the yellow E. xanthinum. He also showed the 
result of recrossing E. X kewense with the original parent, E. evectum, the 
resulting plant having a purple flower not quite so dark as the latter parent, 
and said that E. X kewense re-crossed with E. xanthinum gave a more 
yellow flower than E. X kewense. Other plants of the crosses were yet to 

March 9th, 1909 : — 

Beetle in Stem of Vanda teres.— Mr. G. S. Saunders reported that 
he had examined the stem of Vanda teres sent to a recent meeting of the 
Committee, and found that the beetle boring into it was a species of 
Xyleborus, not a native, nor, so far as can be ascertained, recorded as 
occurring in Europe up to this time. The plants attacked were sent by 
Mr. Rogers from a greenhouse at Bury, Lanes. 

Aberrant Orchid.— From Mr. G. W. Miller, of Wisbech, came a 
specimen of Cypripedium Pitcherianum, Williams' var., with a well- 
formed double lip. 

Orchid Hybrids. — Mr. H. J. Chapman showed Odontioda Bradshawise, 



i28 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [April, 1909. 

Oakwood var., raised by crossing Cochlioda Ncetzliana with Odontoglossum 
crispum var. Graireanum. The flowers showed no trace of blotching, but 
were almost of one shade of colour throughout. Another form, Odontioda 
Bradshawise Cookson's var., raised from a typical white Ondontoglossum 
crispum X Cochlioda Noetzliana, had a deep mauve margin to the brick-red 
segments, and showed distinctly the deeper-coloured blotches upon the 
lighter ground colour. The difference in colour and markings in these two 
varieties forms an interesting problem in heredity. 

We learn that Mr. F. W. Ashton, who has been with Messrs. Hugh 
Low & Co., Bush Hill, Enfield, as Orchid traveller since 1905, is 
leaving them on March 31st, 1909, and will cease to represent them 
in future. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Angr^cum sesquipedale.— Gartenfl., 1909, p. 55, fig. 4. 

Brassocattleya Cliftoni magnifica.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 219, 
220, with fig. 

Bulbophyllum Dayanum.— Gard. Chrou., 1909, i. p. 194, fig. 82. 

Cypripedium X Bridgei magxiitcum.— Journ. Hort., 1909, i. p. 229, 
with fig. ; Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 184, with fig. 

Dendrobium X Schxeideriaxum, YYestoxbirt var.— Gard. Mag., 1909, 

LiELIOCATTLEYA LUSTRE VAR. GIGANTEA. Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. l68, 

with suppl. t. 

Odontioda Bradshawle, Cookson's var.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 
p. 174, fig. 73; Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 211, with fig. ; Journ. Hort., 1909, i. 
p. 252, with fig. ; Garden, 1909, i. p. 137, with fig. 

Odontioda Goodsoxle.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. pp. 194, 195, fig. 83. 

Odontioda Lutetia. — Journ. Hort., 1909, i. p. 207, with fig. 

Odontoglossum x Rolfe^e.— Gartew/L, 1909, p. 57, t. 1580. 

Odontoglossum x tripudians x Pescatorei Charlesworthii. — 
Orchis, 1909, p. 10, fig. 1. 

Vanda Watson i. — Rev. Hort. Beige, 1909, p. 90, with fig. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

T. H. C. Odontoglossum x Anderson ianum, a form with very elongated s 

A. E. B. A good Odontoglossum Andersonianum, with clear white ground. 

G. W. B. L., L. H., and others. Next month. 

G. H. H. Odontoglossum pulchellum. 

J. H. Unavoidably postponed until next month. 

Catalogue received. Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath. This n 
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Albinism in Dendrobiums 
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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE ORCHIDACEZE. 

Orchids are universally acknowledged to rank amongst the most singular 
and most modified forms in the vegetable kingdom. ... An examina- 
tion of their many beautiful contrivances will exalt the whole vegetable 
kingdom in most persons' estimation. — Charles Darwin. 

The celebration of the Darwin Centenary at Cambridge during the 
coming summer affords a fitting opportunity for a review of what is known 
respecting the evolution of the Orchidaceae, on a study of which some of 
Darwin's conclusions were based, and which furnished the materials for one 
of his most fascinating books, On the various contrivances by which British and 
foreign Orchids are fertilised by Insects, and on the good effects of intcrci ossing. 
That work appeared 43 years ago, and since that time our knowledge of the 
family has made great progress, though much still remains to be done before 
we can claim to have an adequate idea of its origin and progressive 

One might look to the geological record for some clue to the origin of 
the family, but this is practically blank. It is true that Protorchis and 
Palasorchis have been described from fossil leaves found in the Eocene beds 
of Mt. Bolca, Italy, but it is quite doubtful whether they belong to 
Orchidaceas at all, and there is no trace of Orchids in the remarkable Amber 
flora, which is also of tertiary age. We are thus limited to such evidence as 
can be obtained from existing representatives of the family, and here there 
are ample materials to work with, and a remarkably diversified range of 
structure, both floral and vegetative. 

The family Orchidaceas is the largest among Monocotyledons, and owes 
its peculiarity largely to the irregular development of the flower, which takes 
the form of suppression of some of the parts and the union of the remainder 
into two compound organs, the lip and the column, giving the flower a high 
degree of complexity. The ovary is inferior, and the seeds numerous and 
very minute, with a reticulated seed-coat, and a quite rudimentary embryo. 
Orchids belong to the most highly specialised group of Monocotyledons, 
known as Microspermeae, characterised by the inferior ovary, petaloid 
perianth, and numerous minute seeds with rudimentary embryo. It is 



, 3 o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

divided into two families or Natural Orders, Burmanniaceae and Orchidaceae, 
the former with regular or actinomorphic flowers, and seeds containing 
endosperm, the latter with the flowers irregular or zygomorphic, and the 
seeds without endosperm. The latter is by far the larger and more highly 
specialised. 

The most primitive of existing Orchids is the genus Neuwiedia, contain- 
ing some half-dozen species, two of which flowered at Kew a few years ago, 
and were figured in the Botanical Magazine, N. Lindleyi (t. 7368), with 
yellow flowers, and N. Griffithii (t.7425), with white flowers. At the first 
glance they scarcely look like Orchids at all, on account of the free stamens 
and linear anthers, but they have all the essential characters of the Order, 
and in fact Neuwiedia with two other small genera, Apostasia and Adactylus, 
form the small tribe Apostasieae. It is true that some authors have 
considered them a distinct Natural Order, but if this view were accepted it 
would be necessary to make the Cypripedieae another distinct Order, it 
being much nearer to Apostasieae than to the great Orchidaceous suborder 
Monandrae. In point of fact Apostasieae is a tribe of ancestral Orchids. . 

The primary division of the Orchidaceae is into the suborders Diandrae 
(sometimes called Pleonandrce) and Monandrae, the former having two or 
three perfect anthers, and the latter normally only one. There are other 
essential differences. For example, in the Diandrae the pollen grains are 
not aggregated into pollinia as in the Monandrae, nor is there a rostellum. 
The rostellum is a later adaptation, and its function is to secrete a viscus 
by which the pollinia are secured to the bodies of the insects which fertilise 
the flowers. 

The suborder Diandrae is divided into two tribes, Apostasieae and 
Cypripedieae, the former having a three-celled ovary, a nearly regular 
perianth with subequal segments, two or three more or less elongated 
anthers, the pollen dry, and the style slender, straight, with a minute three- 
lobed stigma ; while in the latter the perianth is irregular, with very unequal 
segments, one of them, the lip, developed as a pouch-like organ, the anthers 
globose, the pollen grains cohering into a sticky mass, and the stigma 
dilated and shield-shaped, while above it is situated a second shield-shaped 
body, called the staminode. The ovary may be either three-celled, as in 
Apostasieae, or one-celled, as in Monandrae. 

It is very interesting and instructive to compare the structure of 
Neuwiedia with such a complex flower as Stanhopea, but equally difficult to 
understand the relationship of some of the parts without tracing the 
successive steps by which this high degree of specialisation has been 
reached, and to this point the present article is largely devoted. It is only 
in this way that we can hope to understand the numerous beautiful 
adaptations which are met with in the Order. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 131 

Neuwiedia looks more like some Amaryllidaceous plant than an Orchid, 
owing to its free stamens, elongated versatile anthers, and slender straight 
style. The perianth is nearly regular, and continent into a narrow tube, 
which is inserted obliquely on the pedicel, while the lip is petal-like. Thus 
the flower owes its irregularity chiefly to the fact that three of the six 
stamens are absent, and these all on one side of the flower. The stamens 
present are the median one of the outer staminal whorl, and the lateral 
pair of the inner whorl. The flower is evidently fertilised by insects, 
though no details are known. In Apostasia, the next genus, there are only 
two stamens, the median one being reduced to a filament-like staminode, 
which is partly united to the back of the style, while the anthers are 
obliquely attached to a short filament and unequal at the base. The 
perianth is nearly regular, and the segments rather more spreading than in 
Neuwiedia. In Adactylus the perianth agrees with Apostasia, but the 
median stamen is entirely suppressed, and the anthers are cordate, and 
equal at the base. 

In Cypripediese a higher degree of specialisation is reached, but the plan 
of the flower is identical with that of Apostasies. The lip has become 
transformed into a pouch-like organ, formed by the union of the median 
petal with a pair of petaloid staminodes, representing the two lateral 
stamens of the ottter staminal whorl (which are suppressed in Apostasiese) 
The lateral pair of the inner whorl are fertile, as in the preceding tribe, but 
have become globose in shape, and are borne upon a well-developed 
column, while the pollen grains cohere together in a sticky mass. The 
median stamen of the outer whorl is modified into a shield-shaped 
staminode, which is placed just behind the opening of the pouch, and the 
stigma is also shield-shaped, and situated on the underside of the column. 

The flowers, so far as known, are fertilised by bees, which enter the 
mouth of the pouch, crawl up the tube past the stigma, and make their exit 
at the lateral openings situated at either side of the base, opposite the 
anthers. In crawling out their backs become smeared with the sticky 
pollen, some of which is left on the stigma of the next flower visited. The 
whole flower is beautifully adapted to secure cross-fertilisation by suitable 
insects, and to exclude others whose visits would not secure this end. The 
insects are only known in a few cases, but without them seeds are not 
produced, and the inference is obvious. 

The tribe contains four genera, Selenipedilum, containing three tall 
reed-like plants, with small flowers, a three-celled ovary, a persistent 
perianth, and crustaceous seeds, as in Vanilla ; Phragmopedilum, differing 
in its stemless habit, conduplicate leaves, larger flowers, deciduous 
perianth, and fusiform, reticulated seeds; Cypripedium, with one-celled ovary, 
deciduous habit, plicate leaves, and persistent perianth ; and Paphiopedilum, 



1 3 2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

differing from the preceding in its evergreen habit, conduplicate 
leaves, and deciduous perianth, and from all the others in having an 
imbricate (not valvate) perianth. The two first are Tropical American, 
and have the ovary of Apostasies, the third is widely diffused through the 
North temperate zone, and the last extends from North India and South 
China through Malaya to New Guinea. The tribe is in a transition state, 
for the two latter genera have the ovary of Monandrse. Selenipedilum is 
probably not in cultivation, the species so-called in gardens really belonging 
to Phragmopedilum. 

We now come to the great suborder Monandrse, characterised by the 
possession of a single stamen— the median one of the outer staminal whorl. 
The simple pollen grains of the Diandrae are now left behind, and we find 
them cohering in fours (tetrads), or the contents of each pollen sac cohering 
in masses, called the pollinia. Correlated with this character we find that 
the third stigmatic lobe (the median one) is modified into a totally new 
organ, the rostellum, whose function it is to secrete a viscus by which the 
pollinia are attached to the body of the fertilising insect, and to prevent 
them from falling on to the stigma of the same flower. The stamens and 
pistils are confluent into a central column, and the two lateral stamens of 
the inner whorl are only present as staminodes, which usually take the form 
of a pair of wings or teeth, situated at the sides of the stigma, while those 
of the outer whorl are confluent with the median petal, forming the lip and 
its crests. It is believed that the third stamen of the inner whorl is also 
frequently represented in the crests of the lip. These characters may be 
regarded as common to the suborder, but there are other phases of 
complexity which will be mentioned under the different groups in which 
they are found. These must be left for a later paper. 

R. A. Rolfe. 
(To be continued.) 



AN ANOMALOUS CYPRIPEDIUM CAPSULE. 
Last year, in the collection of G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Under Fell, Burton, 
Westmoreland, on a plant of Cypripedium X Eve, the flower of which had 
been fertilised, I noticed on the base of the seed capsule, a small leaf, which 
kept growing, and after a time made a second leaf. I tied some moss on 
the flower stem underneath the leaf; and in about a month a young root 
was pushing through the moss. After sowing the seed I placed the lower 
portion of the seed capsule, with the young growth attached, in a pot with 
a little loam and moss, and now it is showing another root, also a third leaf. 
I should be glad to know if any of your readers have had a similar experience. 
J. Herdman. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 133 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

Several beautiful flowers are sent from the collection of H. S. Goodson, 
Esq., Fairlawn, Putney, by Mr. Day. There is a good form of Odontioda 
Bradshawise measuring over 2.\ inches across, and having broad cinnabar 
red sepals and petals, the latter with three or four whitish lines near the 
base, the lip margined and blotched with cinnabar-red, on a pale ground, 
and the crest and disc bright yellow. Another, called Odontioda " Ernest 
Henry," is said to have been derived from Cochlioda Noetzliana and 
Odontoglossum X Queen Alexandra, and received a First-class Certificate 
from the'R. H. S. on April 6th. The flower measures over two inches 
across, and has broad sepals of an almost uniform dull claret-red, inclining 
to brown, with an orange-coloured crest. He also sends a very fine, well- 
blotched Odontoglossum X Lambeauianum, O. X L. Goodson's var., a 
large and handsome form, with good forms of O. crispum and O. x armain- 
villierense, a very fine O. X Rolfeae, a good Cattleya Mendelii and flowers 
of the handsome Phaius X Marthas, and a larger, much lighter form, called 
Goodson's variety. 

Several beautiful flowers are sent from the collection of J. J. Neale, Esq., 
of Penarth, and among them three pretty forms of Odontoglossum X Adrianse, 
two having a light yellow ground, the third white, and all regularly spotted 
with brown on each of the segments. Two forms labelled O. crispum have 
a clear white ground, with regular red-brown blotches on all the 
segments, and may be forms of the same hybrid, which they closely 
resemble except in having a more crispum-like lip. In one case the column 
wings are entire. This hybrid may be described as quite confluent with 
O. crispum. A flower of O. X loochristiense is also enclosed, and Mr^ 
Haddon remarks that this and all the other forms just mentioned have 
flowered out of an importation of O. crispum. Other pretty Odonto- 
glossums enclosed are O. cirrhosum Klabochorum, sceptrum, pulchellum and 
maculatum. There is also a spike of the pretty rose-coloured Arpophyllum 
giganteum, which in shape resembles a lamp brush, a richly-coloured Phaius 
grandifolius, Masdevallia caudata, a flower of the interesting Cirrhopetalum 
Wendlandianum, a near ally of C. Collettii, the brilliant Renanthera 
Imschootiana, Lgelia Cowanii, Dendrobium thyrsiflorum and chrysotoxum, 
Cattleya Skinneri and Lawrenceana, Epidendrum X O'Brienianum, and a 
small yellow-flowered Polystachya from West Africa. 

A noble form of Odontoglossum crispum is sent from the collection of 
J. H. Grogan, Esq., Slaney Park, Baltinglass. It measures 3! inches from 
tip to tip of the petals, themselves barely under i| inches across, and the 
sepals over \\ inches. The shape is nearly circular, and all the segments 
are prettily crisped. The petals are pure white, and the sepals tinged with 



1^4 TH£ ORCHID REVlZW. [May, 1909 

pink, and bearing two purple blotches, while the lip has one large blotch in 
front, and many small ones on either side of the crest. 

A flower of the very handsome Cattleya Schroederse The Baron, which 
received a First-class Certificate from the R. H. S. on April 6th, is sent 
from the collection of Lt.-Col. G- L. Holford, Westonbirt, Tetbury, by Mr. 
Alexander. It has delicate blush-pink sepals and petals of perfect shape, 
and a broad zone of light purple in front of the orange-coloured disc of the 
lip. A flower of Cattleya X Robert de Wavrin, which received an Award 
of Merit on the same date, is also sent. It is said to have been obtained 
from C. Schroederse X Schilleriana, and has rose-pink sepals and petals, the 
latter being very broad, and a quite entire rosy lip, with somewhat darker 
veins in front of the orange-coloured disc. The resemblance to C. 
Schrcederse is unmistakable, but we cannot trace the influence of C. 
Schilleriana in the flower. 

Flowers of a handsome Dendrobium, purchased as D. Pierardi at a sale 
of newly-imported Burmese Orchids, are sent by Dr. Otto N. Witt, Berlin. 
It is D. lituiflorum, a more slender species than D. nobile, and with a longer 
tube to the lip, while the colour is much like D. n. nobilius. It is rare in 
cultivation. 

Three forms of Cattleya Mendelii are sent from the collection of G. 
Hamilton-Smith, Esq., Finchley. C. M. Gloria Mundi has rosy lilac sepals 
and petals, and the front half of the lip bright amethyst-purple, while the side 
lobes are white and the disc yellow. It was purchased at the Westfield sale. 
A second, purchased at Messrs. Protheroe's Sale Rooms, with the varietal 
name The Queen, is lighter in every respect, though of similar type. The 
third is a larger flower, with petals measuring 4^ by 2f inches, and the lip 
rather elongated, and rosy-purple, with lilac-coloured veining. 

HORMID1UM PSEUDOPYGM^EUM. 
A curious little Costa Rican Orchid has just flowered at the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Glasnevin, which apparently belongs to Hormidium pseudo- 
pygmaeum, a species described from that country in 1899 (Finet in Bull. 
Herb. Boiss., vii. p. 121). It is allied to H. uniflorum, Heynh., a plant 
which was figured in the Botanical Magazine (t. 3233), but differs in having 
longer pseudobulbs, which are cylindrical at the summit, rather larger 
leaves, and in having the flowers borne in a short spike. The flowers are 
white with a few red markings on the lip. The species was collected in 
Costa Rica by Tonduz, and flowered with M. Barbey at Perriere in 1898. 
The Glasnevin plant was obtained from Mr. J. O'Brien in August, 1901, as 
Epidendrum sp. from Costa Rica. Hormidium was placed as a section of 
Epidendrum by Lindley, but raised to generic rank bv Bentham. 

R. A. R. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 135 

ALBINISM IN DENDROBIUMS, 

The facts underlying the production of albinos are sufficiently perplexing. 
It is now well known that albinos of distinct species or races, even if 
remaining constant when self-fertilised, frequently revert to coloured forms 
when intercrossed, but there are other cases where the union of coloured 
forms results in the production of albinos. One of the latter came before 
the Scientific Committee of the R.H.S. at the meeting held on April 6th. 
Flowers were sent from the collection of R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Streatham, 
which had been obtained from Dendrobium x Wiganiae and D. X Thwaitesiae 
crossed in both cases with D. X Wiganiae xanthochilum, all the parents 
being yellow, but the hybrids in each case white, with a zone of purple on 
the disc of the lip. Mr. Thwaites wrote that six plants of the former had 
flowered, and three of the latter, all having similar features, and he added : — 
" You will notice that the pollen caps and flower pedicels are also white. 
I feel sure that it would be quite useless to use those flowers for obtaining 
white hybrids, and it may be that the unsuccessful attempts to obtain white 
flowers from apparently white parents is due to coloured parentage some- 
where behind the flowers used. These and other results, though apparently 
confusing, may later on assist in throwing light upon the albinism question, 
as notwithstanding the mass of contradictions which are appearing, I feel 
sure there is some logical law relating to it." 

NowD. X Wiganiae is a hybrid from D. nobile (purple with dark maroon 
disc to the lip) crossed with D. signatum (yellow), and has buff yellow 
flowers, with a dark brown disc to the lip, and D. X Thwaitesiae is a hybrid 
from D. X Wiganiae and D. X Ainsworthii (D. nobile X D. aureum), the 
latter having light yellow flowers with a deep brown velvety disc. D. X 
Wiganiae xanthochilum is a brighter yellow form from the same capsule 
as D. X Wiganiae. Thus we can scarcely call the case before us one of 
reversion, but rather a problem as to how it is that in some cases the union 
of purple with yellow gives white. This often occurs when D. nobile is 
crossed with D. aureum, as witness the white forms of D. X Ainsworthii, 
but not when crossed with D. signatum, for we have no white forms of D. x 
Wiganiae ; yet in the cases now before us it cannot be due to the influence of 
D. aureum, for that species is not represented in D. X Wiganiae, and the 
albinism is equally pronounced in each case. The pollen parent was 
identical in each, but that does not help us to understand the phenomena. 
Nor does a Mendelian interpretation throw any light on the matter, for the 
first cross mentioned is simply the " Fi" generation, to use the Mendelian 
notation, being simply the union of two seedlings out of the same capsule, 
and the albinism extends to all the six seedlings that have yet flowered. 
The " cause " of this curious behaviour is at present a mystery, but it would 



i 3 6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

be very interesting if Mr. Thwaites would try to self-fertilise one of the 
seedlings and let us know the result. There is nothing like following up the 
case if we are to find a clear path through what at present seems like a 
forest of contradictions. R. A. R. 

VANDA CCERULEA. 

This lovely Vanda is seldom seen at its best condition when under cultiva- 
tion. It is found on the dry, grassy slopes of the Khasia Mountains in 
Eastern India, in the neighbourhood of the Brahmapootra, at an elevation 
of 4,000 feet above sea level. The plants are found in great numbers on oak 
trees, which are small, gnarled, and sparingly leafy, so that the Vandas are 
fully exposed to the sun, air and wind. The atmosphere is humid, especially 
during the rainy season, but at no time is it fully saturated with moisture. 
The plants cling, by their roots, tenaciously to the rough, dry bark, and 
often completely cover the boughs. In the flowering season the tempera- 
ture averages 70 , and the atmosphere during the day-time is dry, but in 
July and August, when rains are frequent, the temperature is a little higher, 
whilst in winter it falls much lower. Under these conditions of summer 
heat, autumn drought, and dry, cool air of winter, the most beautiful of 
Indian Orchids flourish, such as Dendrobium Devonianum, D. Dalhousi- 
anum, D. Farmeri, also species of Coelogyne, Bulbophyllum, Cymbidium, 
and a few species of Cypripedium. — F. Newman, in Gard. Chron., 1909, i. 
p. 194. 

[We believe that most of the importations of recent years have come 
from the Shan States of Upper Burma. Of course the climatic conditions 
are similar, and should be taken into consideration by cultivators. — Ed.] 



SOBRALIA RUCKERI. 

Some time ago a handsome Sobralia was exhibited by Messrs. Duchesne 
Lanthoine & Co., Watermael, Brussels, under the name of S. Lanthoinei 
(Trib. Hort., 1908, p. 608). It is said to have been introduced from 
Columbia, in 1903. A specimen was sent and proves to belong to S. 
Ruckeri, Lindl., a very handsome species whose history has already been 
given {O.R., xii., p. 184). It received a First-class Certificate from the 
R.H.S. in May, 1904. It grows in the Ocana district, at 5,000-6,000 feet 
elevation. The species is allied to the Peruvian S. rosea, and belongs to a 
group that is very seldom seen in cultivation, in which the inflorescence is 
somewhat elongated and flexuose, and the flowers are borne in the axils 
of spreading bracts. The flowers of S. Ruckeri are large and handsome, 
the colour bright rose-purple, with a darker lip, and some yellow and 
white in the throat. R. A.R. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 137 

BRASSOCATTLEYA SUSANN/E. 
A photograph of this handsome Brassocattleya has been sent by Mr. E. 
O. Orpet, South Lancaster, Mass., with the following note:— 

"The photo enclosed is taken from the initial flowering plant of a cross 
between Cattleya X Thayeriana ? and Brassavola Digbyana 3 . It is, 
we think, the first plant raised to flowering age in this country with B. 
Digbyana as a parent. 7 - It was exhibited before the Massachusetts Horti- 




of Merit. The flowers are about five inches across, of a pearly pink, 
well expanded, and had been in bloom a month before being exhibited, 
. showing their inherited durability from C. X Thayeriana. The seed was 
sown in 1901." It is a handsome thing, and an analysis of parentage shows 
that it is derived from B. Digbyana \, C. intermedia ±, and C. Schrcedera; \, 
and it may be described as intermediate between B.-c. Cordelia and B.-c. 
langlevensis, which if crossed would yield a hybrid of identical composition. 



138 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

BOTANICAL ORCHIDS. 

A correspondent who is much interested in Botanical Orchids would like 
us to devote an article to the subject, and with this we gladly comply, 
though it is a little difficult to know precisely what is intended. The term 
is somewhat elastic, and in its widest significance would include every Orchid 
that finds its way into cultivation, however insignificant. But there are 
many species that are not showy enough to be grown generally for decorative 
purposes, or that are unsuitable for cut flowers, but yet possess very 
attractive qualities— grace of form, quaintness of structure, fragrance, beauty 
of colour or markings, or a combination of these characters — and are indeed 
exquisite little plants when well grown. They are perhaps best comparable 
with alpine plants among hardy flowers. 

They are no monopoly of botanic gardens, as witness the magnificent 
collection at Burford— and others could be mentioned. But they are 
generally grown as supplementary to, not instead of, a general collection, 
and their selection is to a great extent a matter of taste and opportunity. 
The amount of space at command and the nature of the houses have also 
to be taken into consideration. Many, however, take up very little room, 
and are as easily grown as their more showy neighbours, so that anyone 
with a liking for them can soon find plenty of suitable subjects, and also 
discover the kind of treatment necessary. 

These interesting little plants sometimes turn up in the most unexpected 
places, for in passing through an ordinary collection something will 
occasionally be pointed out that was " found upon the roots of some 
imported Cattleya " or " Dendrobium," and is promoted to the dignity of a 
small pan or basket of its own, and suspended on some convenient wire — at 
all events until it blooms. 

Many interesting plants are picked up in this way, and among them we 
recall a plant of the exquisite little Eria extinctoria, which was found on an 
imported Dendrobium at Clare Lawn, and many other cases could be 
mentioned. When plants are found in this way it is easy to give them 
suitable treatment from the outset, and generally speaking one has some 
sort of a clue— either the name, the country, or a knowledge of the species 
with which they were imported — otherwise a difficulty might be found in 
knowing how to treat them. 

Owing to the extent of the subject it will be as well to follow some 
definite system of arrangement, and we may commence with a few species 
suitable for the Cool or Odontoglossum house. The majority of these plants 
are natives of tropical America, chiefly of that portion of the Andes that 
extends from Peru to South Mexico, at an altitude of 6,000 or 7,000 up to as 
much as 13,000 feet altitude, where the climate is temperate and almost 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 139 

uniformly moist. They are thus strictly alpine plants, and the genus 
Masdevallia may be taken as typical. 

Of this genus nearly a hundred species have been in cultivation at some 
time or other, and the majority of them can only be called botanical, though 
not by any means insignificant. We may limit our remarks to the smaller 
species. The Triaristella group contains several exquisite little plants, as 
M. triaristella, gemmata and tridactylites. Their flowers are borne upon 
capillary peduncles, and have been compared to gnats. They are produced 
with the utmost freedom. The leaves are very narrow, and a good 
specimen can be accommodated in quite a small pan. The M. caudata 
group contains several very pretty species, of which M. Estrada;, 
Wageneriana, Arminii, and hieroglyphica may be mentioned. All are free- 
growing and floriferous under suitable treatment. Coming to the M. coriacea 
group, we find M. Reichenbachiana, Schroederiana, velifera, peristeria, 
leontoglossa, Rolfeana, floribunda, and others from which a selection can be 
made. The scarlet section hardly comes within the limits of our title, but 
we may claim M. racemosa, in spite of its brilliant scarlet flowers, and the 
beautiful M. rosea is not generally grown. Indeed, it is difficult to meet 
with it, and when obtained it requires more than ordinary care. Of the M. 
Chimaera group, M. Chestertoni, Houtteana, bella, and one or two others, 
may well find a place. 

If one wants a really eccentric species, let him include M. muscosa, for its 
mossy peduncles are like nothing else, unless it be one or two other species of 
the same group — of which M. xipheres is also in cultivation — and its sensitive 
lip supplies a never-failing source of interest. When the flower opens the 
sepals curve back, and the lip is seen folded beneath the arch of the petals. 
Soon afterwards the blade gradually reflexes on its axis, and hangs in front 
of the flower on a kind of slender stalk. At the apex of the latter is situated 
a small tubercle, and if this is touched with a hair the lip immediately moves 
gently upwards, and then suddenly closes with a snap. This is evidently 
an arrangement for securing fertilisation by some particular insect. Let us 
imagine the plant to be in its native home. An insect alights on the lip, 
touches the sensitive tubercle, and is imprisoned in the cavity of the tube by 
the rapidly-closing lip. There is now a small opening between the apex of 
the lip and the petals, through which the insect would naturally crawl, 
bringing away the pollinia, to be left upon the stigma of the next flower 
visited. The mossy peduncle is evidently an adaptation to prevent crawling 
insects from gaining access to the flower. But we must leave Masdevallia 

The allied genus Restrepia contains several very attractive species, of 
which R. striata, R. maculataand R. elegans are among the best, but several 
others are to be found in various collections, including the original R. 



i 4 6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

antennifera, a striped flower, for which R. maculata often does duty in 
gardens. 

The species of Pleurothallis are not generally attractive, but there are 
exceptions, for P. astrophora, P. Barberiana, and the gnat-like P. 
macroblepharis are little gems when well-flowered. P. ornata is remarkable 
for possessing a row of drooping, white appendages round the margin of the 
sepals, which are so light as to wave about in the slightest breeze. Several 
others, equally small and scarcely less attractive, are occasionally met with, 
while among the larger species must be mentioned P. Roezlii, whose racemes 
of large claret-coloured flowers are decidedly showy, and the graceful P. 
scapha with some of its allies. 

The species of Cryptophoranthus are very quaint, and unique in having 
the flower closed at the apex, with two small openings at the side, hence the 
term "window-bearing Orchids." The significance of this arrangement is 
still obscure. It is evidently connected in some way with the fertilisation 
of the flower by some particular insect, but Darwin's remark, " Some new 
and curious contrivance has here to be made out," is still true. 

Physosiphon Moorei is a gay little plant when in bloom, and lasts long 
in perfection. The flowers of Stelis are remarkable for opening and shutting 
at various times of the day, and a few species are graceful and attractive. 
Thus it will be seen that the subtribe Pleurothalleae, to which the foregoing 
all belong, is by no means devoid of interest. We may now pass to the 
Oncidieas. 

Odontoglossum is the typical genus of Cool House Orchids, yet several 
species which are not generally grown should find a place in a representative 
collection. And there are several species of Oncidium from similar 
altitudes which make a welcome variation, being distinct in appearance and 
colour. Several allied genera contain very interesting species which are 
suitable for suspending from the roof of this structure, but with a few 
exceptions they are rather difficult to obtain at the present time. 
(To be continued.) 



CIRRHOPETALUM BRIENIANUM. 
This singular species has again appeared, a plant received from the 
Brussels Botanic Garden over a year ago, with other Malayan species, 
having now flowered at Kew, and proves to be identical with the original, 
which was introduced from Borneo, by Messrs. Linden, in 1891, and after- 
wards described (Rolfe in Kew Bull., 1893, p. 62). Ridley afterwards 
reduced it to a variety of C. Makoyanum, Rchb. f. (Bot. Mag., t. 7259), and 
states that it inhabits the Malayan Peninsula as well as Borneo, but as a 
specimen sent by him as C. Makoyanum is typical C. Brienianum the 



May, i 909.] THE OR CHID RE VIE W. 1 4 1 

matter is not cleared up, and assuming the reputed Brazilian habitat ot 
C. Makoyanum to be erroneous, we are still without a clue as to whence it 
was imported. The two species are nearly allied, as was originally pointed 
out, but in C. Makoyanum the united lateral sepals are gradually narrowed 
up to the acute point, and the colour is greenish, speckled with brown, but 
in C. Brienianum the lateral sepals do not narrow upwards, and are 
unequally bilobed at the apex, while the colour is straw yellow, with dark 
dull maroon dorsal sepal and petals, and a similar stain at the base of the 
lateral sepals. The lip is yellow in the plant now in bloom. 

R.A.R. 
CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR MAY. 
By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Imported Plants. — During the last few weeks large quantities of 
Orchids have been imported. This is the best time to get imported plants 
quickly established, and they give abundance of flowers the first season of 
growing. Dendrobiums, Cattleyas, Lselias, and all the harder-growing 
section should be potted into pots just large enough to get a little fibre 
round and between the roots. Trim the plants and stake them neatly, so 
as to make them look as presentable as possible, and place them in a warm 
moist house, where they will soon commence to grow and root. They 
should be examined and sponged before potting to be safe, though as a 
rule they are clean and free from insect pests. Sometimes in a newly 
imported batch of Cattleyas, traces of Cattleya Fly will be found in the 
young growths just as they are starting into growth, and this can be easily 
detected by the swollen growth, which will be about three times as large 
as usual. This should be cut out at once and burnt, or the whole house 
will become infested. 

Oncidium Lanceanum and Papilio have also been imported this 
season. They are beautiful Orchids and require warm treatment, either at 
the warm end of Cattleya house or in the stove. O. Lanceanum is a 
scented variety. If potted in a compost of Osmunda fibre with a few 
leaves scattered in, they should soon make nice plants, and both are much 
admired when in flower. Both like plenty of moisture during their growing 
season, and a fair amount of sun in order to keep them from making sappy 
growths. 

Dendrobium Falconeri is one of the most beautiful of all the 
Dendrobes, and also one of the most difficult to manage. During the 
growing season this species should be given plenty of air and sun, and it 
will keep in good condition longer if grown on rafts. Plenty of water will 
be required during the growing season. The flowers are large considering 
the size of the bulbs, and they quite hide the plant when freely flowering, 
producing a very beautiful sight. 



i 4 2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

Dendrobium Devonianum is another very pretty species that has also 
been largely imported. This should be grown in baskets, as the long pendulous 
bulbs make a far prettier sight when in flower than when they are staked 
up in pots. When suspended near the glass the sun can get through the 
plant, and the bulbs have a much better chance to ripen, as they are very 
free growers, and make long bulbs. 

Vanda ccerulea is one of the most beautiful, and also one of the most 
difficult to manage. The spikes of beautiful blue flowers form a great con- 
trast in a group, and are always admired. We tried our plants last year 
in Osmunda fibre and leaves, without moss, and we have not got a spotted 
leaf so far. The weather last autumn and winter was anything but nice for 
growing anything of this description, so when repotting we used no moss, 
as we have a lot of trouble to get the plants dry during the winter months, 
even if we only sprinkled the moss, so we decided to do without it alto- 
gether. So far as last season is concerned the plants have improved, and 
we have not been bothered with spot in the leaf. This species needs very 
little shade— just sufficient to prevent scalding— and abundance of air. With 
a little care I think they will eventually be as well-grown here as abroad. 
The pots should be well crocked, and plenty of crocks and charcoal mixed 
with the compost to give a quick drainage. 

Cirrhopetalums.— These curious flowers seem to be in favour just 
now, and anyone interested in them can find many beauties, especially 
when examined under the microscope. They are very easily grown, and 
many varieties can be accommodated without taking up much room. They 
can be grown suspended from the roof of the Cattleya house, and they like 
plenty of water during the growing season. They should be repotted or 
top-dressed, whichever they require, just as they commence to root from the 
new growth. Good fern fibre and leaves, with a little moss, adding plenty 
of small crocks in a compost, will suit them. 

Bulbophyllum also contains some very interesting species, and there 
are some beautiful things amongst them, especially when closely examined. 
Nearly all of them require intermediate temperature, and many odd places 
can be found for them in different houses. They seem to do almost any- 
where, if they can get plenty of moisture and air during their growing 
season, and most of them will stand a fair amount of sunlight. They are 
not troubled with many pests if kept well syringed in their growing season. 
A mixture of fern fibre, leaves and moss, with plenty of crushed crocks 
and charcoal will serve as a compost, and as they are not deep-rooting 
subjects, shallow pans or baskets suit them best to grown in. Re-pot just 
as they commence to grow and root, and keep them well shaded until they 
get re-established, when they can be given the usual treatment. 

Sophronitis grandiflora is another beautiful species which takes up 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 14? 

very little room to grow in, and when well flowered makes a good show 
with its numerous scarlet flowers. It can be grown in the Cattleya house 
or Intermediate house, and does best suspended from the roof. Shallow 
pans suit it to grow in, or if specimens are wanted baskets will suit it. 
When mixed with other flowering Orchids they make a beautiful show, and 
will stand a considerable time in flower, and are not generally affected by 
fogs. They should be potted as soon as they have finished flowering, as 
they root from the new bulb. A compost similar to that advised for 
Bulbophyllums will suit them, and they should not be allowed to shrivel for 
want of water at any time. Give a little extra shade until they get 
established again, when they can be given Cattleya house treatment. 
They like to be placed in an airy position near the ventilators during the 
summer months. 

Rodriguezia fragrans, as its name denotes, is a very fragrant species, 
and the graceful spikes are much admired. It should be suspended from 
the roof, and is very free-growing, and likes plenty of room to ramble about 
in. A nice pan or basket will give a good many spikes, as most of the 
bulbs will throw two spikes. Scale is about its only enemy, and this can 
be kept down by occasional sponging with water and soft soap. Inter- 
mediate house treatment suits it during the summer months, but it should 
be removed to slightly warmer quarters during the winter. They should 
be repotted as soon as they commence to root, and placed in the stove until 
the roots get well into the new compost. Osmunda fibre, leaves and very 
little moss and crocks will make a good compost for it. Crock the pans 
well, as it likes plenty of water in the growing season, but not a sour 
compost to root into. 

Oncidium concolor, for its size, and the small amount of room it takes 
up, is one of the most showy Oncidiums grown. It will now be in flower 
or just about to flower, and makes a beautiful show as a front row plant for 
a group, as its yellow flowers form a good contrast to the more brilliant 
Cattleyas. It is very little trouble to grow, and takes up very little room, 
as it can be suspended from the roof of the Cool or Intermediate house. It 
should be repotted or top-dressed as soon as it commences to grow, and a 
compost of Osmunda fibre, leaves, moss and crocks will suit it. Give 
plenty of water during its growing season, and keep it fairly dry after it 
has made up its bulbs, until the spikes show, when plenty of water must 
again be given until the flowers are developed ; then if kept fairly dry the 
blooms will last a long time in perfection. Like most Oncidiums, it likes 
plenty of air during the summer months, and a fair amount of sunshine in 
the autumn to ripen the bulbs, which helps to prevent the appearance of 
spot during the dull weather. 

Now that we are again in the growing season, every advantage should 



M4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

be taken of the sunny weather. Whenever the morning gives promise of a 
fine day the fire should be banked, and as little heat left in the pipes as 
possible. Some growers dispense with fires altogether during June and 
July, but here we get chilly nights, even in the hottest months, and so find 
it advisable to keep a little heat at night. Where fires can be dispensed 
with without causing injury, it is a good plan to do so, as then the plants get 
every advantage of the moisture in the houses. When plenty of air is 
given, and in most houses left on all night, it must be more natural for the 
plants than fire heat, and is well worth a trial, with all the cooler-growing 

The houses should be syringed round in the afternoon as soon as the 
sun begins to lose its power, and the blinds on the Cattleya, Dendrobium, 
and Mexican house rolled up from three to four o'clock. All ventilators 
should also be closed for two or three hours, and then a crack can be put 
on for the night if it is favourable weather. Cypripediums, Odonto- 
glossums, and the occupants of the stove should also be syringed and 
closed up, but the blinds must not be rolled up quite so early. The 
ventilators can be opened where necessary later. I find this is one of 
the best methods of keeping down thrip and red spider, far better for the 
plants than continually using insecticides, which are injurious if not very 
carefully used, especially when the growths are young and tender. None 
of the plants should be allowed to become dry enough to shrivel during the 
growing season, which is also one of the surest ways of breeding thrip. 

Houses should be damped three or four times a day in order to keep a 
nice growing atmosphere, and the walls and pipes should not be forgotten 
because out of sight, as when the pipes are cool it is a good chance to get 
the whole of the ground damp without making an excessive amount of 
steam. Houses should be well ventilated, but no draughts should be 
caused, or trouble will begin. Ventilation should be regulated according to 
the outside conditions, not put on every day and left on every night regard- 
less of circumstances, for even in the best weather we hardly get two days 
alike. Ventilate well, but do not cause draughts or let the temperatures 
drop quickly. Start early, before the houses get like ovens, and increase 

Pans suspended from the roof must be looked over daily, as they dry 
much quicker than those on the stages, and do not get the same amount 
from the syringe as do the other plants. 

In case insects should make an appearance just while the plants are 
making new growths, fumigate rather than use liquid insecticides, but do it 
as soon as the insects are discovered, not wait until the plants are smothered 
and then blame the fumigation for not being effective. Cleanliness is an 
important factor in successful Orchid culture. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 
PAPHIOPEDILUM x VENUS. 



itiful In 


brid fron 


1 the collection of Dr. 


nd is r 
ed to be 


produce 


1 from a photograph 
nc at the sale of Mr. 
g between P. insigne 


therefor 


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t to. be P X Venus 




146 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

SOCIETIES. 
Royal Horticultural. 
A meeting of this Society was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, 
Vincent Square, Westminster, on April 6th, when there was a very fine 
display of Orchids, and the awards consisted of one Gold and eight other 
medals, four First-class Certificates, five Awards of Merit, and two 
Botanical Certificates. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a fine group, including some good Cattleyas, Odonto- 
glossums, &c, noteworthy among them being Odontoglossum x Lambeau- 
ianum Goodson's var., O. crispum Mrs. Goodson, O. X Wilckeanum, 
Cattleya intermedia alba, Sophrocatlselia Marathon, a good example of 
Odontioda Bradshawiae, and others. A First-class Certificate was given to 
Odontioda " Ernest Henry," derived from Cochlioda Ncetzliana and 
Odontoglossum X Queen Alexandra, and having flowers of a nearly uniform 
colour, between dark reddish brown and claret, with an orange disc to 
the lip. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chap- 
man), received a First-class Certificate for Odontoglossum X percultum 
Cookson's var. (O. X Rolfeae X ardentissimum), a very handsome variety, 
in which the rich purple markings obliterated most of the white ground 
colour, and an Award of Merit for O. crispum Angela, a large and heavily 
blotched variety, bearing a spike of thirteen flowers. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received a First-class Certificate for the handsome Cattleya 
Schrcederae The Baron, having lavender-pink flowers, with a darker tint 
in front of the orange-coloured disc of the lip, and an Award of Merit for 
Odontoglossum X Sylvia Westonbirt var. (cirrhosum X Rolfeae), a very 
handsome variety, bearing cream white flowers, heavily blotched with 
purple-brown, with some light yellow on the disc of the lip. He also sent 
Dendrobium X Magda magnificum and Cattleya X Robert de Wavrin 
{Schrcederae X Schilleriana), having broad rose-coloured sepals and petals, 
and a richly coloured, quite entire lip, the C. Schilleriana character thus 
being practically lost. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), received an Award of Merit for Laeliocattleya Frederick Boyle var. 
Kerchoveae, a beautiful white form with a light yellow disc to the lip, and 
some crimson markings on the side lobes. Botanical Certificates were given 
to Polystachya rhodoptera, a pretty rose-coloured African species, and to a 
plant called Megaclinium Bufo, which is not Lindley's plant of that name, 
but M. purpureorachis, Wildem., whose history is given at page 155. He 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 147 

also sent two plants of Ccelogyne Sanderae, each bearing three spikes, the 
Tare Lycaste X Smeeana, and Maxillaria variabilis. 

W. James, Esq., West Dean Park, Chichester, received an Award of 
Merit for Cattleya Schroederae Alexandra James, a pretty blush-white 
variety with orange-coloured disc to the lip. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, sent Cypripedium X 
Chapmanii nigrescens and C. X Wm. Lloyd superbum. 

J. S. Bergheim, Esq., Belsize Court, London, sent Megaclinium 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 
Odontoglossum X Vulcan (crispum X Vuylstekei), a richly-coloured hybrid, 
.a fine example of O. X Urania bearing a spike of 17 flowers, the handsome 
O. triumphans Lionel Crawshay, and others. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, S. Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), sent 
Odontoglossum crispum Winnie, a good blotched form, O. x Arnoldii, a 
striking hybrid of unrecorded parentage, but apparently showing the 
influence of O. Hunnewellianum and O. Harryanum. It has medium-sized 
round dark reddish brown flowers, mottled with yellowish white at the 
margin, and some purple markings on the lip. 

Major Lister, Warninglid Park, Haywards Heath, sent a good form of 
Cymbidium insigne. 

John S. Moss, Esq., Wintershill, Bishops Waltham (gr. Mr. Kench) 
sent Odontoglossum X Kenchii (O. Kegeljani X Denisonae Mossiae), having 
cream-white flowers, spotted with chestnut brown. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), sent 
finely-grown examples of Odontoglossum X Ossulstoni nigrum, with a 
branched panicle of 59 flowers, and O. crispo- Harryanum Regina, with one 
of 25 flowers. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent 
good examples of Dendrobium X Wiganiae, D. X Thwaitesiae, and D. X 
■chessingtonense. 

Francis Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent 
Cattleya Trianae Marie Feodorovna, a pretty blush-white form with the 
front lobe of the lip violet-purple, and the disc deep yellow. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, staged a magnificent 
group, which filled a space about 90 feet by 12 at the end of the hall, to 
which the Society's Gold Medal was awarded. The arrangement may be 
described as consisting of three mounds, those to left and right consisting 
largely of about 200 well-flowered plants of Dendrobium nobile virginale, 
raised from seed in the establishment, with a number of hybrids, and the 
centre one consisting largely of fine Odontoglossums, while the intervening 
.bays consisted of Cymbidiums, Cattleyas, Cypripediums, and various other 



148 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

Orchids, with Sophronitis grandiflora, and other dwarf things in front, the 
whole forming a most beautiful effect. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
fine group, including two handsome varieties of Cattleya Schroederse, called 
Princess Mary of Wales and Magali Sander, Laeliocattleya bletchleyensis, 
L.-c. Sunset (L. Jongheana X C. Percivaliana), Tetramicra bicolor,. 
Angrascum sesquipedale, a pretty white Odontoglossum, apparently a white 
form of O. X amabile, and other good things. An Award of Merit was- 
given to Odontoglossum X Dreadnought (Prince Albert x sceptrum), a large 
yellow hybrid heavily blotched with red-brown, and showing a good deal of 
the influence of O. triumphans. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora. 
Medal for a fine group, including several forms of Odontioda Lutetia, a 
fine example of Coelogne pandurata with a spike of twelve flowers,. 
Trichopilia suavis and Backhouseana, Phaius X Norman, Masdevalliai 
Chestertoni, Odontoglossum Ossulstoni, a fine O. X Lambeauianum,. 
Brassocattleyas, three good Angrascum sesquipedale, Lael'ioeattleya 
Elinor, a very dark L.-c. Dominiana, and other good things. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group of Odontoglossums and others, noteworthy among them 
being the richly-blotched O. crispum Ashworthianum in excellent condition, 
a beautiful example of O. X Fascinator, O. Hallii, O. X Adrians, O. 
triumphans, and others. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Son, Chelsea, also received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a good group, also containing numerous fine forms of Cattleya 
Schroederae, Brassocatlaelia x elatior (Laeliocattleya Hippolyta x Brasso- 
cattleya Veitchii), Cymbidium insigne, C. Lowianum, Laeliocattleya 
Dominiana, L.-c. Violetta, L.-c. Niobe, some good Cypripediums, Odonto- 
glossums, &c. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group of Odontoglossum crispum and Cattleya 
Schroederae, and a First-class Certificate for C. S. Irene, a fine lilac variety,, 
with mauve-pink, well-frilled lip, and a deep orange throat. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, including Dendrobium Jamesianum, D. crassinode, 
D. primulinum, D. nobile nobilius, D. x chessingtonense, Cymbidium X 
Holfordianum, C. insigne, Coelogyne pandurata, Cattleya Schroederae 
albens, C. Lueddemanniana Stanleyi, Angrascum Leonis, and others. 

M. Mertens, Mont.-St.-Amand, Ghent, received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a good group of a dozen hybrid Odontoglossums, including O. X 
O. x amabile, O. X percultum, O. X Lambeauianum, 
ith Cattleya x Suzanne Hye de Crom. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 149 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, sent a number of good 
Cypripediums and Dendrobiums, noteworthy among them being a good D. 
atroviolaceum and some well-flowered hybrids. 

The report of the Scientific Committee of this date contains a reference 
to Albinism in Dendrobium hybrids, which is referred to in detail on 
Page 135. 

At the meeting held on April 20th there was again a fine display of Orchids, 
and the awards consisted of seven medals, one First-class Certificate, five 
Awards of Merit, two Botanical Certificates, and three Cultural 
Commendations. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received Cultural Commendations for a fine plant of Odonto- 
glossum Pescatorei, bearing three large panicles with an aggregate of 153 
flowers, and for a fine specimen of Cattleya X Enid Westonbirt var., with a 
spike of seven flowers, while Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya X Robert 
de Wavrin (Schrcsderae X Schilleriana), having blush-white sepals and 
petals, and a deep rose-coloured lip, with some darker veins in front of the 
yellow disc, and to Laeliocattleya Goldcrest (C. Schroederse X L. Cowanii), 
bearing an inflorescence of numerous clear yellow flowers, with some darker 
veining on the lip. He also sent L.-c. Dorothy var. splendens and fulgens, 
the latter prettily tinted with salmon colour, Odontoglossum X Phoebe 
Westonbirt var., and many other good hybrids. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O , Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White), 
received a Cultural Commendation for three finely grown plants of 
Dendrobium crepidatum, and an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum x 
loochristiense aureo-fulvum, a fine variety, having bright yellow sepals and 
petals, barred and blotched with dark chocolate, and the lip white with a 
few brown spots in front of the yellow crest. He also sent Brassavola 
Martiana, and a selection of rare Masdevallias, including M. caudata, the 
curious M. deorsa, M. pachyantha, M. leontoglossa, varieties of M. ignea, 
M. X Fraseri, M. x Shuttryana Chamberlainii, and others. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), 
received a First-class Certificate for Odontoglossum x Theodora (Rossii 
rubescens X triumphans), a very handsome hybrid, most like the former in 
shape, and having the sepals closely barred and blotched with reddish claret 
colour, which largely obliterates the yellow ground colour, the petals less 
heavily marked, and showing a yellow area at the apex, and the large 
rounded lip white, tinged with lavender, and bearing a crescent-shaped red- 
brown blotch in front of the yellow crest. He also sent O. X Vulpex (Pescatorei 
X Vuylstekei), and a dark blood-red form of Odontioda Charlesworthii. 



150 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909^ 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood), received a 
Silver Flora Medal for a very fine group, including some white forms of Cattleya 
intermedia, C. citrina with six flowers, Odontoglossum Edwardii, some good- 
blotched forms of O. crispum, with a number of hybrids, two good plants 
Epidendrum Wallisii, Oncidium concolor, O. Marshallianum, O. 
leucochilum, and other good things. 

Gurney Wilson, Esq., Glenthorne, Haywards Heath, received a 
Botanical Certificate for the pretty Oncidium barbatum. 

J. T. Bennett-Poe, Esq., Holmewood, Cheshunt (gr. Mr. Downes), sent 
cut spikes of Cymbidium X Colmaniae Holmewood var. 

Norman C. Cookson,Esq.,Oakwood,Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chapman),, 
showed a fine form of Odontoglossum X percultum, and O. crispum 
Milicent, a prettily blotched home-raised variety. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent Odonto- 
glossum X Rolfeas var. Ernestii, a very fine, densely-spotted variety, and 
Cattleya Mendelii Goodson's var. 

W. James, Esq., Chichester, showed Cattleya Schroederse Silvia James,. 

H. Little, Esq., Baronshalt, Twickenham (gr. Mr. Howard), sent 
Cattleya Mendelii Baronshalt var., having a purplish crimson lip, with but 
little of the yellow disc remaining. 

The Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace (gr. Mr. Hunter), showed 
Odontoglossum crispum virginale Blenheim var. 

Mrs. Temple, Leyswood, Groombridge (gr. Mr. Bristow), sent Laelio- 
cattleya Mrs. Temple (L.-c. Greenwoodii X C. Mossiae). 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, including the beautiful Odontoglossum armain- 
villierense xanthotes, white with some orange spots on the lip, a very 
heavily blotched home-raised O. crispum of great promise, Aerides Fieldingii, 
Lseliocattleya Mercia, Oncidium concolor, Diacrium bicornutum, the 
brilliant crimson Renanthera Imschootiana, the rare Trichopilia Back- 
houseana, Cattleya Trianas Edgar Knight, a handsome thing with deep 
violet-purple lip and very little yellow in the throat, a fine example of 
Brassocattleya Veitchii var. Queen Alexandra, a fine light scarlet form of 
Odontioda Bradshawia:, and other beautiful species and hybrids. An Award 
of Merit was given to Epilaelia Lionetii (L. purpurata x E. atropurpureum), 
bearing rose-purple flowers, most like those of the Epidendrum parent, and 
a Botanical Certificate to Pleurothallis Birchenallii (Rolfe), a near ally of P. 
scapha, but with more purple flowers. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, received a Silver Flora Medal for a fine 
group, the centre of which was occupied by a beautiful specimen of MiltoniaX 
Bleuana Sander's var., which gained an Award of Merit. It bears large. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 151 

nearly circular white flowers, tinged with violet at the base of the petals, 
and marked with reddish lines on the disc of the lip. Other noteworthy 
plants were OdontoglossumX Dreadnought, O. crispum Thompsoni, a hand- 
somely blotched form, also a fine white form of the species, Laeliocattleya 
Cholletiana with four spikes, L.-c. Dominiana magnifica, the striking 
Scuticaria Steelii, Vanda coerulescens, Polystachya bracteosa, and other rare 
things. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, containing some well-bloomed Dendrobium 
infundibulum, D. nobile virginale, D. X Apollo grandiflorum, D. X 
Dalhou-nobile, D. atroviolaceum, and other fine Dendrobiums, Angraecum 
infundibulum, Cattleya intermedia alba, C. citrina, C. Skinneri, C. 
Schroederae, Miltonia Warscewiczii, Chysis bractescens, Brassocattleya 
Thorntoni, B.-c. Maroni, Bifrenaria Harrisonae, Oncidium concolor, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, were awarded a 
Silver Flora Medal for a fine group, including several good forms of Cattleya 
Schroederae, C. S. alba, C. intermedia alba, Dendrobium barbatulum, D. 
Jamesianum, D. Devonianum, some fine D. Wardianum, one of them 
bearing over 120 flowers, Cymbidium X Lowgrinum, C. Lowianum 
concolor, Cirrhopetalum Amesianum, the rare Ionopsis paniculata, a fine 
specimen of Masdevallia Pourbaixii, Cypripedium X Olivia, C. X Maudiae, 
C. X Watsonianum, and other good things. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont-St.-Amand, Ghent, also received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a choice group of hybrid Odontoglossums, including O. X 
Wiganianum, O. X amabile, O. X Lawrenceanum, O. X Wilckeanum, O. 
X percultum, O. X illustre, and others. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group of Cattleya Mendelii and Odontoglossum 
crispum, the former including plants bearing 21 and 23 flowers, and the latter 
a very pretty rosy form well dotted with brown. 



The Scientific Committee's report of this date contains the following :— 

Malformed Orchids.— Mr. G. Wilson, F.L.S., sent two malformed 

Cattleyas from the same spike, which had three outer perianth pieces, but 

the inner were reduced very greatly, the small lip springing from near the 

apex of the column instead of from the base. Three stamens were present. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
There was only a moderate display at the above Society's meeting held 
at the Coal Exchange on April 1st, though the exhibits presented a bright 
appearance, as almost everything is seasonable now. The Committee sat 



1 52 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

as follows : Messrs. E. Ash worth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Thorp, Ward, 
Cowan, Shill, Ball, Keeling, Upjohn, Holmes, Parker, Ashton, Warburton, 
and Weathers (Sec). 

A.Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged 
a fine group of plants, which, being subdivided for " Cup " purposes, gained 
one Silver-gilt Medal (general group), one Silver Medal (Odontoglossums), 
and two Bronze Medals (for Cypripediums and Cattleya respectively). 
Odontoglossum crispum Quotiens, a good blotched variety, gained a First- 
class Certificate. The same award went to OdontiodaGoodsonae, a medium 
sized flower, scarlet with faint white marblings. Awards of Merit went to 
Cattleya Schroederae var. Countess Delapore, C. S. var. Matador, and C. S. 
var White Queen. Other good things included in the group were Odonto- 
glossum X ardentissimum Vanguard, some well-grown O. crispum, 
Cypripedium X Beeckmanii, &c. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a good 
group of Cypripediums, which was awarded a Silver Medal. C. X 
Hopkinsonianum received an Award of Merit. The group contained many 
plants previously certificated. I noted C. X Dora Crawshay, C. X Rajah, 
C. X Para, C. X Euryades New Hall Hey var., C. X Leonora, C. X Venus 
Rann Lea var., &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), sent a splendid 
group of Cattleyas, which included many good varieties of C. Schrcederse 
and C. Trianae, and gained a Silver Medal. A First-class Certificate was 
given to C. Schroederae alba var. Mrs. J. McCartney, a pure white flower 
with delicate lemon throat, and an Award of Merit to C. Schroederae var. 
Model. 

J. Leemann, Esq., West Bank House, Heaton, Mersey (gr. Mr. Smith), 
sent a fine plant and variety of Brassocattleya X Veitchii and one of B.-c. 
X langleyensis ; also the beautiful white Odontoglossum crispum Mary 
Gratrix, and O. c. rnoortebeekiense in fine form (Vote of Thanks). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq,, Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent four plants 
of unnamed seedling Odontoglossums, but all of excellent promise, being 
well spotted or blotched (Vote of Thanks). 

G. H. Pease, Esq., Monton Grange (gr. Mr. Mace), sent a fine specimen 
of Dendrobium nobile Ballianum, well-flowered. 

G. S. Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. Herdman), showed 
Bulbophyllum Lobbii var. siamense, which gained a First class Botanical 
Certificate. 

Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, staged a beautiful and floriferous 
group of Dendrobiums, which gained a Silver Medal. I noted D. nobile 
virginale, D. Jamesianum, and several varieties of D. X Artemis and D. X 
Mrs. A. Walker. The group was relieved with Odontoglossums, including 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 153 

varieties of Pescatorei and crispum, O. X altum, 0. X loochristiense, O. X 
excellens, O. X amabile,0. X Phoebe, &c. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, staged a good group of bright and varied 
plants, in which I noted two hybrid Odontoglossums, both of good shape 
and well blotched ; also many well-flowered Dendrobium Wardianum, 
Ccelogyne cristata alba, a well-flowered Cypripedium X Thompsonianum, 
C. X Maudiae, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Mr. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, staged a small group. Odonto- 
glossum crispum Shackleton's var., a bright rosy form of good shape and 
substance, gained an Award of Merit. I noted also a good Cypripedium 
exul, Bifrenaria Harrisonas, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a nice group, 
which included Dendrobium Cambridgeanum superbum and Cypripedium 
X Eurybel (Euryades X bellatulum), both of which gained Awards of Merit. 
I noted also a very distinct Odontoglossum nebulosum, Laeliocattleya X 
Millie (L.-c. Ernestii X L. Jongheana), Masdevallia X Imogen, X Rushtoni, 
Shuttleworthii, &c. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, sent a very choice group of Cattleya 
Schrcederae and the beautiful Odontoglossum crispum Lucienianum. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent a quaint species of Lycaste, and 
Oncidium abortivum. 

Messrs. Jensen, Lindfield, Sussex, sent examples of Cattleya Mendelii, C. 
Schrcederae and Odontoglossum crispum, all of good quality. 

At the meeting held on April 15th there was a very good exhibition, most 
of the well-known species of the season being represented. Committee 
present: Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Thorp, Ward, 
Upjohn, Warburton, Keeling, Parkes, Holmes, Ashton, Cypher and 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a very fine 
group, or rather three sub-groups, Odontoglossums, Cattleyas and Laelias, 
and Cypripediums, gaining two Silver Medals, a Bronze Medal, and a Silver- 
gilt Medal for the whole group. Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya 
Schrcederae The Queen, Odontoglossum X Wilckeanum var. Vuylstekei, 
O. crispum Emperor Rex, Cypripedium niveum Vine House var., and C. X 
Quartus (villo-bellatulum X Dora Crawshaw). I noted a line Laeliocattleya 
Dominiana, Cattleya Schrcederae White Queen, C. S. Empress, Odonto- 
glossum crispum Quotiens, O. c. moortebeekiense, and several fine 
Cypripediums. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a fine 
and well-flowered group of Cattleyas, &c, including many varieties of C. 
Schrcederae and C. Mendelii, all of good quality, gaining a Silver-gilt Medal. 



i 5 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909.. 

Laeliocattleya Bird of Paradise (L. flava X C. Mendelii) gained an Award of 
Merit. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a bright and 
nteresting group of Odontoglossums. I noted a fine O. X Charlesworthii 
with a good yellow ground, O. X Rolfeae, O. X Adrianae, many fine types 
of O. crispum, and unnamed hybrids (Silver-gilt Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a. 
very fine group of Cypripediums, considering the lateness of the season. 
C. X Iris var. Dora, C. X Clive, and C. bellatulum Queen of Spain all 
received Awards of Merit. Other good things in the group were C. X Juno 
Craven's var., C. X Rajah Rann Lea var., C. X Hitchinsiae var. Eva, C. X 
Queen of Italy, C. x Alcibiades var. " Illustrious," &c. (Silver Medal). 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), showed a 
fine group, consisting chiefly of Odontoglossums, and including O. X 
loochristiense var. Mikado, O. sceptrum var. Masereelianum, O. X 
Lambeauianum var. Antenor, O. cirrhosum, O. X amabile, O. Hallii, O. 
crispum, O. triumphans, &c. (Silver Medal). 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), sent a 
small group, which contained some fine varieties of Miltonia X Bleuana and 
Cypripedium X aureum Surprise. Odontioda X eboriacum, a plant of 
unknown parentage, with flowers of medium size, scarlet sepals and petals, 
and the lip scarlet with pale yellow markings, received a First-class 

H.Arthur, Esq., Pine Villa, Blackburn, sent a small but choice group,, 
which contained several varieties of Cymbidium X Veitchii, one of which 
gained a First-class Certificate, Lycaste Skinneri alba, Ccelogyne cristata 
alba, C. c. Lemoniana, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

H. Whateley, Esq., Kenilworth, gained an Award of Merit for Odonto- 
glossum crispum Newtoni. He also sent a good plant of Brassocattleya 
Hyeae, and several spotted Odontoglossum crispum and types of O. X 
loochristiense. 

E. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent a nice little 
group, which included Odontoglossum crispum Sunrise and O. X 
Lambeauianam Rogersoni, both receiving Awards of Merit. I noted a very 
fine Miltonia X Bleuana var. Rogersoni, also Odontoglossum crispum Oliver 
Ashworth, O. c. Duke of Connaught, O. X Ernestii, O. sceptrum 
Masereelianum, O. luteopurpureum, and Odontioda X chelseiensis. 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), sent Cattleya X 
Dorothy, C. Trianae Auburn House var., and Cypripedium X Colossus. 

Dr. Hodgkinson, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Woore), sent Cypripedium 
bellatulum Princess Clementine, a flower with very pale spotting (Award of 
Merit), and C. leucochilum. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 155. 

E. Ashvvorth, Esq., Harefield Hall (gr. Mr. Holbrook), gained an Award 
of Merit for a good plant of Chysis Limminghei. 

O. 0. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), sent a fine 
specimen of Anguloa Clowesii, which gained a Cultural Certificate. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Warrington, sent a good group of choice varieties of 
Cattleya Mendelii and C. Schrcederae, Odontoglossum X Wilckeanum 
Empress, O. X Harryano-crispum, a fine Miltonia X Bleuana Our Queen, 
Cypripedium X Pollettianum magnificum, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, staged Brassocattleya X Thorntoni, the 
beautiful Cattleya Lueddemanniana Stanleyi, a few choice C. Schrcederae and 
C. Mendelii (Vote of Thanks). 

Messrs. Low & Co., Enfield, staged Cattleya Schrcederae alba, and a 
nice hybrid Cattleya from C. Trianae and C. Lawrenceana. 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a small group, 
which contained good plants of Odontoglossum X Wilckeanum, Masdevallia 
Shuttleworthii and M. Ephippium, the latter receiving a First-class 
Botanical Certificate. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed a new and distinct Bifrenaria, 
nearly allied to Harrisonae, the labellum having purple blue markings, and 
Chysis bractescens. 

Mr. Hill, Vale Bridge, Sussex, showed Odontoglossum crispum Pleiades, 
and O. c. Marguerite, much spotted. 

Messrs. Cypher, Cheltenham, showed a small group, in which I noted 
Lasliocattleya x Ganymede, Brassocattleya Veitchii, Oncidium Weltoni, 
Dendrobium x Luna, &c. (Vote of Thanks). 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Gt. Horton, Bradford, sent Cypripedium X 
Actaeus and Odontoglossum crispum. H. Thorp. 



MEGACLINIUM PURPUREORACHIS. 

On April 6th last a Botanical Certificate was given by the R.H.S. to a very 
striking Megaclinium exhibited by Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., under the 
name of M. Bufo, but it is very different from Lindley's plant of that name, 
whose history has already been given (O.R., viii. p. 293 ; xvii. p. 125). It 
belongs to M. purpureorachis, a species described in 1903, by De Wildeman 
(Notices PL Utiles Congo, p. 126), from materials collected by Gentil at 
Kinumbi, on the Upper Lomami — a tributary of the Congo — and afterwards 
figured (Etudes Fl. Bas ct Moyen Congo, 1. pp. 116, 235, t. 29). Both 
description and figure, however, are imperfect, owing to their having been 
prepared from wild, fruiting specimens. Living plants, however, were 
introduced, one of which was sent to Kew, though it has not yet flowered. 
But the species flowered at the Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, io 
September last. The inflorescence is very stout, over a foot high, and the 



156 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

remarkably dilated rachis is undulate, and measures over seven inches long 
by an inch and a half broad. It is very heavily blotched with dark red- 
purple on a light yellowish green ground. The flowers are very hairy, dark 
brown in colour, and placed over half an inch apart on each side of the 
rachis. The author compares it with M. maximum, Lindl. (M purpuratum, 
Lindl., Bot. Mag., t. 5936), but it is a far larger species in every respect, 
and the flowers are very different in structure. How the name Megaclinium 
Bufo became attached to the species is uncertain, but a small plant bearing 
this name was received from the Paris Botanic Garden in 1903, and the 
pseudobulbs and leaves agree with the authentic plant so well as to leave 
no doubt of their identity. At that time the vegetative organs of M. Bufo 
were unknown, so that there was nothing to show that the name was 
incorrect. It is the finest species yet known. 

R. A. Rolfe. 

THE HYBRIDIST. 

L^liocattleya Goldcrest.— A handsome hybrid, raised in the collection 
•of Lieut.-Col. G. L. Holford, of Westonbirt, Tetbury, from Cattleya 
Schroederae 2 and Laelia Cowanii $ , which received an Award of Merit 
from the R.H.S. on April 20th last, on the occasion of its flowering for the 
first time. The flower is deep golden yellow throughout, fairly intermediate 
in shape, and over four inches across. 

Zygopetalum X Clarksoni. — A pretty hybrid from the collection of 
H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), said to have been 
raised from Z. crinitum and Z. X Clayi. The sepals and petals are dark 
dusky brown, and the greater part of the lip violet-blue, with the crest and 
margin whitish. The flowers are fairly intermediate in shape. • 

Phal^enopsis X Artemis. — Flowers of a pretty hybrid Phalaenopsis 
are sent by M. F. Denis, Balaruc-les-Bains, France. It was obtained by 
•crossing P. amabilis Rimestadiana with the pollen of P. rosea, and one of 
the seedlings flowered for the first time in May, 1908, when only three 
years old. M. Denis states that the seedlings were grown by M. Noel 
Bernard, who sowed the seeds in tubes in February-March, 1905, and that 
some examples were exhibited at the London Conference on Genetics in 
1906. M. Denis received five small plants, each possessing a single root, 
and they have grown without difficulty. They are vigorous, and the best 
has a leaf of twelve inches long, and carries two racemes with twenty- 
eight flowers and buds. Flowers of two plants are sent, differing some- 
what in the shape of the lip and tendrils. The flowers are much like those 
of P. X intermedia, and are blush pink, with a more rosy lip, and some 
brown spots on the crest and side lobes of the lip. As M. Denis remarks, 
.they must be referred to P. X Artemis, raised by Messrs. Veitch. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 157 

Paphiopedilum X Wendigo.— A record from Mr. G. McWilliam, 
Whitinsville, Mass., carries the flowering of a hybrid between Paphiopedilum 
callosum ? and P. X nitens <? back to 1899, tne P lant receiving a Silver 
Medal from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on April 15th of this 
year, under the name of Cypripedium X Mrs. George Marston Whitin. 
Mr. McWilliam was the raiser and exhibitor. The only record in the 
Orchid Stud-Book is P. X Wendigo, which flowered in the collection of the 
late Reginald Young, Esq., in 1905 (O.R., xiii. p. 120.). 



EPIDENDRUM DECIPIENS. 

There is a handsome scarlet Epidendrum, closely allied to E. radicans, 
which though described over half a century ago is seldom seen in cultiva- 
tion. A plant has now appeared in the collection of Mrs. B. B. Tuttle, 
Naugatuck, Conn., U.S.A., which is said to have been imported from 
Colombia, and an inflorescence and leaf have been sent by Mr. Pope, 
together with photographs, showing the former natural size and the whole 
plant reduced. The species has a curious history. It was described by 
Lindley in 1853 (Fol. Orch., Epidendr. p. 70), and the habitat was thus 
described: "Wild in New Grenada, in the province of Ocana— Schlim, 
1032 ; Demerara, on the Conocan Mountains — Schomburgk." Lindley then 
remarked : " This is nearest to E. Schomburgkii, from which it is 
distinguished by its equally divided lip, smaller flowers, and the inconsider- 
able keel of the lip. The flowers are vermilion, according to Schomburgk, 
orange according to Schlim." Curiously enough, these two specimens, 
which are mounted upon the same sheet in Lindley 's herbarium, belong to 
two distinct species, one of which was already named. Schomburgk's 
Guiana specimen belongs to E. fulgens, Brongn., whose history has already 
been given (Orch. Rev. v., p. 264), and the name, E. decipiens, must there- 
fore be limited to the Colombian plant. E. decipiens has already appeared 
in cultivation, for there are two drawings in the Day collection (xviii. tt. 73, 
74), which were made in June, 1875, and Mr. Day remarked that the plants 
were bought at Stevens' in June, 1874, at a sale of Mr. Patin's plants 
from New Grenada. One of these is considerably darker in colour than 
the other. The flowers of E. decipiens closely resemble those of E. radicans 
but are rather smaller, and the stems are dwarfer, and not rooting as in that 
species. The plant is about three feet high, and much resembles E. elongaturn 
in habit, while the sepals and petals are bright orange-scarlet, and the lip 
vermilion with some crimson markings on the disc and side lobes. It is 
interesting to be able to clear up the confusion in the history of the species. 
R. A. Rolfe. 



I5 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [May, 1909. 

NOTES. 
Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during May, on the 4th 
and 18th, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. 

The Society's great annual Spring Show will be held at the Inner Temple 
Gardens on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, May 25th, 26th and 27th. 
The Orchid Committee will meet at it a.m., and the Exhibition opens to 
Fellows at 12.30 p.m. Silver Cups and Medals will be awarded, as usual, 
according to merit. The Sherwood Cup is this year offered for a group of 
Orchids, and the competition will be open to amateurs only— quality being 
preferred to quantity. Extraneous foliage may be used. Notice of 
intention to compete must be sent to the Society eight days beforehand. 
'Five special judges will be appointed by the Council, who must be assured 
that the exhibit is in the main due to the work and capacity of the exhibitor 
or his legitimate employees. 

The next meeting of the Manchester and North of England Orchid 
Society will be held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on May 13th. 
The Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits are open to inspection 
from 1 to 4 p.m. We learn that the meeting announced for May 27th will 
not be held, on account of the Temple Show. 

The Best Six Orchids. — The Garden recently offered a prize for a 
popular essay on the best six Garden Orchids, which was won by Mr. Edwin 
Piatt, Borden Wood, Liphook, Hants, with the following: Calanthe X 
Veitchii, Cattleya Trianae, Ccelogyne cristata, Cypripedium insigne, 
Dendrobium nobile and Odontoglossum crispum. It will be noticed that 
they are chiefly winter-flowering plants. 

Lord Kitchener's Orchids.— A writer in M.A. P. remarks that Lord 
Kitchener, who leaves India next August, has lately been devoting a great 
amount of his spare time to gardening, which ha s been for many years a 
favourite recreation of his. His official residence in the fort at Calcutta 
possesses rather extensive grounds, and these he keeps under his personal 
supervision when he is staying there. He is a very early riser, and gives 
two or three hours every morning to his gardens, digging and trimming the 
soil with all the ardour of a professional. He has of late years taken great 
interest in Orchid culture, and has visited recently some of the more famous 
Bengal collections. It is his intention when he settles down in England to 
purchase a small estate, somewhere within easy reach of London, where 
there is space to collect Orchids on a large scale. 



May, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 159 

The Spring Show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was a 
■great success, and the Florists' Exchange says that the Orchid display was 
the best ever seen in Boston, and speaks well for the popularisation of these 
flowers, and for an extensive collection of them, as announced for next 
year. Three very fine groups are illustrated, namely, the first prize col- 
'lection of Mr. E. B. Dane (gr. D. McKenzie), that of Mr. Seth A. Borden, 
and that of the Julius Roehrs Co. All were certainly excellent. A Vote of 
Thanks was given to Mr. E. A. Orpet for a collection of cut Orchids. 

The Report of the R.H.S. Orchid Committee for March 23rd contains 
the following :— 

Orchid malformations.— Mr. Gurney Wilson showed malformed 
flowers of Odontoglossum Harryano-crispum on behalf of Mr. \V. Bolton, 
of Warrington. There appeared to be no symmetry about the multiplication 
of parts in these flowers, and Mr. Wilson remarked that, as in the present 
• case, when a portion is removed from an established plant, in the next 
season it is not very unusual for the older portion to bear malformed flowers, 
while the portions removed bear normal flowers. He also showed a flower 
■of Selenipedium caudatum var. Lindeni, from Messrs. Charlesworth. In 
.this variety the labellum is not slipper-shaped as in the type, but is replaced 
by a very long and tapering petal entirely similar to the two lateral petals ; 
there are also three fertile stamens. The variety was figured by Reichenbach 
{Lindl. Orchid. Linden., 28, 1846), under the name of Uropedium Lindeni. 
The form occurs wild. 

Epidendrum x kewense.— Four more of the self-fertilised seedlings of 
Epidendrum X kewense are in flower, one being primrose yellow, a second 
.rosy salmon-colour, a third light salmon, and the other still paler — a kind 
of light yellow with a suffusion of salmon-colour. 

A photograph of Cypripedium montanum is sent from the collection of 
Dr. A. W. Hoisholt, Stockton, California. The plant flowered in his green- 
house, but is a native Californian species, and was gathered in the Upper 
Sacramento Valley, growing on hilly land, with a southern exposure, and 
under shrubs, in an auriferous clayey loam. It is much like our European 
•C. Calceolus, except in having a white lip, and several flowers on a scape. 

A very fine form of Oncidium Papilio has been sent from the collection 
of Dr. Miles Johnston, High Lea, Bideford. It was purchased as a semi- 
established plant, growing on a block. 

The Orchid Stud-Book. — We may again remind our readers that the 
work is published from this Office direct, and those requiring copies will find 
particulars on the wrapper. No agents have been appointed. 



i6o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [xMay, 1909. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Brassocattleya Susanna.— Flor. Exchange, 1909, p. 529, with fig. 
Cattleya Loddigesii var. Harrison^.— J mm. Hort., 1909, i. p. 273, 
with fig. 

DENDROBIUM X SCHNEIDERIANUM, WESTONBIRT VAR.— Joum. Hort.,. 

1909, i. p. 319. with fig. 

Dendrobium speciosum.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 219, fig. 94. 

Dendrobium Wardianum.— Garden, 1909, i. p. 199, with fig. 

Disa crassicornis (in South Africa).— Garden, 1909, i. p. 187, with fig. 

LiELiocATTLEYA Frederick Boyle var. Kerchove^e.— Gard. Mag.,. 
1909, p. 293, with fig. 

LjELIOCATTLEya Pizarro, Westonbirt var.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 
233, with suppl. tab. 

Masdevallia ignea.— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 283, with fig. 

Miltonia Weltoni superba.— Rev. Hort. Beige, 1909, p. 125, with 
plate. 

Odontoglossum x Cfarlesworthii Theodora.— Gard. Mag., 1909, 
p. 326, with fig. 

Odontoglossum 
211, fig. 90. 

Odontoglossum < 
.Gard. Chron., 1909, i. 

Odontoglossum Rossii maju 

Odontoglossum x Smi 

Odontoglossum X Wyo 

Phal.enopsis Schilleriana (in Charlesworth's 
Hort., 1909, i. p. 367, with fig. 

Sophrocattleya TmwiTKSiJE.—Journ. Hort., igo< 
VANDA COZRULEA. — Card, ('hroil., 1909, i. p. 2O4, w 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

sted to give thenar . An ADDRESSED 



.esworthii The 


odora. — Gard. Mag. 


Fowlerianum- 


-Ganl. Chron., 1909 


XANTHOTES VAR. 


Mrs. F. M. Ogil 


258, fig. TIO. 




jus.-Jmrn. Hor 

11.— Gard. Chron. 


L, 1909, i. p. 343, wi 
, 1909, i. p. 212, fig. 


iNVM.—Gard. Cfa 


n., 1909, i. p. 269, iv. 
■on., 1909, i. p. 211, J 



I Dendrobium bursigerum. 



F. W. B. A form of Odontoglossum fcri 

G. H. P. Oncidium brachyandrum, LmdL, a very 1 
A. W. H. Cypripedium montanum. 
Photographs received, with thanks. E.O.O., G.H.M 



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The flowers are large, and very remarkable for their amazing beauty and 
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wonderful piece of colouring, large, broad, and elegantly fringed ; the side lobes 
forming the tube which falls over the pure white column are creamy white on the 
edges, and yellow streaked with red beneath ; the upper part of the front lobe is 
of the richest crimson, veined in a beautiful manner with golden yellow ; the front 
lobe of the labellum which is finely expanded, and edged with a pure white fringe, 
is crimson of various shades, forming a richly coloured inimitable picture. 

This exquisite and truly magnificent Cattleya has not been imported for 
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that our collector has succeeded in sending home a few plants, after the most 
strenuous labour, risk, great hardships, and expense. 

Collector writes : — " The Rex is a beautiful Cattleya ; I have had three 
plants in flower, one with seven flowers ; some of them beat gigas in structure." 

This Cattleya must always remain rare in collections owing to the great 
difficulty experienced in getting it home, and the terrible losses on the journey. 



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Vol. XVII. ] JUNE, 1909. [No. 



ORCHID REVIEW: 

Hn 3ilnetrateo 3ournal of ©rcbioolOQ^. 



Answers to Corresponds 
Calendar of 
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Odonto-los^um cnspum solum (fig. 14) • 
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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



DIES ORCHIDIANI. 

I intended to commence my remarks this month with something about the 
Temple Show, and was impressed with the difficulty of saying anything 
new, when a newspaper cutting obligingly came to hand, which supplied 
the necessary inspiration. 

The exhibition of Orchids, it remarks, was more marvellous than ever. 
To bring it together the tropical forests of the globe had been ransacked, 
and the resources of scientific horticulture taxed to the uttermost. An 
expert told our representative that £50,000 would not purchase the collec- 
tion. One group alone would have brought in at least £20,000 if put up to 

One of the novelties which attracted attention was a little brownish red 
flower (officially described as violet-purple in colour), with the ponderous 
name of Odontoglossum crispum Minoru. There is one bloom of the kind 
in the world : it measures one a half inches from tip to tip of the petals and 
is priced at 250 guineas. After ceaseless care on the part of its rearer, the 
" Minoru " blossomed four days ago, and was immediately named after the 
King's horse in this year's Derby. Its distinctive feature is the deep marking 
of petals and sepals. 

Near this modest blossom was shown yesterday a much more showy 
Orchid — the Cattleya Mossiae Edward VII., an entirely new importation 
from Peru, which displays a rich golden throat in the midst of petals of a 

Orchid growers were paying high prices for new hybrids during the day. 
One insignificant-looking flower of medium size, named the Lasliocattleya 
Eurylochus, and remarkable for its warm brick-red tint and crimson lip, 
had the luck to be sold three times over in almost as many minutes. The 
first purchaser was a Belgian gentleman, who spends some £15,000 a year 
upon his hobby. He was so struck by the Eurylochus that, without a 
moment's delay, he told the Continental representative of the grower to 
book it in his name. Immediately afterwards Colonel Holford, a well- 
known Orchid expert, purchased the same plant from the grower himself, 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

: of the earlier transaction owing to the absence of the 
usual " sold " peg. Hardly had Colonel Holford passed out of sight when 
Sir Trevor Lawrence, President of the Royal Horticultural Society, noticed 
the new hybrid, and a third sale was effected by the grower's manager, who 
was, of course, ignorant of the previous sales. Who owns the only Laelio- 
cattleya Eurylochus in existence was subsequently the matter of consider- 
able discussion. 

Another short cutting sent to me explains that the most novel blooms 
at the show were two new Orchids, one of which obligingly opened its first 
flowers last .week, and is known as the Odontioda crispum Minoru. 

I can scarcely improve on that, and I wonder what those three gentle- 
men think of the idea that the Eurylochus is an " insignificant-looking 
flower," not to mention the Orchid Committee who gave it the award of a 
First-class Certificate. But there is no accounting for taste. 

A point that struck me about the Show was the large number of hand- 
somely blotched Odontoglossums present in most of the groups, which 
shows not only the increasing popularity of these delightful cool-growing 
Orchids, but also the freedom with which they can now be raised from 
seed. The number of brilliant little Odontiodas was also remarkable, and 
I could not help reflecting on the fact that it was at the corresponding 
meeting five years ago that the first of them put in an appearance, and 
created such a sensation. Someone remarked in my hearing that there was 
nothing sensational this year. No ! we are getting used to them, which 
makes all the difference, but the amount of progress is none the less striking, 
and the next few years may witness some further remarkable developments. 

It has been remarked that the limited space at the Temple affords little 
opportunity for artistic effect, and no doubt this is the case, but a marked 
improvement was noticed in the arrangement of several of the groups, which 
were diversified by mounds and dells in a very pleasing manner, forming 
a great improvement on the flat banks of flower of a few years ago. Exhibitors, 
for the most part, made the best use of their opportunities, though there 
was a little overcrowding in places, which is, perhaps, unavoidable. 

The Society has a rule, which is printed in large type in the arrange- 
ments, that Plants must be named, but I think one or two of the exhibitors 
must have overlooked it. At all events it was not carried out in a few 
cases, and I heard complaints in consequence. It may not be practicable 
to label all well-known plants, but novelties or rarities should 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 163 

be named, at all events when the names are known. The remarks in the 
present case apply chiefly to a number of hybrids of which neither names 
nor parentage were given, a condition of things which it ought to be pos- 
sible to remedy. Hybrids are now so numerous, and their parentage is 
becoming so complex, that unless some clue to the origin of their plants is 
given by the exhibitor it is almost impossible for the reporter to do them 
justice, and I believe that for this reason some interesting novelties have 
sometimes been overlooked. 

Horticulturally the Show was a great success, and the quality of the 
Orchids generally was well up to the average, while evidence of progress, so 
far as hybrids are concerned, was met with on all hands. Such a show 
entails an enormous amount of work on both officials and exhibitors, to 
whom the thanks of all who witness these beautiful displays will be accorded. 
A report was current that this might be the last of the series at the Temple, 
but let us hope it may prove incorrect, for, in spite of its limited area, it 
would be difficult to find another locality equally suitable in every respect. 

Argus. 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR JUNE. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Calanthes. — Plants that are making strong growths and have filled their 
pots with roots should be top-dressed with some good turfy loam and cow 
manure, which will give them great assistance in making up their bulbs. 
They like plenty of water during their growing season, and alternate 
waterings may be given with liquid manure water until the bulbs are made 
up. Ventilate the house each day if possible, to prevent spot in the leaves, 
which latter should be examined occasionally to keep them clear of scale, as 
when grown with stove plants they will sometimes get scale on them, and if 
this is not cleaned off it soon takes all the substance out of the foliage. The 
leaves must be carefully handled, as they easily bruise. Keep the plants 
well up to the light ; a shelf will suit them best, and they will make much 
sturdier growths. It is not always the largest bulbs which throw the best 
spikes, but well-ripened sturdy bulbs will produce strong spikes and well- 
coloured flowers. The leaves of the evergreen varieties should be kept very 
clean, as good foliage on them is most important when in flower, especially 
when used for grouping purposes, for the leaves when in good order are 
very ornamental. When grouped with other Orchids they help to relieve 
the flatness of the group. Most of the evergreen varieties are summer 
flowering. 

Ansellia africana and the allied species should now be making 
growths, and if in need of potting should be seen to as soon as the roots 



r6 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

become active. A. africana is one of the most popular in the class for six 
Orchids at Shows, and counts for points well, especially when it can be had 
with a number of spikes on, as its handsomely-blotched flowers attract 
attention. It is not a difficult subject to grow, and a nice sunny position in 
the Dendrobium or Cattleya house will suit it first rate. For a potting 
compost, peat, loam, and leaves, with plenty of crushed crocks, will suit it 
to perfection. Plenty of room should be left for water, as it likes abundant 
moisture during the growing season. 

Sobralias. — This is a beautiful genus, and the plants themselves are 
very decorative when kept in good condition. Most of the varieties are 
summer-flowering, and the stems vary in height from one to six feet. The 
flowers are very handsome, many being equal to Cattleyas, and S. macrantha 
alba is very beautiful when perfectly grown and flowered. They are not 
difficult subjects, and they will grow well at the warm end of the Cattleya 
house or plant stove, and they will hide an ugly gable end all the year 
round. The individual flowers do not last long, but they produce several 
flowers on a stem, one just going over as another is ready to burst and fill 
its place, which gives them a fairly long flowering season. They like plenty 
of pot room, as they make a lot of strong fleshy roots, and plenty of space 
must be left for water, of which an ample supply must be given during the 
growing season. The leaves must also be kept clean by syringing. They 
should never be allowed to become parched, as the stems are only reeds, 
and cannot support themselves for any length of time if dry. Even in dull 
weather they should be kept just moist, but not saturated. If the leaves 
are allowed to drop they are very unsightly, and will make stunted growths 
the following season. They should not be disturbed unless the compost is 
sour, or likely to go sour before another year, as they object to being dis- 
turbed, and care must be taken not to break more roots than is really 
necessary. When breaking up specimen plants and re-making, all the small 
pieces can be potted in small pots, and shifted on as they fill the pots with 
roots. They then soon make specimen plants, and the strong pieces get the 
advantage of more growing space. A compost of loam, leaves and peat, with 
plenty of crocks and charcoal, will make a good growing mixture for them. 
The pots should be well crocked, to allow of a quick drainage. Keep them 
well syringed several times a day for a time after repotting, as it helps to 
keep the foliage from dropping. 

Stanhopeas, as they pass out of flower, should be examined and potted 
or top-dressed. They are better grown in baskets on account of their 
pendulous spikes. Their remarkable flowers are always interesting, and 
most of them are highly scented, and though not pleasant to everyone, they 
are well worth growing. During their growing season they like a stove 
temperature, and when the growths are made up the plants can be removed 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. r6$ 

to the Cattleya house for the resting season. During the growing season 
abundance of water must be given, and the leaves should be kept well 
syringed, as they are rather subject to red spider. When at rest just 
sufficient water should be given to keep the bulbs plump. A compost of 
Osmunda fibre, leaves, and a little moss will suit them. Give them room 
in the baskets to grow for at least two seasons without disturbing them 
again, and remove any useless back bulbs, which can be propagated if 
needed, provided that they have a dormant eye. Turn the young growth 
inwards, so that it does not go over the edge of the basket the first season. 

Peristeria elata, or the Dove Orchid as it is commonly called, is very 
remarkable, as the column and lip, with a slight stretch of imagination, can 
be described as resembling a dove. The flowers are thrown up on long 
stems well above the foliage, and make a beautiful show, lasting well in 
flower. The plants should be potted when the young growth is about half 
grown, care being taken not to break the roots more than is absolutely 
necessary. It takes a long time to get the roots apart, but it repays any 
extra labour expended by making a fine plant the first season after potting. 
Where specimens are required five or six plants should be potted together, 
allowing ample room, so that they will not require potting again for several 
seasons. Remove all useless back bulbs, leaving about two behind the 
young growth. They will produce enormous bulbs when well grown, and 
make fine specimens in a short time. The species likes stove treatment 
when growing, and plenty of water; with a sunny position in the Cattleya 
or Dendrobium house during the resting season, and very little water 
until the flower spikes begin to show. Just enough should be given to keep 
the bulbs plump. For a potting compost use loam and peat in about equal 
parts, adding a few leaves and plenty of crocks and charcoal, broken small, 
to keep it porous. Liquid manure, given in the growing season about twice 
weekly, will help to make fine plants, and keep the leaves a nice colour. 

Maxillaria Sanderiana, the finest of all the Maxillarias, will be 
flowering or just past flowering, and should be potted or top-dressed as soon 
as it starts to grow. Baskets are better than pots for it, as they allow the 
flowers to push through the sides and bottom of the baskets ; it also shows to 
better advantage when grown and suspended from the roof. The flowers 
are striking, and when staged among Cattleyas it quite outshines them in 
beauty, and also holds itself well. The plant requires an intermediate 
temperature, or the cool end of the Cattleya house will suit it. Plenty of 
water should be given during the growing season, and just sufficient to 
keep the bulbs plump during the resting period. The leaves should also be 
well syringed during the growing season. Osmunda fibre, leaves, 
and a little moss, with plenty of small crocks mixed in, will make a good 
compost. The plants should be placed in a moist, well shaded position till 



i66 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909 

they get well established, when they can be put into their growing quarters. 
They like a fair amount of sunshine and plenty of air ; if they are grown 
soft the leaves will spot. 

Dendrobiums will be growing rapidly now, and the young growths will 
need a little support. If allowed to break down with overweight of the 
bulbs they will be checked in growth, and are always unsightly afterwards. 
They do not need to be staked up straight, but just supported by raffia ties to 
keep the bulbs from breaking, as many growers prefer to see them hanging 
over the sides of the basket or pans. 

Cattleyas and L^lias will also need looking over, and the young 
growths supporting, a sharp look-out for scale being kept at the same time. 
It is often a puzzle how scale gets inside the young growths, but however it 
gets there it must be removed as quickly as possible, or it will mark the 
young leaves. Soft soap and warm water applied with a soft brush and 
sponge, will easily remove it. 

Cypripediums will be growing freely, and should be given plenty of 
moisture, both in the atmosphere and at the roots. Syringe freely, as it 
will keep them free from thrip, and help them to make strong clean 
growths. 

Ventilate all the houses freely, and leave a little air on all night 
whenever it has been a hot day, as it revives the plants wonderfully, and 
prevents them from making soft growth. In damp weather it will be better 
to use a little extra fire heat, and ventilate at the same time, rather than 
keep the houses at all stuffy, as that is the chief cause of spot on the 
foliage. Keep all soft growing plants well shaded for the next month, as 
the young leaves are very tender, and easily get scorched, and are always 
an eyesore afterwards. 

OBITUARY. 

Norman C. Cookson.— It is with deep regret that we have to announce 
the death, on May 15th last, of Mr. Norman C. Cookson, of Oakwood, 
Wylam-on-Tyne, in his 69th year, after an illness of some weeks' duration. 
Mr. Cookson was an enthusiastic Orchidist, and during a residence of 30 
years at Oakwood Grange has raised many fine hybrids belonging to various 
genera. He is said to have commenced hybridising the genus Calanthe as 
early as 1880, and among his earliest successes were C. X Alexandri and 
C. x Cooksoni, which were certificated by the R.H.S. on October 27th, 
1885. They were raised from C. vestita and C. x Veitchii, and are now 
considered to be forms of the earlier C. x Sedeni. Other genera were 
quickly taken in hand, and we find Cypripedium X Io (Argus X Lawrence- 
anum) recorded in 1886, C. X auroreum and C. X alinum in 1887, C. X 
Godsefrianum and Selenipedium x nitidissimum in 1888, C. X Pitcherianum 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 167 

and Masdevallia x Courtauldiana in 1889, Phaius X Cooksoni, Dendrobium 
X Venus, D. X Cassiope and Cypripedium x Doris in 1890, C. X Bryani and 
Lasliocattleya Phoebe in 1892, Cattleya x Harold and C. X William Murray 
in 1893, Odontoglossum X crispo-Hallii in 1898, with numerous later 
hybrids of excellent quality. 

Mr. Cookson followed his work up with all the instincts of a breeder, 
and some of his hybrid Calanthes show a remarkable brilliance of 
colouring. For example, one called C. X Oakwood Ruby, which is said 
to have been raised from C. X Sedeni Oakwood var., twice re-crossed with 
C. vestita rubro-oculata, and flowered in 1898, is of a brilliant ruby 
crimson, and this in turn, united with C. X William Murray, gave the 
dark C. X atrorubens. Phaius was evidently a favourite genus with Mr. 
Cookson, and he used both the handsome Madagascar species, P. simulans 
and P. Humblotii, with great success. The former united with P. Wallichii 
gave P. X Cooksoni and its variety Norman, which re-crossed with both 
the original parents, gave the secondary hybrids, P. X Clive and P. X 
Harold, while with P. Humblotii it gave the handsome P. X oakwoodiensis, 
P. Humblotii with P. grandifolius had already given P. X Cooksonae, in 
1895, and with P. Wallichii it yielded P. X Phoebe, in 1899, and these 
hybrids re-crossed with P. Humblotii gave, respectively, P. x Ruby, in 1902, 
and P. X Chapmanii a year later. With Dendrobium also Mr. Cookson was 
very successful, the only hybrids of D. albosanguineum, D. bigibbum, and D. 
Maccarthias — known respectively as D. x Murrayi, D. X Sybil, and D. X 
Kenneth — being raised by him, together with D. X Astraea, X Bryan, X 
Doris, X Harold, and x Lotus. 

Specially interesting events at Oakwood were the raising of Cypripedium 
insigne Sanderse and C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum true from seed, also the 
experiment which proved the parentage of the natural hybrid, Cattleya X 
Hardyana, the artificially-raised plant flowering there in 1896. 

Of late years Mr. Cookson has turned his attention to the genus Odonto- 
glossum, and some choice hybrids between O. crispum and O. Pescatorei 
have already flowered. He has also got together a very fine series of the 
choicest blotched forms of Odontoglossum crispum. 

The first Orchid named after Mr. Cookson, we believe, was Dendrobium 
nobile Cooksonianum, described by Reichenbach in 1885, but it had been 
sent by Mr. Cookson two years previously {Gard. Chroiu, 1883, i. p. 630), 
when Reichenbach called it a flower of D. nobile, " showing lips in lieu of 
petals," and it was remarked that the plant had produced such flowers for 
three years. 

Mr. Cookson has been for many years a member of the Orchid 
Committee of the R.H.S., and for more than six one of its Vice-Chairmen, 
and his lamented death leaves a vacancy on that body. 



1 68 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

SEEDS OF CYCNOCHES CHLOROCHILON. 

The following interesting account of the contents of a capsule ofCynoches 
chlorochilon, containing the enormous number of nearly four million seeds, 
appears in a recent issue of the Kew Bulletin. 

" In March, 1896, a seed capsule of Cycnoches chlorochilon, Klotzsch, 
was obtained from Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. for preservation. It was fully 
developed, and had been cut from a recently imported plant. A drawing 
was made, after which the capsule was cut longitudinally for convenience 
of drying, and the number of seeds proved so enormous that they were 
submitted to Dr. Scott, then honorary keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, 
with a view of ascertaining their approximate number." 

The report we may summarise, but it showed the number of seeds in the 
capsule to be about 3§ millions, the result being arrived at by weighing the 
mass of seeds, then weighing about 300 seeds separately, and calculating 
from these data the total number, which was approximately 3,770,000. I 

" ' This is itself only a rough approximation, and as you said some seeds 
had been lost in opening the capsule you might take the total number at 
about four millions. In other words, the progeny of this single flower, if 
all the seeds came up, would be about equal to the population of London. 
" ' The weight of each seed works out to the very minute figure of .0000036 
grammes. About 300,000 seeds to the gramme (very roughly).' 

" This is much in excess of figures previously recorded for Orchid 
capsules. Darwin estimated the number of seeds in a capsule of Orchis 
maculata as about 6,200, and Mr. J. Scott, of the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, calculated the number of seeds in a capsule of Acropera as 
371,250, while F. Mueller informed Darwin that he found about 1,758,440 
seeds in the capsule of a Maxillaria in South Brazil. The seeds weighed 
42^ grains, and he estimated the number by arranging half a grain of seed 
in a narrow line, and then counting a measured length. He adds that the 
same plant sometimes produces half a dozen capsules. It may be added 
that the capsule of Cycnoches chlorochilon under notice measured six 
inches long by two inches broad. The sexes are separate, and the female 
flowers so far as known are solitary, but the males are borne several together 
in a raceme." — R. A. R. 

Small Orchid Houses.— We are informed that there are many very 
small Orchid collections in the neighbourhood of Manchester, some of them 
in quite tiny home-built houses, whose owners are at work during the day. 
We should much like to publish an account of such a house and its contents, 
if anyone will kindly forward the necessary particulars. 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 169 

ODONTONIA ELWOODII. 
The annexed figure shows a very interesting and attractive hybrid, which 
was raised by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., from Odontoglossum cirrhosum 
crossed with the pollen of Miltonia Rcezlii alba, and was exhibited by them 
at a meeting of the R.H.S. on February 12th, 1907. It was described at 
page 90 of our fifteenth volume. The photograph was recently forwarded 
to us by Messrs. Charlesworth, and is reproduced natural size. As will be 




Fig. 13. Odontoma Elwoodii. 
seen by the figure, the flowers Have taken much of the general shape of the 
seed parent, the sepals and petals being rather narrow and acuminate, but 
the lip is considerably dilated, in which the influence of the pollen parent is 
seen. The general habit, ami short, few-flowered inflorescence also show 
much of the same influence, though this may not be so apparent when the 
plant becomes stronger. The colour of the flower is white, with a few 
purple spots on the lip. 



1 7 o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

ORCHIDS AT HAYWARDS HEATH. 

For several years Messrs. Charlesworth & Co. had a small establishment at 
Haywards Heath, Sussex, in addition to their Bradford establishment, and 
as it became increasingly evident that the climatic conditions of the former 
locality were much superior for Orchid culture, they decided to lay out an 
entirely new nursery there, to which the plants were all removed last 
autumn. The old nursery at Haywards Heath has also been relinquished, 
and the business is now conducted entirely from the new establishment, 
which we have just had the pleasure of seeing. 

The houses are built with all the latest improvements, and very 
conveniently arranged. A glass covered corridor of 250 feet long by 12 feet 
wide extends from the office — which has a 45 feet frontage — back to the 
potting shed, and the last 160 feet has glass covered sides, and from this 
portion extend, right and left, twelve houses, each 100 feet long, and of 
varying widths, according to the purposes for which they are intended. The 
widths are 12, 13, 20, and 21^ feet, there being three of each. The packing 
shed measures 75 by 20 feet, the potting shed 80 by 20, and there is a 
photographic studio 20 feet square. There is also a block of eight seedling 
houses, each 100 feet long, extending right and left from a second corridor, 
one of these being 18 feet wide, and the rest 10 and 11 feet. The potting 
shed attached to this block measures 15 by 18 feet, and at the end of the 
potting shed are two other houses, each 25 by 18 feet. 

Ample provision has been made for a supply of rain water, large tanks 
being built across the ranges of houses, with openings under the stages of 
each, so that the supply is accessible from every point. The roofs form an 
ample collecting ground for the rainfall. Lath roller blinds running length- 
ways are fixed well above the glass roof, so as to allow an ample current of 
air beneath, but in bright weather this is found insufficient, and a layer of 
tiffany is laid on the glass itself, so as to form a double shading. As a 
temporary provision some of the glass has been whitewashed, but it is 
intended ultimately to use tiffany for this purpose. Top and side ventilation 
is provided, the latter by shutters opening outwards, worked by a handle 
from the interior, so that the proper amount of ventilation can be adjusted 
without going outside. The operator feels in a moment the current of air 
coming into the house, and can adjust the shutter accordingly, a very 
ingenious contrivance. In short, the whole arrangements have been made 
with a view to secure a constant healthy atmosphere in the houses, which is 
the chief secret of successful Orchid cultivation. But it is time to come to 
the plants themselves, and in this we must follow the order of our notes. 

The first house entered contained a lot of plants which may be described 
as Cool Intermediate, requiring a minimum of about 6o v at night. Here we 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 171 

saw a lot of Trichopilia suavis and Backhouseana, some three dozen of the 
latter making a very fine display. Warscewiczella discolor was also in 
bloom. This genus and its allies are said to succeed in this house, when 
heavily shaded, this being an important point in their culture, for they are 
shade-loving plants. Maxillaria Sanderiana does specially well, also 
Eriopsis rutidobulbon, while Odontoglossum Harryanum, a plant which 
would not grow at Bradford, was making great progress. We noted a lot 
of Odontoglossum Uroskinneriandhastilabium in bloom, with a few Aspasia 
epidendroides, a batch of Ornithidium Sophronitis producing its pretty 
scarlet flowers, Ornithocephalus grandiflorus with four spikes, a few good 
Restrepia maculata, Masdevallia macrura, bella, triaristella, trichsete, and 
others, some good plants of that little gem, Pleurothallis ornata, and 
Octomeria diaphana flowering very freely. There were pointed out some 
plants of Odontoglossum cirrhosum crossed with the pollen of O. 
Uroskinneri, but they do not thrive, as they seem susceptible to some 
fungus. It was remarked that in every other case O. Uroskinneri was used 
as the seed parent. We noted also a lot of Miltonia vexillaria, one being 
very rich in colour, a batch of M. Phalamopsis which was growing very well, 
a plant of M. flavescens in bloom, and a batch of M. x Hyeana (Bleuana X 
vexillaria Leopoldi), including some good forms. 

Passing into a Cool house, where a minimum of 52 is adopted, we found 
a nice lot of Epidendrum Wallisii in bloom, showing much variation in the 
amount of spotting, a fine Brassia brachiata, a good plant of Oncidium 
graminifolium in bloom, and a small batch of O. Claesii suspended from 
the roof and doing very well. The majority of the plants, however, were 
Odontoglossums, and we noted a lot of good O. crispum and O. cirrhosum, 
with a large plant of O. X Coradinei, a fine O. luteopurpureum hystrix 
with nineteen flowers on a spike, and numerous others which we must omit. 

The next was an Odontoglossum house, all seedlings. Here we noted a 
lot of O. X Wilckeanum, raised from an unblotched form of O. crispum 
crossed with O. luteopurpureum Vuylstekeanum, but all the seedlings came 
spotted. Here, too, were a number ol O. X armainvillierense xanthotes, 
raised from O. crispum xanthotes and O. Pescatorei album, the entire batch 
being albinos like the parents, with all the markings yellow. A number 
were in bloom, but the others could easily be picked out by the pale foliage. 
A lot of O. X excellens were raised here, with O. triumphans as the seed 
parent. We noted fine batches of O. X Rolfea; and O. x Othello, both 
sturdy growers, some good O. X concinnum and X warnhamense, both 
varying much, and one robust plant of the latter bearing two spikes, the 
best with fifteen side branches. There were also good examples of O. X 
Lambeauianum, O. X spectabile, and others, with the charming little 
hybrids Odontioda Bradshawiae, heatonensis and Lutetia. 



I?2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

We then passed into an Intermediate house, about half devoted to 
Dendrobiums, and including D. superbum, thyrsiflorum, pulchellum, 
chrysotoxurn, and others in bloom. The remainder included miscellaneous 
subjects, and we noticed Oncidium luridum, the handsome Spathoglottis X 
Colmaniae, and Leptotes bicolor in bloom. 

A Cool Intermediate house followed, where we saw some Oncidium 
concolor and cucullatum in bloom, with a large and handsome mottled form 
of O. crispum beginning to open. Large batches of the spring and autumn 
flowering forms of Epidendrum vitellinum were pointed out, a lot of the 
former being in bloom. It is interesting to note that the latter, which 
comes from a different district, has a narrower and much more elongated 
bulb. There were also batches of Nanodes Medusae and Cochlioda Noetz- 
liana, a few being in bloom, together with Masdevallia ignea and coccinea, 
Odontoglossum Cervantesii and Cattleya citrina. 

In the next Cool house Odontoglossum Edwardii and many others were 
growing well, and various Odontoglossums and Odontiodas were in bloom, 
with plenty of spikes which promise a fine display later on. 

The next house was about half devoted to Cypripedes and the rest to 
the Cattleya group, all being in thriving condition, and among the former 
we noted a lot of C. X Gowerianium in flower and bud, with a good C. 
X Gravesianum bearing a spike of three flowers, and examples of C 
Haynaldianum, ciliolare and others. Lselia anceps grows well here, but 
owing to the bright light has to be shaded. A curious hybrid between 
Lselia tenebrosa and Epidendrum prismatocarpum was in bloom, and the 
flowers have much of the colour of the former and shape of the latter, 
though considerably enlarged. The Cattleyas were mostly not in bloom, 
but were growing well, and a batch of a handsome hybrid between Laelio- 
cattleya X Gottoiana and Cattleya X Hardyana was pointed out as having 
produced some fine things. Lseliocattleya Duncanii appears to be the 
original name of this hybrid. 

The next two houses were largely devoted to hybrid Cattleyas, and 
among a lot of plants in bloom we noted some good examples of Brasso- 
cattleya Veitchii and Brassolaelia Helen in bloom, with forms of Lalio- 
cattleya Wellsiana, Cappei, Balliae, Mercia, Schilleriana and Lydia, and 
some good forms of Cattleya X Frederickiae. The latter is not 
a good grower. But C. x Octavia, another C. Dowiana hybrid, does well, 
and was already producing some good sheaths. A plant of the rare Vanda 
X Maronae here was doing well. 

Then came a house devoted chiefly to the species of Cattleya, with some 
good C. Skinneri and numerous forms of C. Schrcederae and Mendelii in 
bloom, also a flower of C. labiata appearing out of season, which will afford 
an opportunity for some unusual cross. Some good Laelia purpurata were 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 173 

also in bloom, and a plant of Ansellia africana was bearing a fine panicle. 
Some Stanhopeas and other good things were suspended from the roof near 
the entrance, and we noted Gongora quinquenervis and Ccelogyne Mas- 
sangeana in bloom. 

In the Intermediate house which followed, and which was about half 
devoted to Vanda coerulea, in thriving condition, we found a lot of Phaius 
X Norman in bloom, making a fine display, also the pretty little Vanda 
ccerulescens, and some Megaclinium falcatum, with plants of various Bul- 
bophyllums. There were also plants of Bartholina pectinata in bud, Disa 
caulescens, and various other Cape species, including some of the blue- 
flowered section. It is unfortunate that these Cape species should be so 
difficult to keep for any length of time, for they are very beautiful objects in 
their native homes. 

The last was a Warm house, where we found a lot of Phalsenopsis, with 
a few P. amabilis and a number of P. Lueddemanniana in bloom. P. x 
intermedia Portei was in bud, and bearing a fine panicle. There were also 
many of the brilliant Renanthera Imschootiana, Angraecum modestum, a 
batch of Oncidium varicosum flowering very freely, the rare Camarotis 
purpurea, and the beautiful Vanda suavis pallida, in which the spots are 
greenish yellow in colour. Plants of V. ccerulescens Boxallii and Cymbidium 
Huttoni were in bud, while some species of Aerides were pushing a few 
spikes, and among numerous other things which were pointed out were 
plants of Bulbophyllum Ericssoni, virescens, Reinwardtii and Lobbii, the 
latter being in bloom. 

In the Corridor itself a number of Epidendrums have been planted out, 
and are being trained to the sides, E. X Boundii and several others being 
already in bloom. We next proceeded to the second Corridor, and the 
block of seedling houses, which were even more interesting than the others, 
but we made no attempt to keep notes of the different houses, and cannot 
mention a tithe of the interesting crosses that were pointed out. To say 
that there were thousands of seedlings in every stage of existence is only a 
mild way of putting it, but the extent to which hybridising and seedling 
raising have been carried out by Messrs. Charlesworth is pretty well known 
though one requires to see it to appreciate it fully. The plants are for the 
most part pictures of health and vigour, but seedlings of a few remarkable 
crosses grow very slowly, as if there is some incompatibility between the 
constitutions of the two parents that retards their progress. Seedlings of 
Odontoglossum Uroskinneri crossed with crispum grow very well when 
small, but then do badly, as the spot to which the former is subject makes 
its appearance, and this is the case with some others derived from this 

(To be concluded.) 



I74 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, i 9 c 9 . 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
A meeting of this Society was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, 
Vincent Square, Westminster, on May 4th last, when there was a good 
display of Orchids, though the usual falling off in the number of exhibits just 
previous to the Temple Show was noticeable. The awards consisted of four 
Medals, one First-class Certificate, two Botanical Certificates, and one 
Cultural Commendation. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), gained a First-class Certificate for Lseliocattleya Dr. R. 
Schiffman Westonbirt var. (C. Mendelii X L.-c. callistoglossa), a large and 
very beautiful hybrid of perfect shape, having silver-white sepals and petals, 
slightly veined with mauve, and a broad open lip, crimson purple in front, 
with a yellow disc and some purple veining in the throat. He also sent the 
beautiful Odontoglossum X Phcebe Westonbirt var. in excellent condition, 
O. crispum Muriel, a handsome lilac flower spotted with purple, and having 
well-fringed petals, and a fine form of O. triumphans. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford (gr. Mr. White), received 
a Botanical Certificate for Brassavola Martiana, having erect racemes of 
white flowers with a fringed lip, and for Epidendrum densiflorum, with a 
dense inflorescence of green flowers. He also sent Oncidium stramineum, 
a very rare species with fleshy leaves and straw-coloured flowers. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. 
Chapman), received a Cultural Commendation for a splendidly-grown 
example of Odontoglossum X Andersonianum Crawshayanum. 

Miss Edith M. Argles, The Vineyard, Peterborough, sent a well-flowered 
plant of Dendrobium densiflorum bearing ten spikes. It was brought from 
Darjeeling eight years ago, and was now flowering for the first time. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 
the handsome Odontoglossum X Theodora, which is described at page 149, 
and Odontioda Charlesworthii Theodora, a brilliantly coloured form, having 
a tinge of reddish orange on the lip. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
showed the handsome Brassocattleya The Baron (C. X Lord Rothschild X 
B. Digbyana), a handsome hybrid raised by Messrs. Sander, which received 
a First-class Certificate in April, 1906 (O.R., xiv. p. 147). The Certificate 
was confirmed on consideration of the flower being obtained for painting, it 
not being available on the former occasion. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent La^lio- 
cattleya Feronia (C. X Enid X L.-c. Haroldiana), having cream-coloured 
sepals and petals tinged with rose, and a rich purple 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. i 75 

Brassocattleya Pluto, Odontioda Lutetia with a spike of ten flowers, and 
Zygopetalum X Clarksoni (crinitum X Clayi), a handsome hybrid which 
was described at page 156. 

The Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace (gr. Mr. Hunter), showed a 
good form of Cypripedium bellatulum and Odontoglossum crispum Dinah, 
a handsomely blotched form. 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood), sent 
Brassolaelia Rosslyn (L. X Latona X B. Digbyan a), having flowers suffused 
and veined with purple on a white ground. 

E. de Quincey, Esq., Oakwood, Chislehurst (gr. Mr. Lees), sent Laelio- 
cattleya Dorothy Haywood (L. X Pacavia X C. Warneri). 

Mr. C. Ravens, Odense, Denmark, sent Cattleya Lueddemanniana 
Ravens' var., a beautiful white flower veined with purple on the lip. 

J. Rutherford, Esq., Beardwood, Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), sent 
Cattleya intermedia alba, with a few well-grown Laeliocattleyas and 
Odontoglossums, among the latter being O. X amabile Beardwood var., a 
large white flower handsomely blotched with purple. 

Francis Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), sent 
Cattleya Mendelii majestica, a fine form of the species, and C. M. Thalia, a 
nearly white flower with some purple veining on the front of the lip. 

Gurney Wilson, Esq., Glenthorne, Haywards Heath, showed Oncidium 
sphacelatum. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, containing some good Cattleyas and Laeliocattleyas, 
the former including examples of C. intermedia alba and the latter two 
very distinct forms of L.-c. Ganymede, also some good Laelia purpurata, 
Phaiocymbidium chardwarense, Dendrobium atroviolaceum, Brassavola 
Digbyana, Odontoglossum Cervantesii, Scuticaria Hadwenii, Saccolabium 
micranthum, Epiphronitis Veitchii, Oncidium concolor, Miltonia Roezlii, 
Bletia Shepherdii, the rare Bulbophyllum Sillemianum, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, also received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, including some good Dendrobium barbatulum, 
primulinum, chrysotoxum, and thyrsiflorum, Pleurothallis longissima, 
Odontoglossum sceptrum Masereelianum and others, some good Cattleya 
Mendelii, Oncidium pulchellum, the rare Bulbophyllum tremulum, &c. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, including white and rose forms of Odontoglossum 
crispum, O. c. Oakfield Sunrise, a fine O. X Lambeauianum, O X Ander- 
sonianum, Cymbidium x eburneo-Lowianum concolor, C. insigne, some 
good Cattleya Mendelii, C. intermedia alba, &c. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Ghent, also received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
small group of good hybrid Odontoglossums. 



176 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

Messrs. Wm. Bull & Sons, Chelsea, sent a plant of Odontioda 
Vuylstekese with a spike of five flowers, which were not fully expanded. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a small group of 
choice Orchids, including a very fine blotched seedling form of Odonto- 
glossum crispum, the beautiful O. X armainvillierense xanthotes, Brasso- 
cattleya Veitchii, Lseliocattleya Ballii, L.-c. Elinor, Trichopilia suavis, 
Masdevallia bella, Bifrenaria Hadwenii, Cypripedium' X Ediths, C. Argus, 
the pure white Aerides virens Sanderse, Cattleya X Frederick, &c. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, showed a splendidly 
grown specimen of Cattleya Mendelii bearing 96 flowers. 

At the meeting held on May 18th the Orchid exhibits were few in 
number, and the awards were limited to one First-class Certificate and one 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), 
received a First-class Certificate for Odontioda Vuylstekea Crawshayanum 
(C. Ncetzliana X O. Pescatorei), a very handsome form, having the flowers 
of a nearly uniform scarlet red, with the crest yellow. The absence of 
blotching rendered it very distinct from the original form. He also sent 
the charming Odontoglossum X Nerissa (naevium X crispum), and O. X 
Valkyrie (Wilckeanum x nevadense), having dark brown sepals and petals 
and a large, fringed, white lip, blotched with brown on the lower half. 

H. Little, Esq., Baronshalt, Twickenham (gr. Mr. Howard), received a 
Silver Flora Medal for a fine group of 38 well-bloomed plants of Laslia 
purpurata, showing much variation, and the more distinct including the 
varieties bella, picta, rosea, and Russelliana. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, showed a hybrid 
Cymbidium, sa,d to have been raised from C. elegans and C. Tracyanum 
and bearing two cream-coloured flowers on an erect spike 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent Odonto- 
glossum X illustre (Vuylstekei X ardentissimum), having claret purple 
flowers margined with white, and a fine example of Cattleya X Dusseldorfii 
var. Undine, bearing eight of its chaste white flowers 

Lt -Col. G L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt (gr. Mr. Alexander), 
sent Laehocattleya Zoroaster var. Rex (L. x Latona X L.-c Canhamiana 
alba), a fine hybrid having cream yellow flowers, with a violet-purple lip 
margined with cream colour, a spike of Cymbidium Panshii Sander," 
bearing five of its handsome white flowers, blotched with purple on the lio 
and a remarkable panicle of Odontoglossum Pescatorei bearing I25 flowe £ 

l , Tr L ? ' ^ Ddl ' Egham fer - Mr - Balkntine), sent a 

plant of Cattleya tricolor (Rchb. f), a very rare species, whose history is 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 177 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, sent a small -roup of 
Cattleya Mossiae, C. Mendelii and Odontoglossum crispum. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont St. Amand, Ghent, sent a small group of 
hybrid Odontoglossums. 

The late Mr. N. C. Cookson.— The Chairman spoke of the loss sus- 
tained by the Committee in the death of Mr. Norman C. Cookson, one of 
its Vice-Presidents, and a resolution tendering the deep sympathy of the 
Orchid Committee with Mrs. Cookson and the family was passed, on the 
motion of Mr. R. Brooman White, seconded by Mr. J. O'Brien. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
At the meeting held on April 29th only a moderate number of plants were 
exhibited. The following members of the Committee were present : — 
Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Thorp, Ward, Cowan, 
Upjohn, Warburton, Keeling, Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, and 
Weathers (Sec). 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged 
a fine group of plants, which gained a Silver-gilt Medal. It was composed 
of many rare plants, the principal ones being Cypripedium x Archimedes, 
C. niveum, C. X aureum, Odontoglossum luteopurpureum var. Vuyl- 
stekeanum, O. crispum moortebeekiense, and many fine Lselias and Catt- 
leyas. Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya Mendelii var. Gloria Mundi, 
and Scuticaria Hadwenii. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a specially 
fine group of Cypripediums, including the fine C. X majesticum, C. x gigas 
Corndean Hall var., C. bellatulum album and many others (Silver-gilt 
Medal). A fine hybrid from C. X Goweri X C. Godefroyae, named "The 
Caliph," gained a First-class Certificate, and C. Lawrenceanum var. Juno 
and C. bellatulum var. Amelia both received Awards of Merit. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), for a group which 
was divided for " Cup" purposes, gained three Silver Medals, and I noted a 
small group of well-flowered Cattleya Lawrenceana, Cypripedium Rossetti, 
Cymbidium insigne, Odontoglossum X Andersonianum magnificum, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), showed an 
excellent group of Cattleyas, which gained a Silver Medal. The group 
consisted of many fine forms of C. Mendelii, C. Mossiae, C. Schrcederae, 
and two well flowered plants of Dendrobium Falconeri. Cattleya Schrcederae 
var. Diadem received an Award of Merit. 

J. H. Craven, Esq., Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), showed the rare Phrag- 
mopedilum caudatum, Miltonia X Bleuana, and Brassocattleya Veitchii. 
Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), showed a fine form of 
Miltonia X Bleuana, and the albino Cattleya Mendelii Rogersoni. 



I7 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

H. Thorp, Esq., Boothroyden, Rhodes, showed two plants of the new 
Laelia x Rogersii. 

Messrs. Cypher, Cheltenham, staged an interesting group, which included 
Cattleya intermedia alba, C. x Thayeriana, Brassocattleya x Veitchii, 
Dendrobium albosanguineum, &c. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, gained a Silver Medal for a miscellaneous 
group of well flowered plants, in which I noted a distinct Cattleya 
Schroederae, several good Odontoglossum Pescatorei, O. crispum, O. x 
Charlesworthii, &c. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Sussex, gained Awards of Merit for 
Odontoglossum crispum Jensenii and Cattleya Mendelii var. Freda. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed a nice group, which included 
Pleurothallis Birchenallii (First-class Botanical Certificate), Cattleya 
Mendelii with the lip slate blue in front, and others. 

Messrs. Keeling and Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, showed Masdevallia 
Wageneriana, Cypripedium x Yvette var. superbum, and C. X Hartleyanum 
(Godefroyae X Chambedainianum), this latter gaining an Award of Merit. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, showed a group consisting 
of Odontoglossum crispum, O. triumphans, and a good Cypripedium 
callosum. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, showed an excellent type 
of Cattleya Mendelii. 

There was a good exhibition of plants and groups at the meeting held 
on May 13th. The members of the committee present were : Messrs. E. 
Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Ward, Cowan, Keeling, Warburton, 
Leemann, Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, Smith, Thorp, Weathers 
(Secretary), and, by invitation, Mr. R. A. Rolfe. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a fine group 
of well-flowered Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, &c. O. crispum Queen of the 
North and O. X Triumph, two highly-coloured forms, with O. Pescatorei 
Warburton's var., a pure white form, all gained First-class Certificates. 
Cattleya Schroederae White Lady and Stanhopea eburnea gained Awards of 
Merit. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), again staged a fine 
group of Cypripediums, including many varieties of C. bellatulum, C. X 
Caliph, C. X gigas Corndean Hall var., C. X Kitty, &c. (Silver-gilt Medal). 
C. x tessellatum var. Perfection received an Award of Merit. 

Mrs. Armitage, Waterside, Windermere (gr. Mr. Welch), staged a very 
interesting group, the chief attraction being an excellently-grown series of 
Cypripedium bellatulum (which received a Cultural Certificate), C. concolor, 
C. niveum, &c. Brassocattleya x langleyensis Waterside var. gained an 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 179 

Award of Merit, along with Odontoglossum X Adrianae Waterside var., a 
First-class Certificate going to a fine Cypripedium X Alabaster var. Godfrey 
(Godseffianum X Mons. de Curte). I noted several fine Cattleya Mossias, 
C. Mendelii, &c. (Silver Medal for group). 

J. Talbot Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float), staged a good 
group of mixed plants. The distinct Dendrobium Bronckhartii and 
Angraecum infundibulare both gained Awards of Merit. Bulbophyllum 
Lobbii gained a First-class Botanical Certificate, and B. tremulum a Second- 
class ditto. I noted Masdevallia triaristella, Vanda Bensoni var. anchori- 
fera, Cirrhopetalum picturatum, &c. (Silver Medal). 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Xewchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), showed a 
group, which gained a Silver Medal. Odontoglossum X Agesilaus, O. 
crispum Queen of Snow, O. c. Sweetness, and O. X Golden Gem all gained 
Awards of Merit. I noted also O. c Princess Ena, O. triumphans Ash- 
worthianum, and many others of good quality. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr: Weatherby), staged a well- 
flowered group of Odontoglossums, which received a Silver Medal. O. X 
Brightness and O. X amabile var. Harris both received Awards of Merit. 
I noted also O. X percultum, O. X Wilckeanum, O. X spectabile, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), received a 
Silver Medal for a well-flowered group of Cattleyas. C. Mossiae var. aureum, 
C. Mendelii Princess Alexandra, and C. M. Excelsior all gained Awards 
of Merit. I noted also good forms of C. Schroederae, Laelia purpurata, &c. 

O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), received a 
special Vote of Thanks for a fine group of Cypripediums and well-flowered 
Oncidiums. I noted Cypripedium Argus, C. glaucophyllum, C. Mastersii, 
C. Lawrenceanum atrorubens, Oncidium ampliatum, Marshallianum, &c. 

Herbert Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, received a Silver Medal for a good 
°TOUp, in which I noted Cymbidium x Veitchii, C. tigrinum, a good C. 
Lowianum, Lycaste Skinneri alba, Cattleya intermedia, &c. 

J. E. Williamson, Esq., The Grange, Stretford, staged a nice group, 
which included Dendrobium nobile Ballianum, D. n. nobilius, D. Pierardii, 
Chysis bractescens, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), received Awards of Merit 
for Odontoglossum X Beaute-Celeste var. Rogersoni and O. x Stanley. I 
noted a few good O. crispum, including O. c. xanthotes, O. x Adrianae, &c. 

Messrs. Cypher cS: Son, Cheltenham, staged well-flowered plants of 
Cattleya Mossiae, C. Mendelii, Miltonia vexillaria, Lasliocattleya X Gany- 
mede, Cirrhopetalum Wendlandianum, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, received a Silver Medal for a good group, 
which included Phalaenopsis amabilis, Cypripedium niveum, C. bellatulum, 
and many Odontoglossums, Dendrobiums and Cattleyas. 



,8o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, showed Cattleya X 
Dusseldorfii var. Undine, Restrepia maculata, Masdevallia caudata, M. 
Wageneriana, M. X Courtauldiana, and other seasonable plants. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed the rare Oncidiurn Retemeyer- 
ianum, Schlimia trifida, Polystacha pubescens, &c. 

Messrs. Owen, Northvvich, showed varieties of Cattleya Mendelii and 
Laelia purpurata. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, received a Cultural 
Certificate for a well-grown plant of Odontoglossum crispum, bearing over 



THE TEMPLE SHOW. 

The twenty-second annual exhibition of the Royal Horticultural Society in 
the Inner Temple Gardens was held on Tuesday, May 25th, and two follow- 
ing days, and brought together a very large and brilliant display of Orchids, 
though without anything very striking in the way of actual novelty. 
Hybrid Odontoglossurns, however, were well represented in several of the 
groups, and if there was an outstanding feature in the display it was the 
number of brilliantly-coloured Odontiodas, quite a cluster of them being 
represented in Messrs. Charlesworth's group, aad a good many others were 
scattered elsewhere. Three classes on this occasion were set apart for 
Orchids shown by amateurs, and brought out a good competition. The* 
Sherwood Cup for the best group was won by F. M. Ogilvie, Esq., Oxford, 
Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., being second (Silver Cup). For a group not 
exceeding seventy-live square feet a Veitch Memorial Medal and £5 was 
offered, which was won by the Duke of Marlborough, the second prize, a 
small Silver Cup, going to Mr-. Kershaw Wood, Glossop. For a group 
not exceeding thirty-five square feet the first prize (a Silver Cup) was not 
awarded, the second prize, a Silver Flora Medal, going to Richard Ashworth, 
Esq., Manchester. Other Awards were one Gold and five other Medals, 
three Silver Cups, five First-class Certificates, one Award of Merit, 
four Botanical Certificates, and one Cultural Commendation. The Judges 
for Orchids were Messrs. H. J. Chapman, J. Gurney Fowler, H. Little, and 
F. Wellesley, and for the special prize classes Messrs. W. P. Bound, De 
Barri Crawshay, and W. H. White. The weather, which had been pre- 
viously fine, broke in the night, and the Show opened in a downpour of 
rain, which cleared up somewhat in the afternoon, to be succeeded by 
another wet day, which probably had some effect on the attendance. The 
tents, however, were generally well-filled, and the effect of the cool, damp 
weather was to keep the plants beautifully fresh to the last. In the follow- 
ing report we have endeavoured to give the salient features of each group, 
but want of space has prevented us from giving anything like a full report. 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 181 

F. Menteth Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), 
staged a magnificent group, nearly two bays in extent, the plants being of 
high quality and splendidly grown. To it was awarded the Sherwood Cup 
(value £21), as the best group in the Show staged by an amateur. Prominent 
in the group were many fine Odontoglossums, a charming arrangement of 
O. crispum with other species and hybrids occupying the centre, while on 
one side was a group of over thirty Cypripedium x Maudiae and on the 
other side some three dozen C. callosum Sanderas, giving a very fine effect. 
Among the plants noted were the brilliant Odontioda Charlesworthii, O. 
Devossiana, a wholly scarlet form of O. Vuylstekeae, a fine O. Bradshawias, 
with a second form much variegated with white, and a large salmon-red 
form with whitish side lobes to the lip, a few Hue Nfiltonia X Bleuana, 
some good M. vexillaria, a beautiful example of Odontoglossum luteopur- 
pureum Vuylstekeanum, richly-coloured forms of O. x eximium and O. X 
percultum, Brassia verrucosa, some good examples of Cattleya X Dussel- 
dorfii Undine, C. citrina, a fine C. Skinneri, Dendrobium atroviolaceum, a 
very fine D. Falconeri, Epidendrum Parkinsonianum, E. X O'Brienianum, 
Phalaenopsis Lueddemanniana, the fine Trichopilia Backhouseana, some very 
good Laelia purpurata, a few good Cypripedium niveum and C. Godefroyae 
leucochilum, and many other good things, the whole being very tastefully 
arranged. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a remarkably rich and varied group, of about equal extent, in which 
numerous Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, and Miltonia vexillaria made a bril- 
liant display, backed with examples of the floriferous Epidendrum X Boundii, 
Dendrobium pulchellum, Cymbidium Lowianum, C. insigne, C. X Colmanias, 
and others, while in the front were clusters of varieties bedded in mounds 
of moss, so as to bring them well up to the eye. The group was well 
arranged, with an undulating surface, and was awarded a Silver Cup, 
gaining also a similar award as the second prize for the best group of 
Orchids shown by an amateur. Among the showy things noted were some 
good Odontoglossum crispum varieties, including the blotched forms 
Colmanias, Cooksoni, Surprise, Mrs. F. Peeters, and others, O. x Wilcke- 
anum The Don, with spikes of fourteen and fifteen handsome flowers, a 
fine O. X Andersonianum, the greenish-yellow O. Hallii var. E. Ashworth, 
&c., Cattleya Pittiae, C. intermedia coerulea, some fine C. Mossiae, Spatho- 
glottis aurea, Broughtonia sanguinea, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, Brassia 
brachiata, Renanthera Imschootiana, Epiphronitis Veitchii, Diacrium 
bicornutum, Cypripedium Argus, Lycaste cruenta, and numerous others, 
while among the rarer things we noted the beautiful Chondrorhyncha 
Chestertoni, Ccelogyne ochracea and Parishii, the rare Dendrobium 
aduncum, D. bicaudatum, Warscewiczclla discolor, Cirrhopetalum pulchrmn, 



rSa THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909 

the rare South African Lissochilus parviflorus, Pleurothallis astrophora, 
the rare Masdevallia melanoxantha, M. ephippium, M. cucullata, two little 
gems in M. triaristella and M. O'Brieniana, Bulbophyllum barbigerum, a 
good B. Lobbii, Epidiacrium Colmanise (B. nodosa X D. bicornutum), &c. 
An Award of Merit was given to Cattleya Mossiae Gatton Park var., a very 
richly-coloured form, of excellent shape and with exceptionally broad petals, 
and Botanical Certificates to Gongora quinquenervis and the rare Bulbo- 
phyllum lemniscatoides, whose history was given at page 46. 

His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock (gr. 
Mr. Hunter), was awarded the Veitch Memorial Medal and £5 offered to 
amateurs for the best group of Orchids not exceeding 75 square feet. A well 
arranged bank of showy plants was staged, including many good Miltonia 
vexillaria and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum, with a good selection of Laelia 
purpurata, L. tenebrosa, a fine Odontoglossum X Rolfese, and numerous 
other Odontoglossums, a fine example of Chysis bractescens, Cattleya 
citrina, some good C. Mossiae, Laeliocattleya Schilleriana, and other fine 
things. 

Mrs. Kershaw Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), obtained the 
second prize (a small Silver Cup) for a group of well-grown plants, the 
centre of which was a fine C)'mbidium Lowianum with ten spikes. It also 
included some good Cattleya Mossiae, Oncidium sarcodes, Miltonia X 
Bleuana, a fine Phaius Wallichii, Brassia verrucosa, Phalaenopsis 
Schilleriana, Dendrobium atroviolaceum, Ada aurantiaca, Laeliocattleya 
highburiensis, Laslia X Latona and tenebrosa, a fine example of Odonto- 
glossum X excellens, bearing a panicle with ten side branches and a large 
number of buds, but the majority still unexpanded, O. X Adrianae with 
four good spikes, O. Othello and numerous other good Odontoglossums. 
A Silver Cup was awarded by the Council for Orchids and Gloxinias. 

Richard Ashworth, Esq,, Newchurch, Manchester (gr. Mr. Fletcher), 
was awarded a Silver Flora Medal as the second prize for a group not 
exceeding 35 square fee!: (the first prize of a Silver Cup not being awarded). 
The central object was a remarkably fine and well- flowered specimen of 
Dendrcbium Victoria-Regina, grown in a ten inch pan, and bearing 
numerous pseudobulbs, some over a foot long, a Cultural Commendation 
being deservedly awarded. There were also three good plants of Odonto- 
glossum crispum Black Prince, with very dark spots, O. c. xanthotes, O. c. 
heliotropium, and other good forms, the handsome O. luteopurpureum 
Vuylstekeanum, triumphans, x Adrianae, Pescatorei, Cattleya citrina, C. 
Warneri, Bulbophyllum Lobbii, Oncidium cucullatum, Cypripedium 
bellatulum, &c. 

Leopold de Rothschild, Esq., Gunnersbury Park, Acton (gr. Mr. 
Reynolds), showed a remarkably fine group of Vanda teres, about 80 square 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 1&3 

feet in extent, and very profusely flowered, the excellence of which was 
recognised by the award of a Silver Cup. 

Mrs. A. Chalmers, Bromley, Kent, sent a good plant of Dendrobium 
lituiflorum, with two flowering pseudo-bulbs, the best bearing about 16 

M. S. Cooke, Esq., Kingston Hall (gr. Mr. Budall), sent a hybrid 
Odontoglossum bearing a spike with four side branches and about 28 flowers. 
It was called O. X mulus, but the flowers were much larger than the ordinary 
form, and presented some features of O. x Wilckeanum. The flowers were 
yellow well blotched with brown, and the lip showed distinctly the 
luteopurpureum crest. 

The executors of the late Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam- 
on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chapman), sent Odontioda Cooksonas (C. Ncetzliana X 
O. ardentissimum), a pretty orange-scarlet flower, with a rosy margin which 
was separated from the body colour by a narrow yellow line, O. Bradshawiae 
Cookson's var., a very pretty flower of an almost uniform orange-red, 
Odontoglossum X percultum Clive (Rolfeae X ardentissimum), a well- 
blotched and richly coloured form, O. X Cooksonianum (mirificum X 
crispum), most like a well-blotched form of the latter, and O. X Solon 
Cookson's var. (Adrians X ardentissimum), fairly intermediate in shape, 
colour and markings. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a magnificent 
group, remarkable alike for quality and culture, to which a Gold Medal was 
awarded. It was specially remarkable for the number of fine hybrids it 
contained, foremost among which we may mention a charming little cluster 
of Odontiodas near the centre of the group, which included the brilliant O. 
Charles worthii, O. X Lutetia, O. heatonensis, and several forms of O. 
Vuylstekeae and O. Bradshawiae, showing considerable variation in colour 
and markings, and not always easy to distinguish. Odontoglossums 
included many excellent O. crispum, typical and blotched, the latter a 
beautiful series of home-raised seedlings, O. Pescatorei Charlesworthii,some 
richly coloured forms of O. X Lambeauianum and X percultum, the 
charming O. X armainvillierense xanthotes, O. X Othello Golden Glow, a 
beautiful yellow, well-spotted form of excellent shape, O. X Phcebe, O. X 
Thompsonianum, O. X hibernicum, the pretty O. crispum Queen Maud, 
having a spike of 17 flowers, whose small lip and curiously blotched petals 
suggest some peliorate condition, some fine forms of Cattleya Mendelii and 
Mossiae, including the beautiful C. Mossiae Wageneri, a fine plant of C. 
Skinneri, and others, some excellent Laeliocattleya Fascinator, Feronia, 
Golden Glow, Canhamiana, Elinor and others. We noted also some good 
Miltonia vexillaria, the fine Trichopilia Backhouseana, Laelia purpurata, 
Oncidium luridum, O. Brienianum, Sobralia xantholeuca, Dendrobium 



,84 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

X polyphlebiura, Phalaenopsis amabilis, Cymbidium Huttoni, Devonianum 
and insigne, Ornithocephalus grandiflorus, Aerides Houlletianum, Stanhopea 
bucephalus, Gomesa foliosa, some good Epidendrum vitellinum, Renanthera 
Imschootiana, Vanda suavis pallida, Dendrochilum cornutum, Ansellia 
africana, Cochlioda Noetzliana, and many other fine things. First-class 
Certificates were given to Oncidium Charlesworthii, most like a fine dark 
form of O. crispum, with some yellow marbling on the flower, and the base 
of the lip bright yellow blotched with brown, also to Laeliocattleya 
Eurylochus (C. granulosa Schofieldiana X L.-c. Lady Miller), a very 
beautiful thing, having flowers of compact shape and of a glowing orange- 
red, with the front of the lip rosy-crimson, and the tube bronzy yellow. 
The spike bore four flowers, and we understand that other forms from the 
same capsule were of very little decorative value, 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, staged a very beautiful 
group of about two bays in extent, the surface being very pleasingly broken 
up by two deep dells, which gave a very charming effect. A Silver Cup was 
awarded. The centre was made up with a beautiful series of Odonto- 
glossums, diversified with brilliantly coloured Masdevallias, Miltonia 
vexillaria and other good things, while in the dells we noticed a nice lot of 
Cypripedium glaucophyllum, bellatulum, niveum and other Cypripedes. 
Cattleyas, Sophronitis grandiflora, Laelia majalis, Trichopilia tortilis, and 
numerous other things, the larger plants being arranged at the sides and 
back of the group. . Several plants of the handsome Brassocattleya Veitchii, 
made a nice display, and one of them, out of the same capsule, was bright 
rose colour, while close by stood the two parents, forming a very attractive 
group. Near by was B.-c. Thofntoni and B.-c. Wellesleyse Leyswood var., 
with two fine blush white flowers. We noted also the fine Cattleya 
Skinneri Temple's var., exceptionally fine and rich in colour, the chaste C. S. 
alba, a handsome Odontoglossum x percultum, O. X Andersonianum 
leopardinum with four spikes, O. X Armstrongiae, a fine hybrid of 
unrecorded parentage, having white flowers regularly blotched with violet 
purple, a lot of good O. crispum, including a fine O. c. roseum, some 
well-flowered Dendrobium nobile virginale, D. Dearei, Bulbophyllum 
barbigerum, some good Laeliocattleya Aphrodite, L.-c. Mercia, and others, 
the striking Ccelogyne pandurata, and an allied form which was intro- 
duced with it, Cymbidium Lowianum concolor, Lycaste Lawrenceana, 
Cypripedium Mastersianum, a fine C. X callo-Rothschildianum, with a 
spike nearly three feet high and bearing four flowers, C. Gratrixianum, and 
other good things. 

Messrs. Sander and Sons, St. Albans, also staged a very rich and varied 
group of about two bays in extent, and the surface diversified with several 
elevated mounds and dell-like depressions, giving a very picturesque effect. 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 

It contained a brilliant series of Cattleyas, Lseliocattleyas, 
and other showy things, the central object being a well-grown plant of the 
remarkable Odontoglossum crispum solum, bearing a spike of 14 splendidly 
developed flowers, the white sepals and petals, with an occasional spot, 
setting off the deep claret-red lip to great advantage. Among the numerous 
fine things noted were many good O. crispum, including some home-raised 
blotched forms, O. x Lambeauianum, O. X Helicon (excellens X harveng- 
tense), a pretty intermediate form, some good forms of O. X Adrianae, O. 




Fig. 14. Odontoglossum crispum solum. 
X Nysa (Hunnewellianum X triumphans), a pretty hybrid from O. x 
Adrianae X Rolfeae, called O. X tigrinum, having yellow flowers very 
regularly blotched with red-brown, two fine plants of Odontioda Devos- 
siana, two pretty forms of O. chelseiensis (C. vulcanicum X O. crispum), 
Masdevallia coccinea, X Pourbaixii, Arminii, and others, Warscewiczella 
discolor, Oncidium concolor, O. MarshaHianum, O. micropogon, Maxillaria 
Sanderiana and Houtteana, the rare Vanda Parishii Marriotiana, V. teres, 
Cochlioda sanguinea, a very fine example of Cyrtopodium punctatum some 



1 86 fHK ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

handsome Brassocattleyas, the beautiful Cattleya X Dusseldorfii Undine, 
C. Niobe Sander's var., well-flowered examples of Dendrobium densiflorum 
and D. crepidatum, Brassocattleya Veitchii, and the beautiful white variety 
Queen Alexandra, Acanthophippium javanicum, Laelia majalis, Ornitho- 
chilus fuscus, Scaphosepalum ochthodes, Miltonia Weltoni, Epidendrum 
aromaticum, Eria longispicata, Cypripedium niveum, bellatulum, Gode- 
froyae, Mastersianum, Sophrolaelia Danae superba, some good Miltonia 
vexillaria, M. X Bleuana Mrs. F. Sander, a beautiful white flower with 
some rosy lines on the lip, and many other good things. A Silver Cup was 
awarded for Orchids and Foliage plants. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, staged a fine group, over a 
bay in extent, in which Cattleya Mossiae, Mendelii and others were con- 
spicuous. Among interesting things noted were the chaste C. Skinned 
alba, C. Mossiae alba, some good Oncidium Marshallianum and sarcodes, 
the rare O. pulchellum, O. macranthum, maculatum, phymatochilum, and 
unicorne, Diacrium bicornu'tum, Odontoglossum Cervantesii, and others, 
the rare Bulbophyllum Sillemianum, Dendrobium ochreatum and chryso- 
toxum, Gongora nigrita with two fine spikes, Cirrhopetalum Mastersianum 
and Collettii, Dendrochilum latifolium, Cochlioda Noetzliana, Zygopetalum 
crinitum, Epidendrum vitellinum, Spathoglottis X Veitchii, Cypripedium 
niveum, C. bellatulum, C. Lawrenceanum hackbridgense, C. X chrysotoxum 
Victor, and other good forms. A Silver Gilt Medal was awarded. 

Messrs. J. W. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, also received a Silver-gilt 
Flora Medal for a well-arranged group of about a bay in extent, and con- 
taining many fine Orchids, some of which were arranged on moss-covered 
supports. It contained a number of good Phalaenopsis amabilis Rime- 
stadiana, arranged at the back of the group, with good examples of 
Oncidium Marshallianum on either side. The Cattleyas and Odonto- 
glossums were excellent, the latter including some good forms of O. crispum, 
a particularly fine O. X Rolfeae, handsomely marked forms of O. X Ossul- 
stoni and X percultum, O. x spectabile with two good spikes, O. X 
armainvillierense xanthotes, O. X Wilckeanum, Cochlioda Noetzliana, a 
good Odontioda Bradshawiae, Cattleya citrina, some good C. Mendelii, 
Dendrobium atroviolaceum, Epidendrum vitellinum, some good E. Wallisii, 
Bifrenaria Harrisonae pubigera, a good example of Anguloa Clowesii, 
Lycaste lasiogiossa, Renanthera Imschootiana, the handsome Disa X Luna, 
Cymbidium insigne, the rare Vanda pumila, Stelis Miersii, Oncidium 
Krameri, O. Batemannianum, Trichopilia Backhouseana, the rare Galeandra 
lacustris, Leptotes bicolor, and numerous others. 

Messrs. Wm. Bull & Sons, Chelsea, received a Silver-gilt Banksian 
Medal for a bright and attractive group, in which good forms of Cattleya 
Mossiae and Mendelii, Laelia purpurata and Odontoglossums were conspicuous. 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. T 8 7 

We noted a very fine O. x Wilckeanum, the panicle bearing five side 
branches and over forty flowers, good examples of 0. X excellens and 0. X 
spectabile, O. crispum Diadem and Minoru, two prettily blotched forms, 
Cymbidium Lowianum, three good examples of the charming Odontioda 
chelseiensis, Maxillaria Sanderiana, a good Dendrobium Wardianum, 
Cypripedium X Richmanii, and other good things. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a good group, containing a fine series of Miltonia vexillaria, 
Cattleyas, Laelia purpurata, Odontoglossum crispum, &c. We noted the 
charming O. crispum xanthotes, O. X Wilckeanum rubens, a well-coloured 
form, a pretty hybrid between O. cirrhosum and O. X ardentissimum, a 
good O. X percultum, the graceful Coelogyne Dayana, Maxillaria Sander- 
iana, the handsome Oncidium Lanceanum, O. Marshallianum, Brasso- 
cattleya Maroni, Vanda teres, Masdevallia X Courtauldiana, X bocking- 
ensis, and X Measuresiana, the charming Miltonia x Bleuana, Dendrobium 
X polyphlebium, D. clavatum, Cattleya Dusseldorfii Undine, &c. 

Messrs. Stanley & Co., Southgate, received a Silver Banksian Medal for 
a small group, containing some beautiful forms of Cattleya Mossiae, includ- 
ing the white varieties Reineckeana, vestalis and Wageneri, some good 
Odontoglossum crispum and others, the rare Oncidium pulchellum, a 
beautiful white form of Laelia purpurata called The Queen, and others. 

M. Ch. Vuylsteke, Loochristi, Ghent, sent a few very handsome hybrid 
Odontoglossums, three of which gained First-class Certificates, namely, O. 
X mirum Emperor of India (Wilckeanum X crispum), a large and hand- 
some form, of excellent shape and substance, and very heavily blotched 
with brownish purple on a white ground, O. X Aglaon (Vuylstekeas X 
crispum), a fine thing most like the former in general character, but the 
ground colour white, crowded with orange-brown blotches, and the lip 
broad, white, and blotched with chestnut-red, and O. X Princess Victoria 
(of unknown parentage), a handsome deep claret-red flower, with well- 
defined white margin. The group also contained a fine form of O. X 
eximium, and several other handsomely-blotched forms. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, staged a small group, including four 
plants of Cattleya Mendelii, one of which, having very little yellow in the 
throat of the lip, is said to have been found with C. gigas, a plant of the 
rare Uropedium Lindenii, Odontoglossum X Adrianae, and a few others. 
Botanical Certificates were given to Oncidium Retemeyerianum, a rare 
Brazilian species with a dark purple, beetle-like lip, and to Sigmatostalix 
Elias (Rolfe), a very pretty little plant, bearing a long raceme of yellow 
flowers, spotted with red on the lip. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, staged a small group of handsome things, 
including a very pretty Odontioda raised from C. Noetzliana and O. X 



,88 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

ardentissimum, which will be a form of O. Cooksonae, a beautiful form of 
Odontoglossum x Lambeauianum, and some handsomely-blotched seedling 
forms of O. crispum. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, included a few good Orchids in 
a magnificent group of stove plants which gained a Gold Medal. They 
included some good forms of Cattleya Mendelii and C. Mossise, Odonto- 
glossum crispum and Pescatorei, half a dozen good Disa X Luna, Epiden- 
drum vitellinum and X elegantulum, a very fine Oncidium Marshallianum, 
and a splendid example of Brassocattleya Veitchii. 

A number of hardy Orchids were noticed in the groups of herbaceous 
plants. Messrs. Jackson & Sons, Woking, showing a nice lot of Cypri- 
pedium spectabile, pubescens, Calceolus, and acaule. Others were included 
in the group shown by Messrs. Barr & Sons, while Mr. G. Reuthe showed 



THE ORCHID STUD-BOOK. 

THe general consensus of opinion of those best qualified to judge, as regards 
the merits of the Orchid Stud-Book, appears to be highly favourable to the 
system adopted, and full of admiration for the stupendous amount of work 
involved in its compilation. That it is not without some blemishes in no 
way detracts from its value as a vade-mecum to all who in any way have to do 
with Orchids, not the least drawback being that, unless religiously kept posted 
up, it soon becomes out of date. Having, with this object in view, had a 
copy interleaved, I may perhaps, in the light of practical experience, be 
allowed to state my appreciation of the book. 

Having once grasped the principle on which the work is based, and 
having practically tested it, one can have none but unqualified praise, and, 
as has already been said by someone, the wonder is how we have done 
without it so long. To this delay in publication must be attributed that 
" careless and even reckless multiplication of synonymy " to which the 
authors refer. 

A drawback causing considerable inconvenience is the omission in Part 
II. and its supplement of the generic names in full at the top of the pages, 
involving the frequent turning over of pages at times before one can be 
sure what genus is being dealt with. 

In the introduction to the Index of Synonyms, p. 313, it is stated that 
" a few abbreviated words have also been modified in form when diversity 
of practice would have separated those that recur in different forms." It is 
to be regretted that, although a comparatively small and unimportant 
matter, this rational principle of implied spelling was not also adoptrd in 
the case of names beginning with Mc. and Mac, and Saint or St., as well as 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. ' 189 

Mrs., as is done in all important indexes and library catalogues, to the great 
convenience and saving of time and temper of all those who have to use 
them. 

" Nomenclature is a thorny subject, and full of pitfalls," observes 
"Argus" (O.R. xvii., p. 68). Nowhere is the truth of this remark better 
exemplified than in the paragraph whence this quotation is taken, for had he 
pursued the subject of Cypripedium X Curtmanii one step further he would 
have discovered that the other parent, C. X Beeckmanii, is also only a form 
of an older hybrid, i.e. , C. X Berkeleyanum, and the parentage, on the 
principle of the Orchid Stud- Book, would therefore be formulated as follows : 
Berkeleyanum X Schlesingerianum. The interesting question now arises: 
Is the name Curtmanii valid or must it be altered ? 

People who live in glass houses should not throw stones, and when 
" Argus " (ante, p. 103) writes about the Orchid Committee of the R.H.S. 
neglecting or forgetting the rules drawn up by a Nomenclature Committee 
years ago, one naturally wonders that the authors of the Orchid Stud-Book allow 
anomalies to appear in print in the Orchid Review such as : 1, Odontoglossum 
X Hellenus (X harvengtense X crispum) (ante, p. 85), and O.. X Helenus 
(harvengtense x Coradinei) (p. 116), and 2, Cypripedium x Iris magnificum 
(Chamberlainianum X Maudiae) (ante, p. 84), while the Orchid Sttid-Book 
(p. 169) gives Paphiopedilum ciliolare and P. X Sementa as the parents of 
P. X Iris. The excuse which may be advanced, that similar discrepancies 
are unavoidable in hurried reports of meetings, does not apply to such an 
oversight as that in the continuation of the Orchid Stud-Book (ante, p. 106), 
where Lseliocattleya X Electra is given as the result of a cross between 
Cattleya Trianae and Leelia X Latona, whereas a reference to the Orchid 
Stud-Book (p. 112) shows that the offspring of Cattleya Percivaliana and 
Lselia purpurata has already received that name. 

If the present rate of increase of Orchid hybrids be maintained, a new 
edition of the Stud-Book will be required before five years have passed, and 
if so it is to be hoped there will be no necessity for supplements, as the 
constant turning from the body of the book to the two respective 
supplements and vice versa is somewhat trying. It is also to be hoped that 
in the new edition the authors will see fit to add the dates to the list of 
works cited after the Introduction on pages xlvii. and xlviii. 

G. K. Gude. 

[We thank Mr. Gude for his appreciative remarks, and hope that he will 
succeed in his praiseworthy attempt to keep his copy up-to-date. We have 
a few remarks to make in reply, and will take the points seriatim. 

The omission of the generic names from the top of the page in Part II. 
and its supplement was the result of accident. Instructions were given to 



i go THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909 

repeat these names, and were carried out in Part I. ; their omission from 
Part II. was overlooked till a sheet was printed, after which they were 
omitted uniformly. 

The object of the Index was to give the names in their actual form. 
The few modifications were those in which diversity of abbreviation occurred, 
and we admit that the principle of implied spelling might have been carried 
further. 

We shall leave " Argus " to fight his own battles, but we cannot see that 
the argument about C. x Beeckmanii applies. The point seems to be that 
Curtisii, rather than M. de Curte, suggests itself as the first parent— which 
is not the case. C. X Berkeleyanum is not an older name than C. X 
Beeckmanii, but the foot-note shows that the latter is a doubtful hybrid. It 
may or not be correctly referred. We think Curtmanii must be adopted. 

We are in no way responsible for the name C. X Iris magnificum 
(Chamberlainianum X Maudiae) — we (like others) merely recorded an event 
which took place. The same remark applies to the earlier case, except that 
the misspelling of O. X Helenus in the earlier report escaped detection in 
the proof ; also the different parentage. It is not practicable to apply the 
Stud-Book principles to these reports. 

The case of Laeliocattleya X Electra is certainly different. Twelve 
new hybrids were described, and we checked every record, but somehow 
failed to detect the earlier use of the name. As L.-c. x Electra cannot 
stand for the latter hybrid, we propose to call it L.-c. Eira, which name 
appears to be free. 

We hope to receive a greater amount of assistance from hybridists in 
correcting such errors as they may detect, as well as in other respects, before 
commencing a second edition, and would urge those of our readers who 
have not obtained copies to do so at once. Applications should be sent to 
us direct.— Ed. Orch. Rev.; 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

Several interesting flowers are sent from the collection of G. H. Peace, 
Esq., Monton Grange, Eccles. A form of Odontoglossum triumphans has 
the sepals almost entirely brown, and the yellow on the petals much 
reduced, contrasting strongly with the typical form, while another has 
short, well-marked segments, and consequently a rounder flower than usual. 
They are flowering for the first time. Several good forms of Dendrobium 
nobile. including: D. n. Ballianum, and a flower of D. X Wiganias are also 

A beautiful flower of Cattleya Schrcederas alba is sent from the collection 
of James Geddes, Esq., of Ascot. It is of excellent shape, the petals being 
very broad, and the colour clear white, with the usual deep yellow blotch 



June, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 191 

in the throat. The plant was imported in 1907, and has flowered twice, 
this time bearing seven flowers. 

A flower of the pretty Cattleya Schroederse highburiensis is sent from 
the collection of the Right Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P., by Mr. Mackay, 
who remarks that the plant is bearing seven flowers. The petals are broad, 
and the colour blush pink, with a slightly darker, much crisped lip, and a 
buff yellow blotch in the throat. A fine bloom of Odorrtoglossum crispum 
is also enclosed, measuring over 41 inches from tip to tip of the petals, and 
having a few brown blotches on the lateral sepals and lip. 

Several very handsome Odontoglossums are sent from the collection ot 
H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney, by Mr. Day. They include several 
forms of the very variable O. Lambeauianum, and among the more distinct 
is a beautiful white form, with a large purple-red blotch at the base of each 
segment, and another very beautiful variety with purple ground colour, and 
very numerous small blotches, which are almost confluent in the petals. 
There are also good blotched forms of O. crispum and O. X armainvil- 
lierense, with a fine O. X Wiganianum. They form a very distinct and 
beautiful series, but are unnamed, so that we cannot say which of them 
represent special varieties. 

A flower of the very handsome Cattleya X Dr. R. Schiffman Westonbirt 
var., which received a First-class Certificate from the R.H.S. on May 4th, 
is sent from the collection of Lieut. -Col. G. L. Holford, Westonbirt, by 
Mr. Alexander. It is exceptionally large, and has very broad blush-pink 
sepals and petals, and a bright purple-lip, with a yellow disc and a whitish 
area on each of the side lobes. 

A fine form of Cattleya Mendelii, called C. M. majestica, is sent from 
the collection of F. Wellesley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins). 
The flower is blush-pink, with the front lobe of the lip purple, and some 
light yellow in the throat. 

NOTES. 
Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during June, on the 8th 
and 22nd, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 
o'clock noon. 

On the second date the first Masters' Memorial Lecture will be delivered 
at 3 p.m. by Professor Hugo de Vries, the subject being Masters" Vegetable 
Teratology. Chairman, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart. The following meeting 
is the Society's great Summer Show, to be held at Holland House, 
Kensington, on July 6th and 7th. 

The Cercle des Orchidophiles Beiges, originally founded in 188S, has 
been reconstituted, and we have just received a Book of Rules, and list of 



1 92 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [June, 1909. 

members and officers. The Committee consists of Messrs. Jules Hye de 
Crom, President d' Honneur; Charles Vuylsteke, Vice-President d'Honneur; 
Compte Joseph de Hemptinne and Firmin Lambeau, Presidents ; Gustave 
Vincke-Dujardin and Charles Dietrich. Vice-Presidents; Maurice Verdonck, 
Secretaire ; Theodore Pauwels, Secretaire-adjoint ; Emile Praet, Commissaire 
general ; Dr. Georges Ballion, Tresorier ; Mme. Louis Hemptinne, Emile 
Duchesne, Jules Closon, Eugene Pourbaix and Alfred Janssens, Conseillers. 
The meetings are to be held at Ghent, but we have not yet received the dates. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Cycnoches peruvianum. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 309, fig. 133. 

Cymbidium insigne Sanderi.— Jonm. Hort., 1909, i. p. 415, with fig. 

Cypripedium hirsuto-Sallieri.— Jouni. Hort., 1909, i. p. 439, with fig. 

Cypripedium insigne Grand Monarch.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 375, 
376, with fig. 

Cypripedium insigne Gwynedd.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 375, 376, 
with fig. 

Dendrobium Bronckartii, Wildem.— Bot. Mag., t. 8252. 

Dendrobium X chessingtonense.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 394, 395, 
with fig. 

Dendrobium nobile virginale.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 394, 395, 
with fig. 

L^liocattleya Dr. R. Schiffman Westonbirt var.— Gard. Mag., 
1909, p. 371, with fig. 

Maxillaria Sanderiana.— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 414, with fig. 

Megaclinium purpureorachis.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 293, fig. 126. 

Odontioda chelseiensis. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 348, fig. 153. 

Odontioda X Ernest Henry.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 321, fig. 138. 

Odontoglossum crispum Minoru.— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 423, with fig. 

Odontoglossum X Theodora.— Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 332, 338, with 
fig. ; Journ. Hort., 1909, i. p. 391, with fig. 

Phal.enopsis gigantea. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 306, fig. T31. 

Trichopilia Backhouseana.— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 421, with fig. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

[Orchids are named and questions answered here as far as possible. Correspondents are 
requested to give tin iti t ;, <<r parentage of plants sent. An addressed postcard must be 

sent if a reply by ; thoutd be used). Subjects of special interest 

xvill be dealt with in the body of the work]. 

Owing to pressure on our space caused by the Temple Show, the continuation of the 
" Evolution of the Orchidaceas" and several notes are unavoidably postponed. 

K. H. Unusually small for Masdevallia Veitchiana, but possibly undeveloped, 

hybrid between L. purpurata and 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE ORCHIDACEiE. 

(Continued from page 132.) 
The essential characters of the great suborder Monandrse were outlined in 
our last paper (p. 132), and we saw that they consisted of the reduction of the 
stamens to a single one in normal flowers, the cohesion of the pollen grains 
into pollinia, and the modification of the third stigmatic lobe into a 
rostellum, whose function is to secrete a viscous by which the pollinia are 
fixed to the body of the fertilising insect, these characters being adaptations 
to secure cross-fertilisation by particular insects. 

The rostellum is a new organ, and before going further it may be well 
to indicate its origin and function more clearly. It is a modification of the 
median or third stigmatic lobe, and the viscous it secretes is a modification of 
that of an ordinary stigma, but it possesses the property of drying very 
quickly on exposure to the air, while that of the stigma remains moist for a 
long period — a remarkable adaptation to secure its particular purpose. The 
rostellum is at first quite distinct from the anther, but in the higher genera 
the union of the two is so complete as to obscure the fact. The hybridist 
who touches the front of the anther of an Odontoglossum with a pencil or 
piece of stick in order to remove the pollinia for hybridising purposes, finds 
the yellow pollen masses attached to the apex of a slender white stalk, 
called the stipes, which proceeds from a small dark-coloured body, called the 
gland, but the two latter do not belong to the anther at all. They are 
portions of the rostellum, which only separate at a very late stage in the 
development of the flower, and adhere to the united mass of pollen grains 
from the anther cells which constitute the pollinia proper. This united 
mass, part male and part female in its origin, is called the pollinarium, and 
is characteristic of the large tribe Vandeae. 

The union of the pollen grains is another adaptation, all stages of which 
may be traced. In the higher groups the contents of each anther cell are 
covered by a waxy coat, while still earlier the pollinia are seen to be united 
into a number of little packets, each attached to a central axis by a little 
stalk, forming the so-called sectile pollinia of the Neottieae and Ophrydeae. 
In the genera with powdery pollen the grains, if examined under a 



i 94 The Orchid review. [July, 1909. 

microscope, are seen to cohere in fours, called tetrads. This is the earliest 
stage of union, and its significance consists in the fact that during the 
formation of the pollen grains one mother cell divides into four daughter 
cells, as they are termed, and the four daughter cells remain in union, instead 
of forming separate grains, as in ordinary plants. The further union of 
these tetrads into pollinia is secured by modified pollen grains, which form 
connecting threads and the stalk and axis found in sectile pollinia. The 
caudicle of the Ophrydese, which is so well seen in the remarkable South 
African Bonatea speciosa, is also formed of modified pollen grains. 

Thus we see that the rostellum and pollinia, together with the column, 
and in some cases the lip also, have progressed through increasing stages of 
complexity, and we will now endeavour to return as nearly as possible to the 
original starting point. This takes us back to the tribe Arethuseae, where the 
union between the anther and rostellum has not taken place. The genus 
Pogonia is one of the most primitive of existing forms, and here we find the 
anther attached to the apex of the column by a short but distinct filament, 
situated close to the rostellum, but quite free from it, and versatile. The 
pollinia are powdery and very friable, the compound grains being only held 
together by a few slender threads, so that they often break up with a 
comparatively slight touch. The sepals are somewhat connivent, and the 
lip forms the landing stage on which the insect alights. On entering the 
flower the insect touches the rostellum, liberating some of the glutinous 
matter, which in turn comes in contact with the pollinia, and on the insect 
retreating the pollinia adhere to its body, and are thus carried to the next 
flower visited, when they get left upon the stigma, and pollination takes 
place. 

Pogonia ophioglossoides is a very beautiful North American Orchid, 
which Meehan remarks grows generally in bogs, among sphagnum and 
sedges, and sometimes a bog will be perfectly ablaze with the bright purple 
blossoms. It is widely diffused in suitable localities from Canada to Florida, 
and occurs also in China and Japan. According to Scudder, the pollen 
consists of powdery grains not united by threads, and he also remarks that 
the rostellum is absent, which would make it more primitive in structure 
than other members of the genus— at all events in the extended sense of the 
Genera Plantarum. In this work Nervilia, Cleistes and one or two others 
are included in Pogonia, and species of the former are known in cultivation, 
and possess a rostellum, which secretes viscid matter, but is quite free from 
the anther. Nervilia is widely diffused in the warmer regions of the Old 
World, and Cleistes is exclusively American. 

Arethusa and Calopogon are allied genera of North American swamp 
Orchids, and the latter is distinguished by having the lip uppermost, and 
bearded on the upper side with long, club-shaped hairs. In Arethusa the 



July, i 9 og.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. n;5 

sepals and petals are coherent below, and arch over above, while the lip is 
recurved beneath, thus forming a landing stage for the insect immediately 
in front of the mouth of the tube. 

The character of having powdery pollen and the anther free from the 
rostellum is characteristic of numerous other genera, which Lindley grouped 
together in a distinct tribe, under the name Arethuseae, but which 
Bentham afterwards united with Neottieae, partly because of the difficulty of 
placing some of the genera in their correct position. The Neottieae, how- 
ever, as defined by Lindley, show a marked advance in structure, as will 
presently be seen, and it seems probable that most of the doubtful genera 
will fall into their natural positions when better known. The majority are 
not known in cultivation, and the pollinia, from their very nature, are 
difficult to make out from dried specimens. A few are also colourless 
saprophytes, and the affinities of these degraded types are not always easy to 
make out, even when the plants themselves are well known, and the latter is 
not always the case. 

Lindley divided the tribe Arethuseae into three smaller divisions, 
Euarethuseae, Vanilleae, and Gastrodieae, but the latter consists of two 
genera of leafless saprophytes, Gastrodia and Epipogon, which have sectile 
pollinia, and the latter has the pollinia attached to a rostellar gland, both 
characters indicating a higher degree of specialisation. In Euarethuseae he 
included Pogonia, with the allied genera since included in it, Calopogon, 
Arethusa, the Chilian genus Chlorasa with its near allies Asarca and 
Bipinnula, Cephalanthera, which Darwin considers a degraded type close 
to Epipactis, and several of the Australasian genera now referred to the 
subtribe Diurideae. Disregarding the doubtful types it is quite clear that 
here we have the most primitive genera of the Monandrae. They are all 
terrestrial plants, with comparatively simple structure, as in the genera 
above mentioned. 

Lindley's other division of the Arethuseae is Vanilleae, in which he 
included Vanilla, Epistephium, Sobralia, and the genera now included 
under Galeola. In the structure of the column and pollinia the genera of 
Vanilleae closely resemble Euarethuseae, though in habit there are marked 
differences. Sobralia is a genus of reed-like plants, in habit closely 
resembling Selenipedilum, with plicate, strongly-ribbed leaves, and showy 
terminal Cattleya-like (lowers, and having the segments more or less united 
at the base. Epistephium is pretty similar in habit, but has a small 
cupulate calyculus at the base of the segments. Vanilla is a genus of 
tropical climbers, often ascending to the top of the tallest trees, and there 
producing spikes of green or sometimes yellowish flowers. The fruit of 
Vanilla planifolia is aromatic and furnishes the Vanilla of commerce. The 
pollen grains of Vanilla are not united by thread- but by viscous matter, 



i 9 6 The orchid review. [July, 1909. 

and the rostellum is hinged and flap-like over the stigma. The lip is 
united to the margins of the column, forming a tube, and is furnished about 
the centre with a large crest, consisting of a series of imbricating scales 
pointing downwards, which offer no impediment to an insect entering the 
flower, but compel it on retreating to press against the column, thus 
ensuring the removal of the pollen masses. On visiting a second flower the 
pollen would inevitably be left on the stigma, for the flap-like rostellum is 
lifted up and the stigma exposed. It is noteworthy that in Central America 
the native home of the Vanilla, the flowers are fertilised by small bees, but 
elsewhere, where the plant is cultivated for economic purposes, artificial 
fertilisation has to be resorted to. Other peculiarities are that the fruit is 
fleshy, and the seeds have a crustaceous, smooth, not reticulated testa. 
There are many species of Vanilla, the genus being widely dispersed 
through the tropics, but the majority are of no economic importance. 
Galeola is an allied genus of leafless saprophytes, having fleshy fruits and 
winged seeds. The whole plant is yellow, brown, or sometimes reddish in 
colour, the inflorescence much branched, and the flower approaching Vanilla 
in structure. The genus ranges from India to Australia, and contains about 
a dozen species. 

The subtribe Diurideae, as defined by Bentham, is for the most part 
Australasian, with a few species extending into the Indo-Malayan region. 
They are very rarely cultivated. Bentham remarks that they approach 
Arethusese in their vegetation characters and Spiranthese in their erect 
anther. There are just over twenty Australasian genera and some 200 
species. They are terrestrial, and the rhizome is generally more or less 
tuberiferous, with simple erect stems, in some cases producing several 
leaves, in others only a single one, a very few being leafless. The spike or 
raceme is simple and terminal. The anther is erect or leaning forward, and 
the rostellum is terminal and erect, very often short, but sometimes as long 
as the anther. The pollen is powdery or granular, sometimes so compact 
as to appear solid, in some genera free, in others attached to the rostellum. 
The perianth also shows the greatest diversity in shape and structural 
details, as may be seen by the numerous excellent figures given by 
Fitzgerald in his Australian Orchids. Lindley placed some of the genera in 
Arethuseae and others in Neottieae, but there is such a marked similarity and 
gradation between the different genera as to suggest for them a single 
origin, and as the Indo-Malayan species are very few in number and generally 
closely allied to Australian ones, Bentham suggests for the whole group an 
Australasian origin. The progressive development of the genera has not 
yet been worked out. The group is well represented in New Zealand and 
New Caledonia. R. A. R. 

{To be continued.) 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHW REVIEW. 197 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR JULY. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
General Remarks.— During the next month the boilers and hot water 
pipes should be overhauled, and all defects made good before we are likely 
to have any cold spells, as so often happens in the autumn, when these jobs 
are left over. All boilers should be flushed out, and refilled with soft water 
if possible, and all faulty joints should be renewed. It is cheaper in the 
end to renew faulty joints than to patch them up, as they have a weakness 
for bursting in frosty weather, just when they are most wanted to be in 
good working order. Where saddle section boilers are used, all brick 
setting and flues should be overhauled and put in good order, so that no 
faulty flues will be discovered in the winter time. Here we use the sectional 
boilers and find them very easy to work, as the flues and every part of them 
can be easily got at, and it can be seen at once whether the boiler or stoker 
is at fault. We find, too, that sectional boilers are much more economical 
to use, especially where high temperatures are required, for there is 
practically no waste with fuel, as the whole of the boiler is heating surface. 
For long distance driving they are very fine for maintaining temperatures, 
very even with very little labour and attention, and should anything go 
wrong in winter, it can easily be seen if it is the boiler that is leaking, 
without pulling down a lot of brickwork. 

The Houses should also be overhauled, and all cracked and broken 
glass renewed. Any rotten rafters should be seen to before the weather 
gets cold. Houses that require painting should be done and made water- 
tight for the winter. 

Watering.— Plants should be looked over every day, as practically 
everything is now growing. If a plant is dry give it a good soaking, not 
just moisten the top, especially where the houses are lightly shaded. All 
hanging plants should be examined every day, and the dry ones plunged in a 
bucket of water to make sure they get soaked through. It is no use watering 
a plant with a can when it has got very dry, especially if in a basket, as it 
just runs off and does no good. Newly potted plants should be well looked 
after when watering, as many species soon suffer if left too dry. If a plant 
is in good condition it will seldom shrivel when potted, if well looked after 
afterwards. Give them a good soaking, then let them dry out before giving 
more, as sprinkling the surface every day is very misleading, for the tops are 
continually wet and underneath the compost is quite dry, and the plants 
shrivel in consequence. 

Cypripediums, PHALvENOPSis, and all the soft-growing section should be 
kept well shaded, with plenty of moisture in the houses, giving air every day 
if possible. Keep them well syringed, especially when the outside conditions 



198 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

are very dry, as it keeps them free from thrip and red spider, and also keeps 
the foliage in a healthy condition, which means everything where good 
flowers are required. 

Cattleyas, Laelia anceps, Dendrobes, and all the harder growing 
section will only need sufficient shade to prevent scalding, as they enjoy 
plenty of sunshine, and also plenty of water in their growing season. The 
blinds can be lowered and drawn up much later and earlier than on the 
softer-leaved section. Plenty of air and moisture will counteract the extra 
heat, so long as excessive fire heat is not used. It is far better to let the 
fires out than to use a lot of heat during the summer months. 

Dendrobium fimbeiatum and its variety oculatum will be passing out 
of flower, and plants that require repotting should be done as soon as they 
start to grow, for they begin to make roots immediately afterwards. There 
are some beautiful varieties in the summer-flowering section, although the 
flowers do not last so long as those of the winter-flowering species. Most 
of the yellow ones are large growing varieties, and will do well in the gable 
end of the Cattleya house or Stove, provided they get plenty of sun. When 
repotting, the plants should be broken up, and the strongest growths potted 
separately, and all useless back bulbs should also be removed. Give plenty 
of pot room, as they flower better when not disturbed very often. If care- 
fully watered for a time they soon fill the pots with roots. A mixture of 
Osmunda and Polypodium fibre, with plenty of small crocks, will suit them. 
1 require similar treatment, 
a very pretty species, and when well- 
of flowers during the summer months. This 
suspended from the roof of the Stove. It 
likes plenty of water. D. Bensonise is also 
a very pretty variety, and will do better in the Cattleya house than in the 
Stove. D. atroviolaceum will also do well in the Cattleya house provided 
it gets plenty of water. Any that need potting should be seen to as soon 
as they commence to grow. Those that are repotted will do better on the 
stage until they get established, when they can be suspended from the roof. 
The summer-flowering species are well worth growing, as they form a good 
contrast to the more showy Cattleyas. They are also very little trouble to 
grow, but must not be wintered as cool as D. Wardianum and D. nobile. 
They should be left in a temperature that will not fall below 6o°. 

Imported Dendrobiums.— Just recently a large importation of 
Dendrobium Dearei has arrived. This is a very beautiful Dendrobe, and 
until recently has been rather scarce. The imported plants should give a 
wealth of flowers shortly. It requires stove temperature. Osmunda and 
Polypodium fibre mixed will suit all these varieties, and care should be 
taken not to overpot the small growers. Where plenty of water is used, 



D. Gibsc 


>ni an 


d D. Dalhousiear 


Den: 




UM BARBATULUM 


grown w 


ill gr 


ve a profusion ol 


being a 


small 


er grower can b 


should n 


otbe 


over-potted, as it 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. i 99 

both for damping and syringing, green fly is about the only pest that will 
attack them, and this can easily be got rid of by fumigating lightly. Thrip 
will not live where plenty of water is used. 

L^lia purpurata & L. tenebrosa will both have finished flowering, 
and any plants that require potting should be done as soon as they 
commence to root. These make fine specimen plants, and will flower well 
when left undisturbed for several seasons. When potting specimens good 
lasting material should be used, so that a top-dressing will keep them 
going for several seasons. Osmunda fibre and oak leaves will easily last 
three seasons if properly watered. In repotting, great care must be taken 
not to break the roots, as L. purpurata is very impatient of being 
disturbed. Ample room should be allowed in repotting, and the leads 
should be turned inwards, not facing straight over the rim of the pot. 
Keep the rhizome just below the rim of the pot, so that plenty of water can 
be given during the growing season. Spread the roots out evenly in the 
pots, and work lumpy material in between the roots, and finish the top off 
neatly just below the rim of the pot, not in a cone shape, if a good specimen 
is wanted. Watering a cone of compost is like pouring water on a duck's 
back, for the water flows off with about as much effect. Keep the plants 
well shaded for a time after potting. A mat thrown over the glass under the 
blinds will make a capital shading. For a potting compost use Osmunda 
fibre and good oak leaves, with plenty of crocks mixed in, and pot firmly 
A few moss heads can be worked in on top if preferred, but we have 
given up its use. One cannot tell when the compost requires water. 

Oncidiums. — The winter-flowering section will be making up their 
bulbs, and should be given plenty of water, also plenty of sunshine. Just 
enough shade to keep them from scalding will dry them out quickly, and 
ripen the bulbs. They grow better when they are well ripened, and are 
not much trouble to get through the winter. When grown soft they will 
often spot, and the bulbs rot away. As they are very free flowering, every 
encouragement should be given them to make up good bulbs, and they give 
good returns for labour spent on them. Give plenty of air, and watch for 
slugs, as they are very fond of the roots and young growths also. They can 
easily be trapped with lettuce leaves. We find in not using moss for 
topping them that we do not get bothered with slugs much. Osmunda 
fibre seems to be objectionable to slugs. 

Odontoglossums should be kept as cool as possible. On very hot days 
a good circulation of air, and sprinkling of flour and water on the glass will 
keep them in good condition. Even in very hot weather care must be 
taken not to create a draught, which can easily be done. A place where 
one feels likely to get a stiff neck is not a place for growing Orchids in, or 
any other plants, tender or not. 



200 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

DENDROBIUM NOBILE VIRGINALE. 

A house full of this chaste and beautiful variety would be a sight worth 
seeing. Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, of Tunbridge Wells, write to us as 
follows : — " We are sending two photographs of a house of Dendrobium 
nobile virginale, one taken in April, 1908, the next in April, 1909. The 
plants are the same, but this year they are much finer, owing to their 
flowering on much stronger bulbs. There are over 200 plants in bloom in 
each photograph, all of which were raised from one seed pod, besides 
several hundred others which were sold previous to flowering, and we have 




not had a single coloured form among them. They are much more vigorous 
than the parent plant, and have larger flowers, which are finer in substance, 
and, as will be seen by the photograph, much more free in flowering. The 
parent plant was fertilised in March, 1903, and the seed sown in April, 
1904." 

We have selected the later photograph for reproduction on the opposite 
page, though it is impossible to do justice to such a fine lot of plants in the 
space at command. The variety, however, is now well known, and the aid 
of a little imagination will enable our readers to realise what the effect of 
such a display must have been, even if they had not the good fortune to 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



see the plants which have beer 
Manchester. How many rlowe 
taken we should not like to guess, 
must have been many thousands 



lited by the firm in London and 
» open when the photograph was 
: the most modest compilation there 
single flower represents the original 




taken at the time of its first 
history was given (O.R., v. p. 
45» fig- 8). Other albinos afterwards appeared among imported plants, 
and it is rather curious that the variety did not appear earlier, considering 



D. n. virginale, and is from a phot 
appearance only twelve years ago, w 



202 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

how long the species has been known in cultivation. About this time, how- 
ever, D. nobile was being imported in enormous quantities, and from a new 
district, from which the other albino forms may also have come. D. n. 
virginale was first raised true from seed in the collection of R. G. Thwaites, 
Esq., of Streatham, seedling plants being exhibited at a meeting of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, on March 8th, 1904 (O.R., xii. pp." 103, 114). 
We had previously recorded the existence of a batch of seedlings, and 
the fact that the cross was made to see if the variety would come 
true from seed. The result has been amply confirmed by the 
experiment of Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, who exhibited a home-raised 
seedling in bloom at the R.H.S. meeting held on March 5th, 1907, and a 
group of about 150 others about a month later, to which a Silver-gilt Flora 
Medal was awarded (O.R., xv. pp. 
been exhibited, both in London 
Brown must be congratulated on the success of their experiment, which 
might well be repeated in the case of other rare varieties which can neither 
be imported in quantity nor propagated rapidly by the usual method of 
dividing. The experience gained in raising hybrid seedlings might thus 
be put to very useful account. 



ORCHID COLLECTIONS ROUND MANCHESTER. 

In no corner of England are there so many Orchid collections as in the 
district round Manchester, and evidence of the enthusiasm of their owners 
is furnished by the fact that for the last twelve years the Manchester and 
North of England Orchid Society has held a series of fortnightly meetings 
without the aid of other attractions. At many of these meetings there have 
been magnificent displays of Orchids, and during the past year competitions 
for no fewer than five trophies have been in progress, the awards being 
made on the aggregate number of points gained by exhibitors. We have 
been informed that there are hundreds of Orchid collections within a 
radius of twenty miles around Manchester, and although the number 
includes some of very modest dimensions, there are many of considerable 
importance, and the number, we believe, tends to increase. A few notes 
from such a centre is sure to be interesting, and the following were made 

The Vine House Collection. 
One of the leading collections in the district is that of A. Warburton, 
Esq., Vine House, Haslingden, who has secured the premier awards in the 
competitions of the Manchester Orchid Society for the past year. This 
collection is particularly rich in choice Odontoglossums, and in species and 
hybrids of the Cattleya group, but we also saw a fine lot of Cypripedes, and 
some other interesting things, including many of the inevitable seedlings, 



July 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 203 

in the raising of which Mr. Dalgleish, Mr. Warburton's excellent gardener, 
is very successful. 

The Odontoglossums are a magnificent lot, clean, sturdy plants, with 
large bulbs and leaves perfect to the tips, while the forest of strong spikes 
which were pushing up promised a brilliant display of flowers in the course 
of a few weeks. A good many plants were already in bloom, particularly 
in one long house, where some good O. Pescatorei, O. triumphans, the ever- 
popular O. crispum, O. X Adrianas, and various other hybrids were 
forming a good display. A plant of the beautiful deep yellow O. 
luteopurpureum Vuylstekeanum carried two strong spikes with twelve 
flowers each, and contrasted effectively with some good examples of the 
type. It was very interesting to see the original plant of O. X ardentis- 
simum in bloom, and the flowers were said to have been out for a month. 
Some seedlings between it and O. X Adrians were also pointed out. A 
strong plant of O. crispum bore spikes of ten and eleven flowers, and the 
handsomely-blotched O. c. meleagris and O. c. moortebeekiense were finely 
in bloom, the latter having clear white ground and sharply defined 
reddish purple blotches. O. c. Queen of the North, just previously 
certificated at Manchester, bore spikes of twelve and six flowers, and a 
specially fine blush pink form was also pointed out, the plant being 
remarkably strong. O. Pescatorei album bore a very fine spike, the flowers 
being pure white with a deep yellow crest. A handsomely-blotched form of 
O. X Wilckeanum with clear white ground was also noted, with good 
forms of O. Kegeljani, O. X harvengtense, and a very fine O. X 
Ruckerianum. Many other varieties, including excellent forms of O. 
crispum, typical and blotched, were passed over. Selection has been carried 
on here for a very long period, while many other fine things have been 
purchased, the result being that the collection is rich in choice forms, and 
it was specially pleasing to see everything in such excellent health. 

In another Odontoglossum house we noted O. gloriosum bearing a fine 
panicle with six branches, O. cordatum, a good O. X elegantius, O. Rossii, 
O. X Andersonianum, and a lot of O. crispum in spike, with a few in flower. 
Evidence of hybridising was seen in a capsule of Odontoglossum luteopur- 
pureum X Rolfeee, while a young capsule on Sophronitis grandiflora as the 
result of crossing with Odontoglossum crispum was pointed out as a 
curiosity, though it is not expected to mature, or at least not to contain 
good seed. There were also fine examples of Oncidium Marshallianum in 
bloom, with Cochlioda sanguinea and other interesting things. 

A third small house contained a lot of seedling Odontoglossums, a few 
examples being in bud. One from O. X ardentissimum X crispum had a 
rosy blush flower just expanding, while a second in bud showed distinct 
blotching on the segments. 



2o 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. fJuLY, 1909. 

The Cattleya house contained a lot of fine plants which were pointed 
out as all good varieties, and in bloom we noticed several C. Mendelii and 
Mossiae, a very good light form of C. Schroedene with two spikes, C. inter- 
media ccerulea with the front lobe of the lip slaty blue in colour, C. X 
Parthenia Prince of Wales, a plant of C. Schilleriana very dark in the bud, 
and a pretty natural hybrid clearly derived from C. Forbesii and C. 
Harrisoniana, and thus a form of C. X venosa. Other interesting things in 
bloom were Laeliocattleya bletchleyensis, Brassocattleya Pluto with the side 
lobes of the lip well fringed, Bifrenaria Hadweni, Stanhopea eburnea, 
Cypripedium X Helen II., and various others. A plant of the rare 
Aracnanthe moschifera was pointed out, also what is supposed to be a 
white form of Cypripedium Charlesworthii, a healthy little plant. Some 
capsules and seedlings were also in evidence, among the latter being plants 
from Laelia tenebrosa Victor Warburton crossed with a light Cattleya 
Mendelii. 

A small Cypripedium house was filled with choice seedlings of good 
size, while in the next house were lots of others in all stages, among those 
noted being C. bellatulum album X C. insigne King Edward VII., and C. 
i. giganteum x C. Druryi. We also saw in bloom two good C. Lawren- 
ceanum Hyeanum, with several C. bellatulum, and good forms of the 
beautiful C. niveum. 

Another house contained more Cypripediums, all choice varieties, and 
we noticed a number of capsules, one of them on a fine plate of C. X 
Minos Youngii. There were also some good Miltonia vexillaria, and other 
interesting things. Some other houses we had not time to see. 

We noticed that on some of the houses lath roller blinds are used, but 
bamboo blinds which roll up have also been tried, and found to be very 
good. Side ventilation is given by shutters in the walls. The collection 
generally is in excellent condition, and reflects great credit on Mr. 
Warburton's excellent gardener, Mr. Dalgleish, under whose care it has 
been for some considerable time. 

Orchids at Newchurch. 

Another very interesting collection is situated at Ashlands, Newchurch, 

the residence of Richard Ashworth, Esq., J. P., where several houses are 

devoted to the usual representative genera, and the plants are in a thriving 

condition under the care of Mr. Fletcher. 

The first house entered was devoted to Cool Orchids, and we noted many 
interesting things in bloom, including Odontoglossum Hunnewellianum, O. 
X Adrianae, O. Pescatorei, and a lot of O. crispum, with good examples of 
Masdevallia Chimaera, M. caudata, M. radiosa, M. coccinea, M. X 
Pourbaixii, and a profusely-flowered plant of M. Houtteana, Lycaste 
Skinneri, Oncidium superbiens, and examples of Cattleya citrina. Here we 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 205 

saw a remarkably fine specimen of Dendrobium Victoria- Regina, in a 
10-inch pan, with numerous stems, some of them exceeding a foot long and 
bearing a profusion of beautiful violet-blue flowers, forming quite a picture. 
A position fairly near the glass in the Cool house is clearly the one in which 
to grow this beautiful species. We also examined the contents of a 
capsule of Cochlioda Ncetzliana crossed with Oncidium crispum, which had 
just been cut, and found a profusion of plump seeds, which it is hoped can 
be successfully germinated, as the cross is a remarkable one. 

In an adjacent house we saw several well-bloomed plants of Sophronitis 
grandiflora, a nice lot of Odontoglossum Rossii, O. Cervantesii and the very 
distinct variety decorum, a pretty form of O. crispum with rosy spots, and 
two plants of O. c. Black Prince, a variety having unusually dark spots. It 
has been in the collection for eight years. We noted also a nice lot of 
seedlings, including some from O. Uroskinneri crossed with a good O. 
crispum. O. X Rolfeae X Pescatorei was a very prettily spotted flower with 
a white ground. 

Passing through another house, containing a lot of Dendrobiums, &c, 
with Epidendrum radicans, and several good E. X Boundii in bloom, we 
came to the Cattleya house, where we saw a nice lot of C. Schrcederae in 
bloom, with C. Skinneri and the handsome C. X Lawre-Mossiae, some good 
C. Mendelii and C. Lawrenceana, with a very handsome C. X Jupiter 
(Lawrenceaoa X Warscewiczii), having large, richly-coloured flowers, with 
two yellow, eye-like blotches in the throat, the handsome Laeliocattleya 
Wellsiana, and other good things. Seed pods on Cattleya X Iris and others 
were noticed. 

Another Odontoglossum house contained a profusion of flowers, including 
a lot of well-grown O. Pescatorei and many examples of O. crispum, one of 
which bore a fine spike of nineteen flowers, O. c. xanthotes with twelve 
flowers, and various other varieties which we did not note. There were 
also some good examples of O. Hallii, O. triumphans and O. Kegeljani, 
several pretty O. X Adrianae, O. X ardentissimum, a very rosy O. citrosmum, 
a beautiful form of O. X Lambeauianum, with rich colour and markings, and 
various others — in fact this house was quite gay with bloom. 

A Cypripedium house contained a lot of choice varieties, the majority 
out of flower at this season, but we noted the handsome C. Mastersianum, a 
richly coloured hybrid between C. X Gowerianum and C. ciliolare, and 
various well-known kinds, C. callosum Sanderae, C. Lawrenceanum 
Hyeanum, with a number of C. niveum and C. bellatulum suspended from 
the roof. We noted also a nice lot of seedlings, good plants of Miltonia 
vexillaria and M. X Bleuana, Cymbidium insigne and C. Lowianum, 
Phalaenopsis amabilis Rimestadiana, and various other good things. 

Mr. Ashworth is an enthusiastic Orchidist, and the collection generally 



206 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

is in thriving condition. The cleanliness and order everywhere apparent 
show both ability and industry on Mr. Fletcher's part, and such a collection 
must keep him pretty busy. 

Orchids at Whalley Range. 

The collection of S. Gratrix, Esq., Whalley Range, consists chiefly of 
Cypripediums and Odontoglossums, with a few Cattleyas, &c, and under 
the care of Mr. E. Shill, formerly with the late Captain Law-Schofield, it 
is in an improving condition. 

The two Cypripedium houses contain a lot of choice varieties, good 
plants of C. x Germaine Opoix and C. X Gaston Bultel being pointed out, 
as well as C. X The Baron, of which we believe the entire stock is to be 
found here. C. Lawrenceanum Gratrizianum was in bloom, also C. X 
William Matthews, and a good plant of C. X Maudise carried three buds. 
A fine lot of autumn and winter-kinds were pointed out in thriving condi- 
tion, and promise a fine display of flowers later on. 

In the two Odontoglossum houses a number of good O. crispum were 
in bloom, including the beautiful O. c. Luciani, while O. X loochristiense 
bore a spike of ten flowers, and O. Pescatorei Charlesworthii, O X ardentis- 
simum exquisitum, and others were also very attractive. 

Among the Dendrobiums half-a-dozen plants of D. nobile virginale were 
pointed out, and in the Cattleya house we noted Lseliocattleya highburien- 
sis in flower and L.-c. Ballii in bud. Most of the plants here were not yet 
in bloom. 

(To be continued.') 

ORCHIDS AT HAYWARDS HEATH. 

(Concluded from page 173.) 

We may now mention a few of the interesting crosses that were pointed 
out. Of Cochlioda Ncetzliana X Ada aurantiaca there are about half-a- 
dozen seedlings, some four years old, and the same species has been crossed 
with Miltonia vexillaria, Oncidium incurvum, O. concolor, O. Forbesii, 
Odontoglossum grande, O. Uroskinneri, and C. vulcanicum, some of the 
seedlings being still small. The last-mentioned cross should yield the 
natural hybrid C. X miniata, which appeared some time ago. C. 
Ncetzliana crossed with Odontoglossum X amabile is said to have yielded 
a light red hybrid having no markings beyond the yellow crest. Many 
other crosses with this species were pointed out, but we did not note them, 
though we hope to have the opportunity of recording them as they flower. 
In every case C. Ncetzliana had been the seed parent, and Mr. Charles- 
worth remarked that he had used the pollen of this species on all sorts of 
things, but always without success. 

Among other interesting seedlings we noted two from Odontoglossum 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



20-, 



cirrhosum crossed with Oncidium Forbesii, also of Oncidium tigrinum 
crossed with the same species. Odontoglossum ramosissimum X O. crispum 
was also represented by a good plant, and a batch of O. Edwardii crossed 
with O. Rossii represents a very interesting cross. Of Trichopilia nobilis 
X suavis there were two good plants. Two interesting things in bloom 
were Odontoglossum X Fascinator X ardentissimum, a pretty, round, 
copiously blotched flower, while Odontioda heatonensis, crossed with Odonto- 
glossum X amabile, bore a small scape with two flowers of a white ground 
colour, prettily marbled with rose, and the crest yellow with a few white 
spines. Numerous secondary crosses have been effected between the 
choicer Odontoglossums, from which some sterling hybrids are anticipated. 
Seedlings from O. Rossii rubescens X ardentissimum should prove very 
handsome when they reach the flowering stage. 

In one of the Warm houses was pointed out what should be a very 
interesting cross, namely, Brassavola cuspidata crossed with Cattleya 
Mossiae Wageneri, while a curious hybrid from Laelia cinnabarina crossed 
with Epidendrum prismatocarpum was in bloom. A strong plant of Cypri- 
pedium niveum X Rothschildianum was pointed out as twelve years old, 
but cannot be got to flower. 

In one of the houses we found a number of plants which were being 
shaded with mats so as to keep them back for the Temple Show, and among 
them we saw a fine plant of Odontoglossum cirrhosum bearing three spikes 
from the base of the same bulb, two from one axil and one from the other, 
a thing none of us remembered to have noticed before. We also noticed 
the prettily-spotted O. Pescatorei Charlesworthii, some good O. X Othello, 
O. X Thompsonianum, a few fine seedling O. crispum, O. X spectabile 
with three spikes, several pretty Odontiodas, a dark Renanthera Imschoot- 
iana with three panicles of flowers, some fine forms of Cypripedium niveum, 
one bearing six flowers, the rare white Aerides virens Sanders, Lslio- 
cattleya Larissa, a pretty yellow hybrid from L. flava X C. Mendelii, and 

The potting sheds proved very interesting, for we saw various seedlings 
being pricked off, and also examined the compost. About equal parts of 
Osmunda and Polypodium fibre are used, with a small amount of oak leaves 
(not leaf mould) and sphagnum moss, these all being cut up and thoroughly 
incorporated together. No sand or crock dust are used. Mr. Charlesworth 
regards them unnecessary, for such a mixture is sufficiently porous without 
them. A constant food supply is required, and such a compost is con- 
sidered to contain all the necessary ingredients. 

The arrangements for packing, &c, are very complete, and the various 
departments are lighted by electricity, the current being generated on the 
premises. In short, the whole establishment has been laid out for the 



2o8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

purpose of raising and growing Orchids in the best possible way, and as there 
is ample room for development in the future, everything points to the pro- 
bability of an increased amount of success for this enterprising firm in their 
new home. The situation is an excellent one, and the good light in winter 
and the complete absence of urban fog should make the locality quite ideal 
for Orchid culture. The numerous houses of seedling Odontoglossums and 
allies were a revelation, and the ease with which these plants can be raised 
under suitable treatment is remarkable. One batch of thriving little 
seedlings was pointed out from seed sown as recently as last February. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM x KENCHII. 

A flower of this handsome Odontoglossum has been sent from the 
collection of John S. Moss, Esq., Wintershill, Bishops Waltham (gr. 
Mr. Kench). It was raised from O. Kegeljani crossed with the pollen of O. 
X Wilckeanum var. Mossise, and has light yellow sepals, with two chestnut 
brown bars below the middle, and a large rounded blotch above ; light 
yellow toothed petals, which are nearly white on the disc, and bear a cluster 
of small roundish brown blotches about the centre, and some lines and dots 
near the base. The lip is reflexed at the base, and the margin is somewhat 
recurved in front and apiculate, this part being white, while a circular area 
round the crest is similar in colour, the intervening area consisting of one 
great cinnamon-brown blotch. The crest consists of two white spines in 
front, and about five lateral teeth on each side, the latter having a brown 
line on each. The column wings are broad and denticulate, with a few 
cinnamon-brown blotches. It was described by Mr. Crawshay in 1907 
(Gard. CJwon., 1907, ii. p. 3), but by some inexplicable error was enumerated 
as O. x Mossiae in the Orchid Stud- Book (p. 290), a mistake that should be 
corrected. It is a very bright and attractive hybrid. 

High Prices for Cypripediums. — Six choice Cypripediums from the 
collection of Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, Westonbirt, were included in the 
Orchid sale held by Messrs. Protheroe & Morris during the Temple Show 
week, and fetched high prices, the bidding being very spirited. C. X 
Moonbeam (Thompsoni X Sallieri Hyeanum), was purchased by Messrs. 
Cypher & Son for 210 guineas. C. X Milo Westonbirt var. was secured by 
Mr. William Bolton, Warrington, for 130 guineas. C. X Helen II. 
Westonbirt var. and C. X Actseus Bianca (Leeanum Prospero X insigne 
Sanderse) went to Messrs. Charlesworth & Co. for no guineas each. C. X 
nitens-Leeanum var. Hannibal went to Mr. E. Roberts, of Eltham, for 100 
guineas, and C. x Beryl (Mrs. Wm. Mostyn x Beeckmanii) fetched 55 
guineas, Mr. W. Bolton being the purchaser. All the plants are duplicates 
of the original certificated specimens, and were offered without reserve. 
They have been previously noted in our pages. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 
DENDROBIUM SANDER/E. 
ally of Dendrobium Dearei has just been described i 
■ the name of Dendrobium Sander* (Rolfe in Gard. Chn 
, fig. 163). It was introduced by Messrs. Sander & Sons, 



1 ' *T 


Wm * v x * m 




f* 


r ^mk 



St. Albans, and photographs, dried flowers, and a living plant have been 
sent to Kew. The annexed figure was prepared from one of the 
photographs, and for the opportunity of reproducing it we are indebted to 



2io THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

the courtesy of the proprietors of the Gardeners' 1 Chronicle. The species 
has tall, striate, copiously leafy stems, from i$ to three feet long, some- 
what thickened below the middle and narrowed upwards. The leaves are 
oblong, slightly bilobed at the apex, and under two inches long. The 
short racemes are borne on the upper part of the stems, and produce three 
or four large and beautiful flowers, whose general aspect can be seen in the 
figure. The collector describes the flowers as large and very effective, the 
sepals and petals as pure white and of good substance, and the lip white 
lined with green, the side lobes lined with blackish purple, and the throat 
and inside of the spur blackish violet. Traces of these colours are retained 
in the dried flowers. The plant is said to be free-growing and flowering, 
and is certainly very beautiful. The petals are large and well displayed. 
In the dried flowers they are i£ inches long by an inch broad, while the 
expanded lip measures over an inch across. The spur tapers to a fine 
point, and measures over i\ inches from its junction with the pedicel. The 
second photograph sent shows the plant much reduced, including a stem 
bearing about forty leaves. The plant bears a considerable general 
resemblance to D. Dearei, Rchb. f., and D. parthenium, Rchb. f., the latter 
a handsome Bornean species which has been lost sight of. It is, however, 
quite distinct from either. It will probably require similar treatment to 
D. Dearei. 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
The first meeting after the Temple Show was held at the Royal Horticultural 
Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on June 8th, when there was a fine 
display of Orchids, though the groups were rather scattered. The awards 
consisted of eight medals, one First-class Certificate, three Awards of 
Merit, two Botanical Certificates, and one Cultural Commendation. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), staged a fine 
group of Orchids, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained 
a plant of the finely-blotched Odontoglossum crispum President Fallieres 
with a spike of eighteen flowers and buds, O. crispum xanthotes, two good 
O. apterum, and others, Masdevallia coccinea and a lot of good M. ignea, 
Anguloa Clowesii, Dendrobium Williamsoni and some good D. thyrsiflorum, 
Cymbidium Huttoni, the pretty little Miltonia Phalaenopsis, a good 
Odontioda heatonensis, Cattleya X Dusseldorfii Undine, and C. Mossiae 
Princess Juliana, a pretty white form, with some rosy veining on the lip, the 
handsome Brassocatlselia Veitchii, Scaphosepalum gibberosum and octhodes, 
with other good things. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received a First-class Certificate for Laeliocattleya Mikado, a 



I.JOO. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



very handsome hybrid of unrecorded parentage. The flower is of good size 
and shape, with bright canary sepals and petals, and the front of the lip ruby 
crimson, margined with yellow. He also received an Award of Merit for 
Cattleya Mossias var. A. Dimmock, a beautiful blush-pink form, with a very 
large violet-crimson marbled blotch in front of the disc, and a very broad 
white fringed margin. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. White), 
received an Award of Merit for Lseliocattleya Feronia (C. X Enid X L.-c. 
Haroldiana), a handsome hybrid, having bright salmon-pink sepals and 
petals, and a rich amethyst-purple lip. Botanical Certificates were given to 
a profusely flowered specimen of Cirrhopetalum vaginatum, and to a pretty 
Angraecum called A. expansum, having erect stems with distichous, oblong, 
coriaceous leaves, and a two-flowered raceme of pure white flowers, with 
broad segments and a long curved spur. A Cultural Commendation was 
given to a fine specimen of Dendrobium Jerdonianum, with about nine 
stems. We noted also a plant of Angrsecum Scottianum, and a well- 
bloomed Stelis tristyla. 

[. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
received an Award of Merit for Odontoglossum X amabile Fowlerianum, a 
fine form, having the sepals and petals prettily tinged with purple, and 
heavily blotched with cinnamon-brown, and the front of the lip white. 

E. F. Clark, Esq., Chamonix, Teignmouth, sent two flowers of Lselio- 
cattleya Marlburia (L. Boothiana X C. Schroederae), a pretty rosy-lilac 
hybrid, most like the former in general character. 

Walter Cobb, Esq., Normanhurst, Rusper (gr. Mr. Salter), sent a fine 
hybrid Odontoglossum called O. x Cobbianum, a well-coloured flower, 
showing traces of O. Harryanum in the crest. 

The Hon. Mrs. Foley, Packham, Fordingbridge, Hants, sent a very 
handsome Central African Lissochilus, bearing an inflorescence about five 
feet high, with several large flowers, having broad rosy lilac petals and lip, 
and greenish acute sepals. It is probably L. stylites, Rchb. f. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a very choice group, containing some good Laeliocattleya 
Fascinator, one bearing six fine flowers, L.-c. Chloe, Brassocattleya Veitchii, 
B.-c. striata, Odontoglossum X armainvillierense xanthotes, some hand- 
some O. X Lambeauianum, O. X amabile, O. X Ossulstoni, and others, 
Spathoglottis X Veitchii, Odontiodaheatonensis, a beautiful O. Bradshawiae, 
Vanda Bensoni, V. ccerulescens, the very distinct V. c. Boxallii, Ornitho- 
cephalus grandiflorus, Gongora saccata, Bulbophyllum Reinwardtii, B. 
saurocephalum, Calanthe veratrifolia, Stelis tristyla and others. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a very fine group, including some good examples of 



zx2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

Odontoglossum hastilabium, crispum and Pescatorei, a richly-coloured O. X 
illustre, O. citrosmum, O. X laudatum, O. X Adrianae, Cattleya Mossise and 
Skinneri, Laelia purpurata, Laeliocattleya Hippolyta, Oncidium cornigerum, 
phymatochilum, macranthum, and the rare O. Warscewiczii, the graceful 
Ccelogyne Dayana, Sobralia macrantha alba, Dendrobium chrysotoxum 
and transparens, Cochlioda Ncetzliana, Ada aurantiaca, Epidendrum X 
elegantulum, E. pentotis, Spathoglottis X Veitchii, and other good things. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora Medal for a 
fine group, including in the centre some noble examples of Cattleya 
Warscewiczii Sanderiana, the handsome Laeliocattleya Aphrodite, Ganymede 
and Canhamiana, the latter including the variety plumosa, with feathered 
markings on the petals. Brassolaelia Gratrixiae, Cypripedium x 
Gowerianum, a fine Odontoglossum X harvengtense, Bulbophyllum 
barbigerum, B. Lobbii, Ornithocephalus grandiflorus, Renanthera 
Imschootiana, Warscewiczella discolor, Masdevallias, &c. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group of Cattleya Mossias, Mendelii, and 
Warscewiczii, with a few good Odontoglossum crispum, including one with 
lip-like markings on each of the petals, Oncidium Kramerianum, and 
Miltonia vexillaria. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, containing some excellent forms of Odontoglossum 
crispum, and including white, pink and spotted forms, one of the former 
having very broad segments forming a complete circle. We also noted the 
beautiful O. c. xanthotes, O. x harvengtense, some good O. Pescatorei, 
a few Cattleya Mossiae, a fine Oncidium Schlimii, &c. 

Messrs. J. W. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a very interesting group, containing some fine specimens of Laelio- 
cattleya Aphrodite, Cattleya x Dusseldorfii Undine, Odontoglossum X 
armainvillierense xanthotes with ten flowers, a good O. x Rolfeae, Gongora 
atropurpurea, Miltonia vexillaria leucoglossa, Dendrochilum longifolium, 
the graceful Angraecum modestum, Cirrhopetalum Collettii, Epidendrum 
vitellinum and Wallisii, the handsome Disa X Luna, Cochlioda 
sanguinea, &c. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, also 
received a Silver Banksian Medal for a showy group, including some good 
Cattleya Mossiae and Mendelii, fine examples of Disa x Luna, Laelio- 
cattleya Ballii, Ithone, and others, Epidendrum vitellinum, Odontoglossum 
crispum, &c. 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, sent Odontoglossum 
crispum cristatum, a remarkable form, all the petals being much fringed, 
and having lip-like markings at the base, 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID RZVlEW. 213 

Mr. F. McBean, Plumpton, Sussex, sent a nice little group, including a 

few good Cattleya Mendelii, C. Mossiae and Odontoglossum crispum, with a 

form of O. X Adrianae. 

M. Mertens, Mont-St.-Amand, Ghent, sent a good Vanda ccerulea, with 

an unnamed Lseliocattleya and several unnamed Odontoglossums. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, sent some good examples of Cattleya 

Mossiae, Odontoglossum X eximium Tracy's var., a fine form with dark 

violet blotches, and Oncidium Batemanianum. 

At the meeting held on June 22nd the Orchid exhibits were fewer in 
number than for a long time past, only seven exhibitors being represented, 
and the awards consisted of three medals only. Three plants were entered 
to go before the Committee, but none of them secured an award. 

J. G. Bergheim, Esq., Belsize Court, Hampstead (gr. Mr. Page), sent a 
species of Megaclinium from Tropical Africa, which proves to be M. triste, 
Rolfe, a species described some few years ago {Kew Bull., 1894, P- 362). 
The flowers are dull blackish purple, and are borne on a stout rachis with 
rounded angles. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), sent 
Odontoglossum X Black Prince, a showy hybrid having a white ground 
colour, very densely blotched with dark claret-red. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent 
Odontoglossum crispum Trianae majesticum, a very fine form, with flowers 
of excellent shape and substance. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, staged a fine and 
varied group, which received a Silver Flora Medal, the more noteworthy 
plants including some fine forms of Cattleya Mendelii and C. Warscewiczii, 
a splendidly-flowered Oncidium Wentworthianum, O. macranthum, O. 
vancosum Rogersii, O. Lanceanum, a line plant of Epidendrum 
prismatocarpum, Odontoglossum hastilabium, Masdevallia calura, M. 
erythrochaete, Bulbophyllum Lobbii, Laelias, Cypripediums, and several 
other good things. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, staged a small group of 
interesting things, which gained a Silver Banksian Medal. It included 
some excellent forms of Cattleya Mendelii and Warscewiczii, C. Mossiae 
Arnoldiana aurea, a pretty blush white form, and a fine form of Odonto- 
glossum crispum with a very broad lip. 

Messrs. Stanley & Co., Southgate, also received a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a good group of Cattleya Mossiae, including a very beautiful C. M. 
Reineckeana and some fine coloured forms of the species, showing much 
variation in the colour of the lip, C. Gaskelliana pallida, Laelia purpurata 
Russelliana, and a few other good things. 



2i 4 ttlb Ottcmt* mVlUW. [July, 1909. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont-St.-Amand, Ghent, showed a few good hybrid 
Odontoglossums, Odontiodas, and Cattleyas. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
The meeting of this Society held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on 
June 10th marks the close of the twelfth year, and a good muster of members 
attended the Annual Meeting, which was held at three o'clock. The 
Society, which three or four years ago showed evidence of being in a 
moribund condition, is now in a very healthy and flourishing state, and not 
least, with a comfortable balance at the Bank. The various competitions 
resulted as follows : — 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden, was the winner of the 
handsome " Charlesworth Cup" ; he also won the " Bromilow Cup" and 
the " Ward Cup" for Odontoglossums. 

The fine Cup presented by Messrs. Sander for Cypripediums was won, 
and will be held for twelve months, by J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, 
Rainhill. The " Low Cup " for Cattleyas and Lselias was won by J. 
McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton. The Society's Gold, Silver-gilt and 
Silver Medals, offered to exhibitors not competing for Cups, were won by 
Z. A. Ward, Esq., Northenden ; Richard Ashworth, Esq., Newchurch; and 
Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Didsbury, respectively. The Gold, Silver-gilt and 
Silver Medals offered by the Society to amateurs not employing a gardener 
were won by C. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, Preston ; H. Arthur, Esq., 
Blackburn ; and J. Stott, Esq., Radcliffe, in the order named. I under- 
stand that the same number of Cups will again be presented for competition, 
Mr. Ward altering his from Odontoglossums to the section for amateurs 
not employing a gardener. 

There was an excellent show of plants at the meeting, and the Committee 
sat as follows: — Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Smith, 
Ward, Cowan, Sander, Leemann, Thorp, Warburton, Keeling, Parker, 
Holmes, Ashton, Cypher and Weathers (Sec). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a fine 
group of Cattleyas and Laelias, which gained a Silver-gilt Medal. Miltonia 
vexillaria var. delicatissima, Cattleya Mossiae var. Jaffa, C. Mendelii 
Viscount Bury, and C. M. nobilior all gained Awards of Merit, a Cultural 
Certificate going to C. M. Castle Hill var., a well-flowered plant of this 
handsome species. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), 
showed a well-flowered group of Cattleyas, and a small but choice group of 
Odontoglossums, which included O. X eximium and O. crispum xanthotes, 
both gaining Awards of Merit. I noted also O. c. King of England, O. c. 
Britannia, O. c. Mrs. B. Walker, Cattleya Mossiae Wageneri, C. M. 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 215 

Reineckeana Hardy's var., C. gigas, well flowered, and many others of equal 
merit (Silver-gilt and Silver Medals). 

J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), gained a 
Silver Medal for a good group of Cypripediums, including a very fine C. 
niveum var. Czarina, which gained a First-class Certificate, with C. X 
Cetewayo (Goweri x ciliolare) and C. Druryi var. Black Prince, which 
gained Awards of Merit. I noted also a distinct variety of C. X The 
Princess, C. X Gowerianum Schoiield's var., &c. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), gained a 
Silver Medal for a group which included a very fine plant of Dendrobium 
Victoria- Regina (First-class Certificate and Cultural Certificate), many 
Odontoglossums, Masdevallias, Cypripedium bellatulum, C. X Maudia:, &c. 

E. J. Wilde, Esq., Henshaw Lane House, Hollinwood, showed a group 
of Odontoglossums, chiefly O. crispum, O. Pescatorei, O. triumphans, O. 
Harryanum, &c. (Silver Medal). 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), showed the fine 
Cattleya X Mrs. Myra Peters, which received a First-class Certificate, and 
C. Mendelii Gladys, the latter gaining an Award of Merit. 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), showed 
Cattleya X Dusseldorfii var. Undine, Odontoglossum crispum xanthotes, 
Cypripedium X Lawrebel, and a very richly coloured Renanthera Imschoo- 
tiana var. splendens (Award of Merit). 

A. Hamner, Esq., The Mount, Marple, showed Cypripedium bellatulum 
Hamner's var., which gained an Award of Merit. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Hay wards Heath, Sussex, showed a fine 
healthy plant of the remarkable Bulbophyllum virescens, which received a 
First-class Certificate. 

Messrs. McBean, Cooksbridge, staged a fine and varied group, chiefly of 
fine types of Odontoglossum crispum, Cattleya Mossiae Reineckeana, C. M. 
Aureole, Vanda teres, Oncidium Schlimii, Ccelogyne pandurata, and many 
other fine species (Silver-gilt Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling, Westgate Hill, Bradford, gained a Silver Medal for a 
good mixed group, which included many showy species and some Botanical 
plants, as Maxillarias, Epidendrum atropurpureum and Stamfordianum, 
Masdevallia X Bocking hybrid, Ornithocephalus grandiflorus, &c. (Silver 
Medal). 

Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, staged a good miscellaneous 
group, which received a Silver Medal, and in which I noted the rare Disa 
X Luna, Renanthera Imschootiana, Epidendrum Wallisii, &c. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, staged a well-flowered group of 
Cattleyas and Leliocattleyas, in which were many varieties of L.-c. 
Martinetii, Cattleya gigas, &c. (Silver Medal). 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, igtg 

J. Robson, Altrincham, staged a few good Cattleya Mendelii, and 
meritorious Odontoglossum hybrids. 

W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, staged a small group of 
:ns of very fine type. 
Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed Cattleya Mendelii and 
Selenipedium Schlimii, with a few others. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Enfield, showed a small group of Cattleyas. 
Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, staged a few plants of Odontoglossum 
crispum. 

The following constitute the Committee for the current year (new 
members marked*) : — 

E. Ashworth, Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, Chairman. 

A. Warburton, Vine House, Haslingden, Vice-chairman. 
S. Gratrix, West Point, Whalley Range, Hon. Treasurer. 
P. Weathers, 60, Talbot Road, Old Trafford, Hon. Secretary. 
R. Ashworth, J. P., Ashlands, Newchurch. 
*H. Arthur, Mollington Road, Blackburn. 

F. W. Ashton, Enfield, London. 

G. S. Ball, Under Fell, Burton, Westmorland. 
J. H. Bromilow, Rann Lea, Rainhill, Liverpool. 
J. C. Cowan, Wilderspool, Warrington. 

J. Cypher, Cheltenham. 

W. Duckworth, Ribby Hall, Kirkham. 

*J. J. Holden, Albert Road, Southport. 

Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, Wilmslow. 

W. Holmes, The Gardens, Hey House, Bolton. 

A. J. Keeling, Westgate Hill, Bradford, Yorks. 

J. Leemann, West Bank House, Heaton Mersey. 

C. Parker, Fern Bank, Ashton-on-Ribble, Preston. 

*E. Rogers, The Gardens, Bridge Hall, Bury. 

F. Sander, St. Albans. 

H. H. Smith, Haywards Heath, Sussex. 

W. Stevens, Stone, Staffs. 

E. Shill, The Gardens, West Point. 

H. Thorp, Boothroyden, Rhodes. 

Z. A. Ward, Cringlewood, Northenden, Cheshire. 

H. Thorp. 

Orchids at Gloucester. 
A Horticultural Exhibition was held at Gloucester from June 23rd to 
26th, in connection with the Annual Show of the Royal Agricultural 
Society, at which there was a very fine display of Orchids and other plants. 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 217 

A deputation was sent by the Royal Horticultural Society, including Sir 
Trevor Lawrence, Bart., President, the Rev. W. Wilks, Secretary, Mr. A. E. 
Bowles, and Mr. H. B. May, and made several awards on behalf of the 

Lieut.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. 
Mr. Alexander), staged a magnificent group of Orchids, to which the 
Lawrence Gold Medal for the finest exhibit of the year was awarded by 
the R.H.S. deputation. The group was situated on the central stage in 
front of the main entrance, and was most artistically arranged. The centre 
consisted chiefly of a series of fine Laeliocattleya Canhamiana, L.-c. 
Aphrodite, and a few others, which were well carried up at the back, with 
masses of white Odontoglossum crispum on each side, these being followed 
to the ends by a lot of well-bloomed Cattleyas and Laeliocattleyas. In 
front of these were batches of Vanda teres, Phalaenopsis amabilis, 
Rimestadiana, Laelia purpurata, Sophrolaelia Orpeti, Dendrobium 
formosum, D. X illustre, and others, while in front were many remarkable 
specimens of Miltonia vexillaria, completely crowded with flowers, 
remarkable among them being M. v. superba, with twenty-three spikes and 
103 flowers, Empress Augusta Victoria, with twenty spikes and 105 flowers, 
a couple of good M. v. virginalis with seventy-five and seventy-seven 
flowers, M. v. chelseiensis, and various others. Brassocattleyas made a 
fine display, and included some good B.-c. Maronae and B.-c. Veitchii, the 
beautiful B.-c. Veitchii Queen Alexandra, B.-c. Siren superba, and others, 
while Lasliocattleyas included the handsome L.-c. Lustre, L.-c. Ganymede, 
L.-c. Elva Westonbirt var., many line forms of L.-c. Canhamiana, &c. 
Cattleyas included the chaste C. X Dusseldorfii Undine, C. intermedia 
alba, with some good C. Mendelii, C. Warscewiczii, C. Warned, C. 
Mossiae, and the beautiful C. M. Wageneri. Odontoglossums included 
fine forms of O. x amabile, O. X Wilckeanum imperiale, some dark- 
coloured O. X Othello, and many others, O. crispum being represented by 
over a hundred spikes, including many choice varieties. The plants were 
very finely grown, and the effect of massing the varieties together was most 
effective. A First-class Certificate was given to Cattleya Mossiae Countess 
Grey, a very beautiful tropical form, having enormous magenta-rose 
blooms with violet marbling on the lip. 

In a class for Amateurs a very charming group of 200 square feet was 
staged by Sir John Dorington, Lypiatt Park, Stroud (gr. Mr. Savegar), 
which consisted of Orchids with flowering and foliage plants, the Cattleyas 
being very fine. A Silver Cup was awarded. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, staged a very beautiful 
group of Orchids, arranged for effect, containing many fine Cattleyas, 
Ladiocattleyas, Brassocattleyas, Odontoglossums, a fine series of Laelia 



218 THE ORCHID REVIEW [July, 1909. 

purpurata, L. tenebrosa, some showy Masdevallias, Vanda coerulea, 
Ccelogyne pandurata, a well-bloomed Anguloa Clowesii, Odontoglossum 
cordatum, Miltonia vexillaria, two distinct forms of Bulbophyllum Lobbii, 
Epidendrums, Laeliocattleya Canhamiana with ten flowers, &c. They also 
included some good Orchids in a group of Stove and Greenhouse plants 
not exceeding 350 square feet in extent, these including Odontoglossums, 
Cattleyas, and Lseliocattleyas, with fine specimens of the graceful Oncidium 
flexuosum, O. divaricatum, &c. For these two groups the Gold Medal of 
the R.H.S. was given. 

Messrs. ^Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, staged a 
magnificent group of Orchids, in which the Cattleyas and Odontoglossums 
were very fine, the former including a handsome form of C. Mendelii with 
a purple feather at the apex of the petals, and another with a slate-blue lip, 
and the latter some good O. crispum, O. X Adrianse Low's var., and some 
good hybrids. A Silver-gilt Flora Medal was awarded. 

Some good Odontoglossums and other Orchids were included in groups 
not exceeding 350 square feet, staged by Mr. Sharp, of Almondbury, 
Huddersfield, and Mr. Vause, of Leamington, to which Silver-gilt Banksian 
Medals were given. 

THE FIRST "MASTERS" LECTURE. 

The first of the series of lectures arranged to commemorate the name of the 
Jate Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, F.R.S., for many years Editor of the Gardeners 
Chronicle, was given by Professor Hugo de Vries at the meeting of the Royal 
Horticultural Society held on June 22nd last, the subject being Masters' 
Vegetable Teratology. 

The lecturer remarked that the book was to a great extent a narration of 
observed facts, nevertheless there was evidence on most of its pages of the 
philosophical mind possessed by its author. The study of abnormalities had 
a strange history. Before the time of Linnaeus genera were regarded as the 
units of the natural system, but Linnaeus elevated species to this rank, in the 
belief that species were distinct creatures. But the abnormalities which 
originated in one's own garden were obviously not distinct creations, 
and were therefore, in the opinion of Linnaeus, not worthy of the attention 
of the serious botanist. This ruling out of court of all deviations from the 
normal may have contributed to the persistence of a belief in the 
immutability of species, for with such ideas it was impossible for any 
progress in the study of evolution to be made. 

But if before the general acceptance of a theory of evolution too little 
attention was paid to the study of abnormalities, it might also be urged that 
since a belief in evolution had become general, abnormalities had assumed 
a prominence which was not commensurate with the share which they had 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 219 

had in the evolutionary process. The theory of evolution demanded the 
existence of variations, and in the search for these many kinds of 
abnormalities were collected, which in all probability had little to do with 
the main lines of differentiation. What we really wanted was some criterion 
which would enable us to separate the variations to which evolution is due 
from mere monstrosities which have nothing to do with evolution, and the 
only hope of obtaining such a criterion was to work on the lines laid down 
by Masters, to record and figure the structure of abnormalities, of whatever 
kind, and, what was equally important, find out whether the abnormality was 
repeated in the offspring. Such investigation had been made possible by the 
work of Masters, which enabled the enquirer to find out whether an 
abnormality of a similar kind had been recorded before, and to fit it into a 
scheme which, as Masters admitted, was only an approximation to a natural 

Teratology might often succeed in affording a clue to the primitive 
structure of organs when the investigation of the normal had failed. The 
study of monstrosities was also likely to throw a great deal of light on the 
question of the symmetry of distribution of organs in the plant body, and, 
lastly, we could not guess what problems might not ultimately be solved by 
a proper acquaintance with these curious phenomena. These were merely 
illustrations of the truth that the surest road to a knowledge of the normal 
was the investigation of the abnormal. 

The last remark seems particularly applicable to Orchids, in which 
deviations from normal structure have thrown a flood of light on the 
homology of the organs of this complex family of plants. 

EXCLUSIVE HABITS OF ORCHIDS. 

Some very interesting remarks about the pollination of flowers were made 
by Mr. B. H. Bentley, of Sheffield University, in a lecture on " Photo- 
graphic Studies in the Biology of Flowers," which he delivered before a 
very well-attended meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society. To 
a botanist, he said, a flower was a device to secure the production of fertile 
seeds. The seed must be preceded by pollination, which was the trans- 
ference of pollen from the anthers of the stamens to a part of the flower 
known as the stigma, usually that of a different flower. The transference 
in the earliest flowers was by the wind. Later flowers were pollinated by 
animals, mostly insects. The evolution of higher flowers and higher insects 
took place side by side. Mr. Bentley illustrated the different stages of 
evolution by a series of original photographs from Nature. Among examples 
of wind pollination were shown the flowers of native grasses, constructed 
so that the stamens could be shaken by the slightest breath of wind, and 



22o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

with branched feathery stigmas to catch the pollen floating about in the air. 
The first plants to feel the want of wind would be the smaller plants, under 
trees, which would be forced to adopt some other method of pollination. 
Our wild Arum, and many flowers of tropical forests, attracted lower insects 
and trapped them often by the aid of a carrion smell. The insects were 
only set free when pollination was over. Flowers adapted for higher 
insects had bright colours and scent. Many of the higher flowers — 
Violets, Snapdragon, Honeysuckle, and others — could only be approached 
by insects in one direction. They were also constructed in many cases 
to exclude from the honey any insects that were not likely to pollinate 
the flowers. The long-tubed honeysuckle was suited to the long-tongued 
hawk moths. Orchids were constructed so as to gum the pollen on to 
the head of the visiting insect. This required such a nice adjustment 
between the insect and the flower that it ended with one Orchid only 
fitting a single species of bee, butterfly or moth. If the special insect 
died out, the flowers would no longer be pollinated. The Bee-Orchid 
was shown as an instance of this excessive specialisation. It had apparently 
all the mechanism for gumming the pollen on to the head of an insect, 
yet the pollen was never removed, but fell out, and was blown by the wind 
on to the stigma of the same flower. — Journal of Horticulture. 

ERIA RHODOPTERA. 

A striking Eria has just flowered at Kew, which was described in 1892 
under the name of Eria Laucheana (Kranzl. in Gard. Chron., 1892, i. 
p. 809). It flowered in the collection of Prince Liechtenstein, at Eisgrab, 
Moravia, and was dedicated to the head gardener, Mr. Lauche. It was said 
to have a raceme about half as large as in E. Dillwynii, Hook. (Dot. Mag., t. 
4163), and a straw-coloured inflorescence and bracts, with the petals and 
side lobes of the lip deep black-purple. The locality was not mentioned. 
The Kew plant was received from Heidelberg, in 1904, when very small. 
There is an earlier Eria rhodoptera, described by Reichenbach in 1882 
(Gard. Chron., 1882, ii. p. 586), which flowered in Messrs. Henderson & Sons' 
Pineapple Nursery, at Maida Vale, and which from the description I believe 
to be identical. Reichenbach remarked : " The raceme has flowers much like 
those of Eria bractescens, of a pallid white ochre colour, with purple petals, 
and purple side lobes of the lip. For such an Eria it looks uncommonly gay, 
as its vivid colours are rather scarce in that very wide genus." In this case 
also the habitat was not recorded. In May, 1895, Messrs. Sander sent to 
Kew an Eria for determination, without record of habitat, which belong s 
to the same species as that now flowering at Kew, and, fortunately, it is 
now possible to clear the matter up. In 1892 a dried specimen of an Eria 



July, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 221 

was sent for determination by Mr. C. Ford, of the Hong Kong Botanic 
Garden, which had been obtained from Manila, and was described as very 
showy, having whitish flowers with claret-coloured lip. The same species 
was collected by Loher, in April, 1902, in the Philippines, which com- 
pletely confirms the locality. It is very nearly allied to E. Dillwynii, which 
is also a Philippine species, but has petals of the same colour as the sepals, 
and a differently shaped lip, with shorter, pallid side lobes. In E. rhodoptera 
the inflorescence measures six to eight inches long, and the large and 
numerous bracts, the inflorescence, pedicels, sepals and front lobe of the 
lip are all whitish straw-colour, with which the reddish-purple petals and 
side lobes of the lip form a very striking contrast. It is well worthy of 
cultivation, the chief drawback being that the flowers in this group do not 
last very long. 

A still earlier Philippine species of the same group is E. longilabris, 
Lindl. (Bot. Reg., 1838, Misc. p. 38 ; 1844, t. 29, fig. 3), which was introduced 
by Cuming, and flowered with Messrs. Loddiges. It has larger flowers, and 
a much longer lip, though the red side lobes and similar general appearance 
indicate a very near affinity to E. rhodoptera. R.A.R. 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

Three very handsome Odontoglossums are sent from the collection of A. 
Warburton, Esq., Haslingden, near Manchester, by Mr. Dalgleish. O. X 
ardentissimum Warburton's var. is a large and finely-shaped flower, having 
the sepals and petals very heavily and regularly blotched with violet-purple, 
and broadly margined with white, while the broadly pandurate lip is white 
with some red-purple blotches round the yellow crest. O. crispum 
Britannia is a fine thing, having a very large almost rectangular red-brown 
blotch on each petal, and a few additional dots on the white ground ; sepals 
with smaller blotches and a ground colour tinged with purple, and the 
broad lip with three irregular elongated blotches in front of the yellow 
crest. The third is called O. X eximium Warburton's var., and is said to 
have been raised in the collection from O. crispum Kegeljani x 
ardentissimum. The shape is excellent, all the segments being very broad, 
copiously blotched with claret-brown, and margined with white, the 
blotches themselves being separated by narrow white lines. The lip is 
white with a large zone of red-brown round the yellow crest, and a few 
small dots behind. It is as beautiful as the others, and shows its origin 
very distinctly. 

A twin-flowered scape of Paphiopedilum bellatulum is sent from the 
collection of R. Leslie Cook, Esq., Millfield, Grimsby, who remarks that 
the plant was obtained with others from Messrs. J. W. Moore early in the 
year. 



222 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

A fine four-flowered inflorescence of Paphiopedilum Rothschildianum is 
sent by His Honour, Judge Philbrick, K.C., Bodogan House, Bournemouth, 
to show how a good scape can be grown in a tiny house. It is a form with 
very dark markings, and all the flowers are very finely developed, the result 
of excellent culture. 

Some beautiful Cattleyas are sent from the collection of H. S. Goodson, 
Esq., Fairlawn, Putney, by Mr. Day. C. Mossia? Princess Juliana, is a 
charming white variety, much like C. M. Wageneri, but differing in 
having a tinge of pink on the front of the lip. C. Mendelii Fairlawn var. 
has a broad, sharply defined purple band on the upper half of the petals, 
and is fairly typical in other respects. C. M. Lambeauianum is a pretty 
blush form, with the front of the lip lilac. A flower of the large and hand- 
some Brassocatlaelia Veitchii (Laelia purpurata X Brassocattleya Veitchii) 
is also sent. The expanse of the flower is over eight inches, and the sepals 
and petals are rosy lilac, and the front of the broad neatly-fringed lip bright 
purple, with the disc orange-yellow. 

A very fine and richly-coloured form of Cattleya Mossise is sent from the 
collection of Francis Well esley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), 
under the name of C. M. King Emperor. The sepals and petals are deep 
rosy lilac, the latter being over four inches long by 2.\ inches broad, and the 
front of the lip rich amethyst purple, with a pale margin and some purple 
veining on the yellow area at the sides. It belongs to the C. Mossia? 
superba type. 

An inflorescence of a remarkable form of Odontoglossum crispum, 
having lip-like petals, is sent by Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards 
Heath. Each petal shows a bright yellow area at the base, lined with red- 
brown, and terminating in raised crests, like those on the lip, but smaller 
and less regularly developed. The column wings are only partially 
developed, and it looks as if part of the vascular bundles which produce the 
latter had wandered into the petals, thus giving the lip-like character. All 
the seven flowers of the inflorescence are alike, and as they are quite perfect 
in other respects, the additional colour on the petals gives them a specially 
attractive appearance. The plant should be taken care of, for it is probable 
that the peculiarity will prove constant. 

Part of an inflorescence of the handsome Odontioda chelseiensis 
(Cochlioda vulcanicum X Odontoglossum crispum) is sent by Messrs. Wm. 
Bull & Sons, Chelsea. The flowers are of good size, very compactly 
arranged, and of a beautiful carmine-rose shade, with a few traces of light 
yellow marbling on the sepals, and a three-lobed light yellow lip, with some 
carmine-rose at the apex of each lobe and a darker blotch in front of the 
crest. It differs somewhat from the one figured at page 48, and is very 
beautiful. 



July, 1909] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 223 

Two sprays of a very fine form of Brassia verrucosa are sent from the 
collection of Sir Benjamin Scott, Linden House, Stanwix, Carlisle. The 
plants are said to have been in the collection for eighteen years, and bloom 
very freely. They are beautifully-grown examples of this graceful species. 

ORCHIDS FROM WALTON GRANGE. 

Several beautiful flowers are sent from the collection of W. Thompson, 
Esq., Walton Grange, Stone, including the richly-blotched Odontoglossum 
X Rolfeae Walton Grange var., and Mr. Stevens remarks that he has never 
seen another form that comes near it for colour or distinct markings. 
There are two seedlings of O. x armainvillierense, having a few purple 
spots on the sepals and lip, one of them having a very round flower with 
broad segments. The others are two Odontioda Vuylstekese (C. Ncetzliana 
X O. Pescatorei), differing greatly in colour. One may be described as 
scarlet with a very few splashes of yellow, chiefly on the lip, while in the 
other the lip and margins of the sepals and petals are light yellow with only 
a light scarlet marbling, the latter colour being mostly limited to the 
central area, giving a very pretty effect. The plants are six years old, and 
are now flowering for the first time. Mr. Stevens remarks that the O. 
Vuylstekese Crawshayanum, for which Mr. Crawshay received a First-class 
Certificate from the R.H.S. on May 18th last {ante, p. 176) came out of the 
same batch. It is interesting to see the amount of variation from the same 

NOTES. 

The great Summer Show of the Royal Horticultural Society will be 
held in the grounds of Holland House, Kensington, on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, July 6th and 7th. The following meeting will be held at the 
Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on July 20th, when 
the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual hour, 12 o'clock noon. The 
first August meeting is fixed for August 3rd. 

We have not yet received the dates of the Manchester & North of 
England Orchid Society for the coming year, but we learn that it commences 
with a meeting on July 1st. It will be seen by the report at page 214 that 
a series of Cup competitions have again been arranged, one being the Ward 
Cup for amateurs who do not employ a gardener. 

It is with regret that we have to announce the dissolution of the old and 
well-known firm of Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., formerly of Clapton, and 
recently of Bush Hill Park, Enfield. By a deed, dated June 15th, 1909, the 
partnership between Stuart Henry Low and Edward Valentine Low has 
been dissolved, and by mutual consent neither of the parties will carry on 
business under the old name. Mr. Stuart H. Low will in future carry on 



224 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [July, 1909. 

business at Bush Hill Park, Enfield, under the style of Stuart Low & 
Co., and Mr. E. V. Low at the Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, Haywards 
Heath, Sussex, under the style of Edward V. Low. Notices on the subject 
appear in our Advertisement pages. We wish the new firms every success 
in their future career. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co. have taken over the lease of the Nurseries at 
Enfield, with the general stock, and a portion of the Orchids, and have also 
retained the services of Mr. Harry A. Barnard, Mr. F. W. Ashton and 
others, with Mr. Edward Tack as Orchid Specialist and Grower, and will 
carry on both branches of the business, giving special attention to Orchids. 

Mr. Edward V. Low has acquired the special portion of the Orchid 
stock, which has been removed to the Vale Bridge Nursery, Haywards 
Heath, recently vacated by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., which he has 
purchased, and where he intends to specialise in choice Orchids, both 
species and hybrids, giving particular attention to albino Cattleyas, choice 
Cypripediums, and others for which the late firm had a decided reputation. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Angr^ecum sesquipedale. — Gcird. Chron., 1909, i. p. 399, fig. 177. 

Cypripedium spectabile (at Staffan House).— Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 
494, with fig. 

Dendrobium Sanders, Rolfe. — Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 374, fig. 163. 

Eulophiella Elizabetu JR.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 407, fig. 178. 

L^liocattleya X Mikado.— Joum. Hort., 1909, i. p. 555, with fig. ; 
Garden, 1909, ii. p. 313, with fig. 

Odontioda X Ernest Henry.— Joum. Hort., 1909, i. p. 483, with fig. 

Odontoglossum mirum var. Emperor of India.— Joum. Hort., 1909, 
i. p. 531, with fig. 

Odontoglossum x Princess Victoria Alexandra.— Gard. Mag., 
1909, p. 431, with fig. 

Oncidium Charlesworthii.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 377, fig. 166; 
Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 436, with fig. ; Joum. Hort., 1909, i. p. 507, with fig. 

Pleurothallis Birchenallii, Rolfe.— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 391, 
fig- 173- 

Vanda teres (group of).— Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 365, fig. 161. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

E. St. D. None of the Orchid Manuals contain many so-called Botanical Orchids, 

J. M. A form of Odontoglossum X excellens with a nearly white ground. 

C. B., Paris. Ccelogyne flaccida, Lindl., Epidendrum microbulbon, Hook (5570) 
Polystachya luteoln. 1 1 < < k . igictn, Trigcnidii-m temie, Lcdd. (Guiana), Cinliop. -talum 
maculosum, Lin<il. {204), aot yet identified 

(flower dark purple), and Physosiphon Loddigesii, Lindl. 



STflfiUEY & CO., 

GR ow Soathgate, Iiondon, 

V^Jt^V^xiXX-rJ^ ONLY, and constantly maintain 
Stock of about ^QO OOO ' n tne most extensive variety possible. 



HYBRID ORCHIDS. 



ARMSTRONG & BROWN, 

" ORCHIDHURST," 
SANDHURST PARK, TUNBRIDGE WELLS, KENT. 



IRotlCe 18 IbeVeb^ giVen that the partnership heretofore 
subsisting between us the undersigned, Stuart Henry Low and 
Edward Valentine Low, carrying on business as Nurserymen and 
Orchid Growers at the Royal Nurseries, Bush Hill Park, Enfield, 
Middlesex, under the style or firm of Hugh Low & Co., has been 
dissolved. The said Stuart Henry Low will in future carry on 
business at Bush Hill Park aforesaid under the style of " Stuart 
Low & Co.," and the said Edward Valentine Low will carry on 
business at The Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, Haywards Heath, 
Sussex, under the style of " Edward V. Low." All debts due to and 
owing by the said late firm of Hugh Low & Co. up to and including 
the 2nd June, 1909, will be received and paid respectively by 
Frederick Orlando Collier, of 15, 16, 17, Eldon Street, London, 
E.G., Chartered Accountant. 

Dated this 15th day of June, 1909. 

(Signed) STUART H. LOW. 
(Signed) EDWARD V. LOW. 



Orchid Compost. 

Polypodium, 

Peat Fibre, and Sphagnum 



JOH. WILH RINGEN. 
Oberdollendorf am Rhein, Germany. 



Orchid Pe»t 



DIRECT FROM BEDS. 




PHAL/ENOPSIS AND VANDAS. 



Large Importations recei 

PHAL^ENOPSIS AMABILIS 
PHAL^NOPSIS SCHILLERIANA 
PHAL^NOPSIS SANDERIANA 
PHAL^ENOPSIS STUART1ANA ' 

We also receive many other varieties of Orchids 
We respectfully solicit yo 



VANDA SANDERIANA 
VANDA BATEMANII 
VANDA BOXALL1I 
DENDROBIUM SUPERBUM 



O RCHI DS. 

A. J. KEELING & SONS, 

Orchid Importers, exporters, and Growers, 
Westgate Hill, Near Bradford, Yorks. 



Smith's Pollen Preserving Tubes 



ally designed for the 



> fill a long-felt want. The i 



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these Tubes for I 



A. J. KEELING & SONS, 

Westgate Hill, Bradford, Yorks. 



THE WORLD'S BEST PEAT 

OSMUNDA FIBRE. 



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SPECIAL GRADE. SOLE AGENTS. 

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WE INVITE INSPECTION OF OUR LARGE STOCK OF ORCHIDS 
GROWN IN THIS FIBRE. 

3,000 Bags of Excellent Material in stock. 



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We hold a large stock of a very fine quality of this fibre. 

Being Growers, we know exactly the standard necessary for these and other sundries. 

SAMPLES POST FREE ON i 



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Rawdon, via. Leeds. 



buy OSMUNDA FIBRE 

from the Pioneer Importers of recent years, who 
consequently hold the LARGEST STOCK of 
FINEST SELECTED QUALITY, in 3 GRADES:— 
FINE, MEDIUM, and COARSE. 



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Mr. Alexander, Westonbirt Gardens. 
Mr. Bound, Gatton Park Gardens. 
Mr. Ballantine, The Dell Gardens. 
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Mr. Dalgleish, Haslingden Gardens. 
Mr.McLean, Arddarrock Gardens, etc., etc 



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Ilia per 4- Bush. Large Cask. 

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WM. WOOD & SON, LTD., 



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Telegrams—" Fungheto, London.'' Telephone— Tottenham, 10* 



IMPORTED 
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ESTABLISHED 

- - ORCHIDS. 
A wonderful selection of Botanical Orchids 
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NURSERY ENTIRELY DEVOTED TO 

ORCHIDS. 

WRITE FOR CATALOGUES. 

MOORE, Ltd. 



HUGH LOW & Co. 
Dissolved. 

STUART H. LOW begs to 
notify that he has taken over the 
Royal Nurseries, Bush Hill 
Park, together with the larger part 
of the Orchid stock, and is carrying 
on business on the lines followed for 
so many years by the late firm, 
assisted by its capable staff. 

The ORCHIDS, of which a 
special feature will be made, will be 
specially represented by Messrs. 
Harry A. Barnard, and F. W. 
Ashton, while the cultivation of 
the plants will be in the capable 
hands ot Mr. Edward Tack. 

The firm will be carried on under the 
style of STUART LOW & CO., to whom 
all communications should be addressed 



Telegraphic Address: "Low, Haywards Heath. 

EDWARD V. 



laOW 



to notify that 



i and Valuable Orchid ! 



■;iie<i 1a- Messrs. 



EDWARD V. LOW, Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, 



ORCHIDS. 


MANCHESTER & NORTH OF 
ENGLAND 


C X Z2££Z£Z ,1'v" 


©ccbifc Society 


CHOICE CATTLEYAS, CYPRIPEDIUMS, AND 

. . . HYBRID ORCHIDS A SPECIALITY. 

Please write for List. 

JAMES CYPHER & SONS, 


A MEETING of the COMMITTEE for the 
, at 11 o'clock prompt/ ^pen^to 


EXOTIC NURSERIES, 


P.-WBATHBRS Hon. Kec 


CHELTENHAM. 


Botanical Garden. Manchester 



SANDER & SONS, 

Growers, importers, & Eyporters of 

ORCHIDS. 

Over Sixty Greenhouses Devoted Solely to the Cultivation of Orchids. 
DENDROBIUM DEAREI. 



We have just received 

Very Great Importations of Mexican Orchids, including:— 

L^LIA AUTUMXAL.IS ODONTOGLOSSUM CORDATUM 

Do. ANCKPS Do. MACULATUM 

ODONTOGLOSSUM GRANDE BRASSIA VERRUCOSA 

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Sizes, Prices and all Particulars on Application. 
INSPECTION CORDIALLY INVITED. 

SANDER'S SANDER'S 

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NEW YORK ADDRESS— 235, BROADWAY Room No. 1. 

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Vol. XVII. ] AUGUST, 1909. [No. 200. 

THE 

ORCHID REVIEW: 

Hit 3llustratefc> 3ouunal of ©rcbtDoloc$\>, 



Answers to Correspondents 256 , Orchid Portraits 

Brassocattleya sandhaghensis (fig. 19) 
Calendar of Operations for August 



tonioda Harwoodii (fig. 18) 233 Osmunda fibre fungus 

Species 234 ; Royal Horticultural 



PRICE SIXPENCE MONTHLY. Post Fr 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



Vol. XVII.l 



DIES ORCHIDIANI. 

Another sensational hybrid has appeared. Not many years ago, the idea 
of a hybrid between Miltonia vexillaria and Cochlioda Ncefczliana would 
have provoked a smile of incredulity, in spite of the many successes that had 
been obtained, for we had begun to find out that a good many Orchids 
would not cross. They were too distinct, &c. Then came the remarkable 
Odontioda Vuylstekeae— sensational was the word at the time, and nothing 
short of a First-class Certificate and a Silver-gilt Medal would suffice to 
mark the occasion. Five years have given us at least nine or ten additions, 
while the original cross has been repeated several times, and Odontiodas 
now form quite an important garden genus, greatly admired and almost too 
common to excite remark. Such is progress in hybridisation. 

But I am forgetting the new plant. There was a tiny pot at the recent 
Holland House Show, containing a small seedling which was bearing its 
first flower. It was placed amidst a sea of other brilliant things, so 
numerous that a hurried visitor might have missed it, though it would have 
deserved the dignity of a bell glass of its own, but for the fact that they 
have now gone out of fashion. That was the new hybrid between Cochlioda 
Noetzliana and Miltonia vexillaria. It was a plant that might very well 
have produced a spike of anything up to a dozen flowers if it had been 
allowed a little more time, and it seems almost a pity that it attempted to 
bloom until it got a little bigger. Its portrait was secured and may be seen 
on another page (p. 233), and I need only add that the colour of the sepals 
and petals has been described as " deep carmine rose, and that of the lip 
flesh-pink, with a pair of orange yellow keels at the base." One cannot do 
justice to such a flower in black and white. The new Certificate of 
Appreciation was awarded to the plant, and we must now await with 
patience its full development. 

The Holland House Show was, as usual, a great success, with the single 
exception of the weather, which allowed the plants to get comfortably staged 
and the visitors there to admire them, after which the rain descended and 



226 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

the floods almost came, for in some of the places the grass was trodden 
to a quagmire. But for all that it was a splendid exhibition, not 
only of the Orchids, but in the manner of exhibiting them, and the Journal 
of Horticulture remarks that it was said on every hand, " What an improve- 
ment on the Holland House Show of a year or two ago." The Orchid 
groups are also described as "no longer set up in dense masses of unrelieved 
brilliance, but they are arranged in bays and prominences, with graceful 
ferns and even foliage plants. They form sinuous, varied groups — a great 
deal prettier, more interesting, and easier to view than used to be the case." 
Some very pretty dells and grottoes were also to be seen, in which the 
plants were seen to great advantage. Some of these days we may even see 
an attempt to arrange the plants as if growing in their native habitats, with 
the epiphytes as if on their native branches, and the terrestrials on banks 
and dells beneath. I hope that the reporter of the daily Press will then drop 
in to do justice to the display. 

He dropped in at the last meeting of the R.H.S., as may be seen from the 
following cutting : — " For any poor soul who has quickly tired of the heat 
wave and whose eyes are smarting with the dust and glare of it, the Royal 
Horticultural Show may be much commended. The tired eyesight rests on 
flowers and flowers, in all their daintiest summer dresses. One feels lifted out 

of this dull world on billows of glowing colour Sparkle the 

Orchids give us, wonderful, evil-looking creatures, half plant, half fly ; 
and here one like a spread of coral, and here one like a butterfly and a bag, 
and here one like a beast with long mandibles on the pounce ; splashes of 
ruthless colour, ugly nightmare shapes." I wish he had not so quickly 
turned away to the other plants. 



ORCHIDS AT WILDERSPOOL, WARRINGTON. 

Our readers will probably remember two articles which appeared in these 
pages under the above title three years ago (O.R., xiv., pp. 3, 359), in which 
it was pointed out that Orchid culture in a compost of oak leaves was 
carried on at Warrington by Mr. William Bolton with great success. We 
have now seen a sample of the compost, and some of the plants grown in 
it, and can only say that the result leaves nothing to be desired with regard 
to their health and vigour. We remarked to Mr. Bolton that a few years 
ago a great deal was said about culture in leaf-mould, and that many people 
had tried it, but found that the roots decayed, and consequently the treat- 
ment was abandoned, so that we were greatly puzzled at his continued 
success. He replied, "I am under the impression that the roots went 
wrong because they were in leaf-mould, or some other mixture that is only 
fit for carnations or geraniums." That at all events does not describe the 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 227 

sample of compost sent by Mr. Bolton. It is a mixture of oak leaves and 
chopped sphagnum moss in about equal parts, the former being gathered in 
the woods in autumn and kept in the open under a shed until used, when 
they are rubbed through a half-inch sieve. The leaves are ordinary oak 
[eaves, such as might be gathered in any district where oak trees grow by 
themselves, for we find no other leaves present. This mixture is pressed 
firmly into the pots, and the surface is then finished off with a layer of 
living sphagnum. 

Mr. Bolton remarks that this mixture is used for all classes of Orchids 
except Cypripediums and other terrestrial species. For these about one- 
third red marl is added to the mixture. This red marl is gathered locally, 
and a sample of it is sent. It occurs in small nodules, and breaks up 
readily when rubbed. Mr. Bolton grows about 60,000 plants in his 
establishment, and he remarks, " It does not matter what variety of Orchid 
it is, they all do well, and we have no failures, though Warrington is not 
reckoned to have the best atmosphere for growing Orchids in. We have 
some of the finest Cypripedium insigne Sanderae to be found. Odonto- 
glossum hybrids, Oncidiums, and Miltonias are all doing well, and the 
same may be said of Cattleyas and Cymbidiums. The plants sent are 
Cattleya labiata, Gaskelliana, Mendelii, Mossiae, and Warscewiczii, Miltonia 
vexillaria, Odontoglossum crispum (three), O. luteopurpureum, Oncidium 
ornithorhyncum, Trichopilia nobilis, and Cypripedium insigne Sanderae, 
and they are without exception in rude health and vigour, with leaves 
perfect to the tips. There is no sign of deterioration anywhere, and this 
ought to have manifested itself long ago, for the compost has been used 
long enough to decide its utility. It is also certain that if the plants were 
not doing so well the treatment would have been changed long ago. It will 
be very interesting to see how the plants behave when placed among those 
potted in the more usual fibre compost. 

The amount of sphagnum seems large, and should serve to keep the 
compost sufficiently open, but whether part of it might not be 
advantageously replaced by some fibre is perhaps matter for experiment. 
Sphagnum is certainly a moisture-retaining substance, but it should be a 
very long time before such a compost became in such a state as to rot the 
roots, as was alleged by those who tried the Belgian leaf mould, and 
probably the plants would require repotting first. Some years ago it was 
contended that Orchids could be successfully grown in pure sphagnum, but 
we do not think such a thing is practiced now. 

Mr. Bolton's houses are peculiar in some respects, as may be seen by 
the articles mentioned, and we hope some day to see them personally, but 
we should say that the atmosphere within must be in the right condition, 
which after all is the main thing in Orchid growing. The compost seems 



228 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, .909. 

to be a matter of secondary importance, provided always that it contains 
the necessary food supply, and is of the right mechanical texture with 
regard to its moisture-retaining qualities. But the food-supply has to 
come from the compost, and any deficiency in this respect will inevitably 
be seen in the diminished growth of the plants. The addition of loam or 
some similar substance is essential in the case of most terrestrial Orchids, 
and Mr. Bolton seems to find that the marl used answers the purpose. 
Certainly the plant of Cypripedium insigne Sanderas mentioned finds the 
compost and treatment generally all that can be desired. 

Mr. Bolton makes a rather amusing reference to his treatment. He 
says, " According to some ideas, all I do is wrong. My boilers are upside 
down, my pipes are all wrong in arrangement— only one pipe in each house, 
or at most only two. My ventilation is wrong, as we have neither top nor 
bottom air, only a temporary arrangement at each end. The watering is 
done in a slipshod fashion with a syringe. The pots are all too large ; still, 
it takes us all our time to get the plants to stop inside them." 

After all nothing succeeds like success. We take it that the boilers and 
pipes give the necessary heat. There must be sufficient ventilation or some- 
thing to keep the atmosphere right. The compost contains the necessary 
rood, with sufficient moisture, and not too much of it, or the plants would 
not succeed, which after all is the main thing in Orchid growing. 

ONCIDIUM BRACHYANDRUM. 

An interesting little Oncidium is sent from the collection of G. H. Peace, 
Esq., Monton Grange, Monton, near Manchester, which is said to have 
been imported with Odontoglossum Cervantesii. It is Oncidium brachy- 
andrum, Lindl. (Sert. Orch., sub. t. 25), described from materials collected 
by Karwinsky, near San Jago el Grande, in the province of Oaxaca, S. 
Mexico. Lindley did not see the leaves or pseudobulbs. The species was 
afterwards obtained by Messrs. Veitch, and Mr. Day bought a plant at a 
sale at Stevens' Rooms in July, 1868, which is said to have been imported 
with Laelia majalis, albida, &c. The flowers were drawn by Mr. Day in 
July, 1871 {Day Orch. Draw., xvii. t. 3), and materials were sent to 
Reichenbach, who wrote a note about it (Gard. Chron., 1871, p. 1163), giving 
Epidendrum vitellinum as another species with which it was found, so 
that it is evidently one of the typical mountain species. Day did not 
draw the pseudobulbs and leaves, but recorded their characters from the 
imported plants as follows: " Pseudobulbs l£ by J inches, rather stout and 
sharp-edged, smooth, very pale green, dotted with small purple dots on the 
upper half. Leaves 2, lanceolate 4 by £ inches." The scapes bear one or 
two flowers, with brown sepals and petals, and a yellow broadly pandurate 
lip. Lindley places the species in his section Integrilabia. R. A. R. 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 229 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR AUGUST. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Attention must now be paid to getting the Dendrobiums, Cattleyas, 
Lselia anceps, and other Mexican house Orchids properly ripened, and the 
shading can be gradually reduced until, by the middle of August, they will 
only need the blinds for an hour or so in the middle of the day, and then 
only on very bright days, and by the end of the month they should need no 
shading at all. As the shading is decreased the ventilation must be 
increased on bright days, or the leaves will get scalded, but so long as a 
good circulation of air is maintained they will ripen up very rapidly without 
any scalds. In ripening, water must not be decreased suddenly, or the 
bulbs will shrivel ; the plants will need a good supply of moisture for some 
time yet, and should be watered when they become dry, without letting 
them go for several days. They will dry out very rapidly for some time 
yet, especially with increased ventilation. Give them a good syringing in 
the afternoon, and close them up for an hour or so, after which the 
ventilation can be again gradually put on, so as to get them dry by night 
again. About three o'clock is early enough for this. These houses will 
not require damping so often now ; once a day will be quite sufficient, 
especially where syringing is practised during the afternoon. Give the 
plants every chance to ripen, as the days shorten very rapidly after August. 
Cypripediums, Phalamopsis, Odontoglossums, and all soft foliaged 
plants that have been shaded with double blinds should be gradually 
used to more light, so that only one blind will be required by the end of 
August. Where the glass has been stippled with flour and water it is a 
good plan to go over it with a dry brush and rub off what will come off 
easily, then about a week or so after, go over it with a hose pipe and brush, 
and clean the glass thoroughly. The blinds will be quite sufficient after- 
wards, but where no blinds are used of course the stippling must be left on 
longer. As the shading is reduced the ventilation must be increased on all 
favourable occasions until the plants get used to the stronger light, and 
with a little care no scalding need occur. The moisture in these houses 
must not be decreased to the same extent as in the case of the harder 
growing plants, or thrip will soon make its appearance. The plants must 
be carefully watched for some time, as thrip soon spoils the appearance of 
an otherwise healthy plant. Light fumigating will check these insects, or 
spraying with a reliable insecticide will prevent them making any headway. 
Plants that are suspended from the roof must be carefully watched and Dot 
allowed to suffer from want of water, as they dry much more quickly than 
those farther away from the glass, and if nothing happens to be dry on the 
stages, they are apt to get overlooked. Keep the houses well damped for 



i$o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

some time yet, and do not check the plants in any way if it can 
be avoided. 

Odontoglossum crispum.— Towards the end of this month is one of 
the best seasons for potting Odontoglossum crispum, and any of the hybrids 
that have their growths about half made up, for the cooler conditions 
outside and the heavy dews at night help them to get established quickly. 
Do not overpot, or it will take two seasons before a good spike can be got 
out of the plant, and be careful not to break more roots than is absolutely 
necessary, especially in repotting specimen plants. Remove all useless 
back bulbs, and if they are needed for propagation, they can be potted up 
in small pots, and placed by themselves where they can have a little extra 
attention, especially when they are valuable varieties. Two bulbs and the 
young growth are quite enough to leave on, especially in the case of 
specimen plants, as then they will go on for several seasons without 
repotting. Turn the young growth inwards, not over the edge of the pots, 
and then they will root into the compost, instead of over the side of the 
pot. The same thing applies in repotting the smaller plants. When the 
old bulbs have been removed the plant will repot into the same size, or just 
one size larger, and if the young growth is in the centre of the pot it will 
give it, and also the next bulb, plenty of room to root without getting over 
the side of the pot and looking unsightly. Work the material carefully in 
between the roots, and not push all the roots to the bottom of the pot, as is 
so often done, and then wonder why the plant does not grow, when all 
the time the fault is to be found in the potting. For a compost, use three 
parts polypodium fibre or fern fibre and one part leaves, and top the plants 
neatly with clean moss. Do not get the plants above the rim of the pots. 
Stage all newly-potted plants by themselves, so that no mistakes will 
occur in watering, and syringe them overhead several times daily until they 
get re-established. Plants that do not need repotting but are looking 
shabby should have all the old moss carefully picked out and re-topped with 
fresh, which will be a great aid to the new roots, and also make the plants 
look much smarter. When using a lot of new moss a sharp look-out must 
be kept for slugs, for no matter how well moss is washed, slugs always 
make their appearance after it has been on for a short time. Lettuce 
leaves laid on the stages are a very good trap for them, especially when 
looked over with a lamp after dark. By this means they can soon be 
cleared out with a little trouble. With open stages slugs have not much 
chance of hiding, but where ash stages are used it is much more trouble to 
get rid of them. 

Odontoglossum grande will be pushing up its spikes, and will require 
plenty of water until the flowers are open. These should be placed in an 
airy position, and close to the glass, then they will make sturdy spikes and 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 231 

fine flowers. They like a fair amount of sunshine, and the cool end of the 
Cattleya house will suit them. Slugs must be kept down, or they quickly 
destroy the spikes. They are very fond of the spikes and young roots. 

Ccelogyne cristata and its varieties should now be given plenty of 
light. The shading should be gradually removed, and the plants placed 
near the glass, so as to give them every chance to ripen their bulbs as they 
finish growing. An early vinery, where there is plenty of air circulating, is 
just the place for them, especially if there is a gable end facing the south, 
where they can get plenty of sunshine. The better the bulbs are ripened 
the longer the flowers will last. They must be given an ample supply of 
water for some time yet, and occasional waterings with liquid manure will 
be a great help to them, especially when they have been in the same pan 
or basket for several seasons. 

Thunias will have finished flowering, and should be given similar treat- 
ment. A vinery will suit them to finish up their growths in. They should 
be given plenty of water, with manure-water at alternate waterings. 
As soon as the leaves commence to turn yellow, water must be 
gradually decreased until the bulbs have shed all their foliage, and then the 
plants should be placed in a cool position. They will not require watering 
again until they commence to grow in the spring. 

Pleiones will have finished their growth, and should be suspended 
from the roof of the Mexican house. Give plenty of water until the foliage 
' falls, after which they will only need sufficient to keep the bulbs plump 
until the flower buds appear, when the supply must be increased until the 
flowers are developed. After flowering very little watering will be required 
until they commence to grow again in the spring. 

Cypripediums.— The early flowering varieties will be showing their 
spikes, and as soon as these are large enough they should have a stake 
placed to each. Especially on specimen plants is this necessary, as often 
the leaves will keep the buds underneath them unless they are released, 
and a stake put in to keep them off the buds. When each bud is given a 
fair chance they will generally flower altogether, and make a much finer 
show than they do when neglected and flowering irregularly. Plants that 
are flowering should be staged together, as then a little extra care can be 
taken in watering. When they are staged amongst the growing plants the 
buds are liable to get broken off when reaching over them with a watering 
can, and then a year's work is thrown away. The plants should be kept 
syringed on nice days until the flowers open, when the syringing should be 
stopped until the flowers are over. When not using the syringe the plants 
must be looked over every day to see if any require water, as if allowed to get 
dry the flowers will be small. While the plants are pushing up their spikes 
they should be kept up near the glass, to encourage them to make sturdy 



»$i THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

spike?. Before staging them in their flowering quarters the glass should be 
washed down inside, as when a lot of water has been used during the 
summer the glass always gets dirty. Pots should also be washed, and 
everything be kept as clean as possible. Dirty pots look bad, and are not 
a help to the plants, although some growers contend that they help to hold 
moisture for the plants. Certainly a dirty pot will not dry out as quickly 
as a clean one, but the plants have not the same chance to keep healthy 
in the former. Clean pots also help to keep down slugs, and although slugs 
do not as a rule bother Cypripediums, yet they get carrried from one house 
to another when moving plants about. 

Temperatures.— By the end of this month the houses will have to be 
more carefully watched at night, as we often get chilly nights, and the 
temperatures should not be allowed to drop suddenly, as often a lot of 
harm will be done before the plants get properly hardened to stand the 
winter well. Damping should be done a little earlier in houses that do not 
dry quickly, to give them a chance to dry before nightfall. Plants do not 
object to moisture condensing on the leaves so long as the temperature doei 
not drop below normal. The temperatures should be kept about as follows 
at night, allowing a rise of 5 during the day time with fire heat, or io° 
with sun heat : — 

Cool house, 55 . 

Intermediate house, 6o°. 

Cattleya house, 65 . 

East Indian house, or stove, 70 . 
Of course if we should get warm nights one need not stick to these 
temperatures, but at present there is not much prospect of getting warmer 
weather. These figures are given as a guide for fire heat, if it is needed, and on 
cold nights they should not be allowed to drop below the temperatures given. 

The Osmunda Fibre Fungus.— In some collections a white fungus has 
appeared on the surface of the soil where the above-named fibre has been 
incorporated with the potting mixture. So far as I can gather no harm has 
been done to the plants, and in time it disappears ; but still it is rather 
unsightly, and for this reason it should be carefully picked out with a 
pointed stick and burnt. I mention these facts so that any grower using 
Osmunda which has produced this fungus should not condemn it on that 
account, for it is indeed a first-class ingredient for repotting most Orchids, 
and one wonders why it has not been more largely employed as a rooting 
medium hitherto. I have seen a similar fungus (if not exactly the same) on 
peat, which has been traced to bad storage, such as being tightly packed in 
boxes or sacks while in a damp condition.— T. Anstiss in Journal of 
Horticulture. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



-Jo 



MILTONIODA HARWOODII. 
The annexed figure represents a very interesting generic hybrid, which was 
raised by Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, from Cochlioda 
Ncetzliana 2 and Miltonia vexillaria $ , and which received a Certificate of 
Appreciation at the Holland House Show, under the name of Miltonioda 
Harwoodii. It was a tiny plant producing its first flower, as may be seen 




by the figure, which is reproduced from a photograph kindly sent by the 
raisers, but which gives a very imperfect idea of what the hybrid will be 
like when it becomes strong. The flower, as will be seen, has taken the 
general shape of the Miltonia parent, especially in the entire spreading lip, 
but the colour of the flower shows more of the influence of the pollen parent. 



234 tnn okcnw nnvmw. [Auoust, 1909. 

The sepals and petals may be described as deep carmine rose, and the lip 
deep flesh pink, with a pair of orange keels at the base. The column 
wings are lilac-purple, and approach those of the Cochlioda parent in shape. 
The colour is very brilliant, and the plant should develop into a fine thing 
when it becomes strong, for the Miltonia parent produces a spike of several 
flowers, and the Cochlioda parent quite a long raceme. Only one hybrid 
between Cochlioda and Miltonia is known to have flowered, namely 
Miltonioda Lindeni, which was described at page 58 of the present volume, 
and whose parentage is not quite certain, though it is believed to have been 
derived from Cochlioda vulcanica and Miltonia Phalsenopsis. Other 
seedlings between the two genera are in existence, and the next few years 
may witness some striking developments. Quite recently the existence of 
hybrid seedlings between Cochlioda and Ada and between Cochlioda and 
Oncidium have been recorded, and the linking up of other allied genera 
is probably only a question of time. The progress made in hybridisation 
during recent years is indeed remarkable, and the field for experiment in the 
future seems inexhaustible, for the hybrids themselves are so frequently 
fertile when again intercrossed. 

NATURAL SELECTION AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 

In the course cf an interesting address given at the recent Darwin 
Celebrations at Cambridge, Prof. Ray Lankester remarked that after fifty 
years of examination and testing, Darwin's theory of the origin of species 
by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the 
struggle for life, remained whole and sound and convincing, in spite of every 
attempt to upset it. In the judgment of those best acquainted with living 
things in their actual living surroundings, natural selection retained the 
position which Darwin claimed for it of being the principal means of the 
modification of organic forms. The nature of organic variation, and the 
character of the variations upon which natural selection can and does act, 
were not neglected or misapprehended by Darwin, and the notion that these 
variations are large or sudden was considered by him, and for reasons set 
forth at considerable length rejected. In regard to the important facts of 
heredity connected with the cross-breeding of cultivated varieties, especially 
the blending or non-blending of their characters in their offspring, and the 
question of prepotency, it was important to recall the full and careful con- 
sideration given to this subject by Darwin. We could not doubt that he 
would have been deeply interested in the numerical and statistical results 
associated with the name of Mendel. These results tended to throw light on 
the mechanisms concerned in hereditary transmission, but it could not be 
shown that they were opposed in any way to Darwin's great theoretical 
structure, his doctrine of the origin of species. It had often been urged 



August, 1909.] THE OttCHW REVIEW. 235 

against Darwin that he did not explain the origin of variation, and especially 
that he did not show how variations of sufficient moment to be selected for 
preservation in the struggle for existence have in the first place originated. 
A brief reply to the first objection was that variation is a common attribute 
of many natural substances of which living matter is only one, and to the 
second that Darwin described with special emphasis instances of what he 
terms correlated variability, which furnished the key to the explanation of 
what are called useless specific characters and incipient organs. That key 
consisted in the fact that a general physiological property or character of 
utility is often selected and perpetuated which carries with it distinct, even 
remote, correlated growths and peculiarities obvious to our eyes, yet having 
no functional value, though at a later stage in the history of such a form 
these correlated growths might acquire value and become the subject of 
selection. 



ORCHIDS BY COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Some of our readers are interested in the application of colour photography 
to Orchids, and we have now had the pleasure of seeing some examples 
taken by the new Lumiere process. 

Mr. G. Hirchfeldt Hansen, of Copenhagen, who recently paid a visit to 
England as a member of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry, 
showed us three very beautiful specimens of the art, one showing a plant of 
Phalaenopsis amabilis Rimestadiana, another of Cattleya intermedia, and a 
third a group of Orchids in the nursery of Mr. J. Waterspadt, Copenhagen. 
The colours were very faithfully rendered, and the third photograph 
mentioned formed a pretty severe test of the process, for it showed plants of 
Cattleya labiata, Lselia autumnalis, Lycaste Skinneri, Phalaenopsis 
Schilleriana, P. amabilis Rimestadiana, and Paphiopedilum niveum, all 
within the limits of quarter plate size (4^- by 3^ inches), so that the flowers 
were greatly reduced, but we were able to identify them all at once with a 
pocket lens of low power. Mr. Hansen says that the photographs come 
out well as lantern slides, which we can well understand, being both 
accurate in drawing and colouring. 

The others mentioned are two groups of Orchids taken by Mr. C. P. 
Raffill, of Kew, which are also very beautiful. The first group shows Cattleya 
Bowringiana, Laeliocattleya Canhamiana, Oncidium varicosum Rogersii, 
Vanda ccerulea, Paphiopedilum Lawrenceanum (not in flower), and some 
foliage plants behind. The second group shows Cycnoches chlorochilon, 
Mormodes buccinator, M. badium, Catasetum tabulare, C. quadridens and. 
C. x splendens. The details are necessarily very minute. The other 
subjects are a group of Chrysanthemums and scarlet Pelargoniums, and a 
lilac-coloured Crinum, the latter taken as large as the plate will allow. 



236 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

The effect is very realistic, both drawing and colouring being accurate, 
but moderate reduction gives the best results, for when a lens is used, the 
picture has a granular appearance, and a sufficiently high power shows the 
individual starch grains of which the film is composed, and the effect is lost. 
The process is not a simple one, but it has the advantage of giving a direct 
picture, not a negative which has to be reversed by making a print. And 
of course there is no comparison between the results, for the colour gives a 
life-like appearance to the picture which no photograph in black and white 
can possibly have. The accuracy with which such colours as lilac and 
purple are rendered comes as a revelation to those who have attempted to 
photograph Cattleyas and similar flowers in their true colour values by the 
help of yellow screens and isochromatic plates. The process has evidently 
a great future before it, but unfortunately the pictures cannot be duplicated, 
the only plan being to repeat the process on a new plate. 

A very ingenious method of showing these pictures is to place them 
upside down in a frame in front of an ordinary window, and at an angle of 
45 degrees to a mirror laid upon the table, the picture then appearing in its 
natural position in the mirror. In the ordinary way they are held up against 
the light, the colours being visible only by transmitted light. 

THE HOLLAND HOUSE SHOW. 

The great Summer Show of the Royal Horticultural- Society was held at. 
Holland House, Kensington, on Tuesday and Wednesday, July 6th and 7th, 
and produced a very fine display of all kinds, though the comfort of visitors 
was spoiled by heavy rain in the afternoon of the first day. The show of 
Orchids was magnificent, and the arrangement of the groups excellent. 
The awards included three Gold and two other medals, two Silver Cups, 
one First-class Certificate, one Award of Merit, one Certificate of 
Appreciation, and one Cultural Commendation. 

F. Menteith Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), 
staged a magnificent group, to which the Society's Gold Medal was 
awarded. It was over a bay in extent, and very charmingly arranged, the 
surface being broken by a couple of deep dells, with corresponding 
elevations in the centre and at the ends, while the culture and quality of 
the plants was also excellent. The group contained a lot of beautiful 
Odontoglossums, Miltonia vexillaria, Thunias, Laeliocattleyas, Phalsenopsis 
amabilis Rimestadiana, Cattleyas and the various representative genera, 
some good examples of Cypripedium callosum Sanderse, C. X Maudiae, and 
C. Lawrenceanum, with a few other things being grouped together in the 
dells. Among handsome things noted we may mention a noble form of 
Miltonia X Bleuana grandiflora, with two racemes and nine enormous 
flowers, some good Laelia tenebrosa, Cattleya X Dusseldorfii Undine, 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 237 

C. Mossiae Wageneri, a fine Odontioda Bradshawiae bearing a panicle with 
two side branches and 26 flowers, O. Charlesworthii with a spike of nine 
flowers, the beautiful Odontonia Lairesseae, a fine Odontoglossum X 
armainvillierense xanthotes, several excellent O. Harryanum, O. hastilabium, 
a bright yellow Odontoglossum called O. Pescatorei luteum, most like 
O. Pescatorei in shape, though we think it is a form of O. X excellens, a 
fine example of O. luteopurpureum Vuylstekeanum, a few good Cochlioda 
Ncetzliana, a specimen Epidendrum prismatocarpum, Dendrobium Falconeri, 
Thunia Bensonae and Marshalliana, some beautiful varieties of Miltonia 
vexillaria, Disa X Luna, &c. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a fine group, which gained a Silver Cup. The plants were staged 
with a ground of Asparagus, and contained a large number of showy things, 
with two clusters of very interesting botanical species, the latter including 
the pretty Ccelogyne Schilleriana and C. speciosa, Bulbophyllum Dearei, 
Masdevallia xipheres, M. muscosa, M. tridactylites, M. macrura, M. 
erythrochaete, ' M. troglodytes, M. calura, Cirrhopetalum biflorum and 
pulchrum, Scaphosepalum octhodes, Promenaea xanthina and stapeliodes, 
Brassia maculata and Iveiliana, Nephelaphyllum pulchrum, Physosiphon 
Loddigesii, Eulophia Ledienii, &c. The back was made up of numerous 
showy things, and we noted also the beautiful Odontoglossum X Phoebe 
and others, a fine Sobralia xantholeuca, Laeliocattleya Phoebe, with some 
good L.-c. Canhamiana and Aphrodite, Oncidium macranthum, sarcodes, 
phymatochilum and others, the charming Odontioda heatonensis, a good 
example of Epidendrum alatum, with E. X Boundii and E. Wallisii, Thunia 
Marshalliana, Dendrobium Maccarthiae, D. nudum, D. Phalaenopsis 
Statterianum, the handsome Barkeria spectabilis, Epiphronitis Veitchii, 
Laelia grandiflora and the rare L. X lilacina, Brassocattleya Mary, Cypri- 
pedium Argus, C. callosum Sanderae and other interesting things. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), received a 
Cultural Commendation for a noble specimen of Cattleya Mossiae 
Wageneri with 17 flowers. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), sent Odontoglossum crispum Sappho, a very fine white variety 
blotched with purple-brown on the sepals and petals. 

John Rutherford, Esq., Beardwood, Blackwood (gr. Mr. Lupton), sent 
an interesting group in which we noted forms of Miltonia vexillaria, a large 
flowered Odontoglossum near O. X Rolfeae, the handsome O. X Othello, 
Laelia tenebrosa and the beautiful Walton Grange var., Oncidium Gardneri, 
Cattleya Mendelii, Cypripediums, and other Orchids. 

Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., Haywards Heath, staged a magnificent 
group of Orchids, over a bay in extent, to which a Gold Medal was awarded. 



238 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909 

It was very effectively arranged, several prominent things being grouped in 
clusters, and giving a very line effect. Thus we noted two clusters of the 
brilliant Epidendrum vitellinum, two of Odontoglossum X Rolfea, two of 
Laeliocattleya Canhamiana, with a group of Vanda ccerulea, and one of 
white Cattleyas in front. Among the numerous choice things noted we 
may mention the brilliant Odontioda Charlesworthii, with several forms 
of O. Lutetia, Bradshawiae, Vuylstekeae and heatonensis, some good Miltonia 
vexillaria, including a good plant of the beautiful, nearly white variet)' 
Queen Alexandra, Anguloa Clowesii and Ruckeri, examples of Odonto- 
glossum Williamsianum, O. X Lairessei, O. X Eleanor and many others, 
Acineta Humboldtii, good examples of Cymbidium tigrinum, Laeliocattleya 
Fantasia (L.-c. Dominiana X C. Mendelii), having handsome, flamed 
markings up the centre of the petals, and a richly coloured lip, a good 
yellow form of L.-c. Hippolyta, Vanda lamellata, Coelogyne pandurata, 
Stanhopea tigrina, Aerides Houlletianum with three racemes, several fine 
Satyrium coriifolium, the green -flowered S. odorum, the handsome Disa 
polygonoides, D. sagittalis, D. caulescens, D. X Luna, Calanthe veratri- 
folia, Oncidium Harrisonianum, Lycaste lanipes, Cattleya Eldorado Wallisii, 
and a fine C. X Edwardii (Schilleriana X Warscewiczii) with seven 
flowers, the beautiful C. X Warscewiczii var. Mrs. E. Ashworth, Laelia 
purpurata Terpsichore, a pretty white form tinged with lilac on sides of the 
lip, Angraecum Eichlerianum, Sophrocattleya Chamberlainii, with numerous 
other good things, and all excellently cultivated. The new Certificate of 
Appreciation was given to Miltonioda Harwoodii (C. Noetzliana X Miltonia 
vexillaria), a very striking novelty producing its first flower, which had 
carmine rose spreading sepals and petals, and a flesh pink lip with a yellow 
two-lobed crest at the base. It should develop into a handsome thing. It 
is figured at page 233. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Gold Medal for a 
very large and handsome group, which was charmingly diversified by two 
deep glades, and the steep banks topped with a lot of Phalaenopsis amabilis 
Rimestadiana and other fine things. The group contained a fine lot of 
Odontoglossums, among them being some good O. X Rolfeae, X spectabile 
X armainvillierense, and X excellens, O. X Lambeauianum brugense, O. 
X Landolphus (Andersonianum X Rolfeas), a cream-coloured flower with 
many reddish-purple spots, many fine Laeliocattleya Martinetti, a 
pretty hybrid from Cattleya Skinneri and Laelia pumila, a very 
beautiful specimen of Miltonia vexillaria chelseiensis, M. v. The Bride, a 
beautiful nearly white form, Maxillaria Sanderiana, some good Phalaenopsis 
Sanderiana, several beautiful varieties of Cattleya Mendelii and Mossiae, a 
number of C. Warscewiczii, a fine C. Leopoldi, Brassavola Digbyana with 
five flowers, including a twin-flowered scape, Oncidium leucochilum, 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 239 

Harrisonianum, and candidum, Aerides Houlletianum, Phaius Humblotii, 
Renanthera Imschootiana, Dendrobium Dearei, crepidatum, and trans- 
parens, Anguloa Clowesii and Ruckeri, Zygopetalum rostatum, a fine 
Ornithocephalus grandiflorus, Ancistrochilus Thompsonianus, Epidendrum 
atropurpureum, cochleatum, and a fine E. Frederici-Gulielmi, Pescatorea 
Klabochorum, Bifrenaria fragrans, Lycaste brevispatha, a fine Nanodes 
Medusae, Ansellia humilis, a distinct and pretty Mormodes from Peru with 
reddish-purple and yellow flowers, while in the dell-like depressions were 
placed Anguloa Clowesii and Ruckeri, Masdevallia X Courtauldiana, some 
good M. Harryana, &c, with a number of Cypripedium bellatulum, C. 
Godefroyae leucochilum, and other dwarf things. A First-class Certificate 
was given to Lseliocattleya Martinetii var. The Prince, a very fine form, 
with bronzy orange sepals and petals and a rich purple lip, and an Award of 
Merit to Cattleya Mossiae Wageneri Sanderae, a very beautiful albino of the 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, staged a very fine 
group of Orchids, containing many good Cattleyas, Lseliocattleya 
Canhamiana, Aphrodite and others, Odontoglossums, Miltonia vexillaria, and 
a lot of graceful Oncidiums, including O. varicosum Rogersii, leucochilum, 
Kramerianum, sphacelatum, divaricatum, prsetextum, and olivaceum, with a 
number of rarer things, including the charming little Sigmatostalix Eliae, 
Masdevallia calura and tridactylites, Cochlioda sanguinea and Ncetzliana, 
Bulbophyllum galbinum, B. saurocephalum, Cirrhopetalum guttulatum, a 
good plant of the graceful Ccelogyne Dayana, Pleurothallis pulchella, 
Epidendrum Parkinsonianum and some good E. vitellinum, Lycaste 
costata and Deppei, Anguloa eburnea, Eria armeniaca, Cattleya x fulvescens, 
the pretty Chysis X Sedeni, Thunia Bensonae, Vanda Kimballiana, 
Odontoglossum x mulus, the handsome Lseliocattleya Lustre, with a few 
Dendrobiums and other good things. A Silver Cup was awarded for 
Orchids, Carnations, &c. 

Messrs. J. W. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, received a Silver-gilt Flora 
Medal for a very beautiful group, well banked up behind and with a deep 
grotto in the centre. The group contained a lot of good Miltonia vexillaria, 
Odontoglossum crispum and others, several very strong and well-bloomed 
plants of the handsome Cochlioda Ncetzliana, one bearing five racemes, 
a fine plant of Ccelogyne asperata, Broughtonia sanguinea, a dark form of 
Catasetum cernuum, Nanodes Medusae, Bulbophyllum barbigerum, 
leopardinum, Dearei and saurocephalum, Oncidium macranthum, 
Lanceanum, olivaceum and the curious O. abortivum, Brassolaelia Helen, 
Odontoglossum Williamsianum, O. X Wilckeanum, Promena;a citrina, 
Tnchopilia coccinea, Brassavola Digbyana, Angrsecum modestum, Eria 
Vanda ccerulescens Boxallii, Galeandra lacustris, Paphiopedilum 



240 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

glaucophyllum, P. X calloso-Rothschildianum with a four-flowered spike, 
Physosiphon Loddigesii, a species of Stelis, Masdevallia calura, Miltonia 
Phalaenopsis, Disa X Luna, Epidendrum vitellinum and the rare E. 
Brassavolae, some good Cattleya Warscewiczii, and other fine things. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, Haywards Heath, sent a 
small group of choice things, including the beautiful Laelia tenebrosa 
Walton Grange var., Cypripedium callosum Sanderse, C. X Gowerianum 
rnagnificum, Odontoglossum X armainvillierense xanthotes, O. Pescatorei 
virginale, O. X illustre, Coelogyne pandurata, a light coloured Odontioda 
Goodsonse, Bulbophyllum siamense, Cattleya X Madame Myra Peeters, 
three plants of the beautiful C. Mossias Wageneri, the best bearing six 
flowers, C. M. Vale Bridge var., differing from the preceding in having a 
slight tinge of lilac on the front of the lip, and a few other good things. 

Mr. G. Bornemann, Blankenburg, Harz, Germany, sent a number of 
hybrids Disas, which unfortunately were damaged in transit, and no 
particulars of parentage were given. 

A fine inflorescence of Orchis hircina, " found growing near Dover," 
was included in the group of herbaceous plants shown by Messrs. G. & A. 
Clarke, Dover. We believe that it is from the same source as the one 
shown last year, then preserved in formalin (see O.R. xvi. p. 246). 

Miss M. Waters Anson, Dovedale, Lewin Road, Streatham, showed a 
collection of about forty excellent paintings of Orchids, to which a Silver- 
gilt Flora Medal was awarded. The paintings were artistic, and the 
details very faithfully given, even the complex crest of Coelogyne pandurata 
bearing close examination with a lens. The group contained many choice 
certificated Orchids. 

Interesting Orchid Lecture.— The second meeting of the new 
session of the Bristol and District Gardeners' Mutual Improvement 
Association was held on June 24th, when Colonel Carey Batten, the 
President of the Association, gave an interesting half-hour's talk upon 
"Orchids." The Colonel directed special attention to things not to be 
done in Orchid cultivation. He also gave some examples of potting, 
showing the right method of placing the crocks (length downwards, not flat), 
This was done in glass vessels, so that the potting material could be seen 
when finished, and proved very instructive. As an object lesson some 
seedling Cypripediums were shown, each potted in different compost, as 
loam, loam and peat, and peat and moss. There was but little variation in 
the growth to be seen. The Colonel said he failed to grow Cypripedium 
bellatulum until he planted it in the joint of a wall, where it is now 
thriving. In conclusion, the members were favoured with a demonstration 
upon hybridising.— Journal of Horticulture. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



BRASSOCATTLEYA SANDHAGHENSIS. 

The annexed figure represents a very interesting hybrid from the collection 
of Mr. Gustav H. Miiller, Huis Sandhaghe, Den Haage, Holland, and is 
reproduced from a photograph kindly sent by him. The cross is given as 
Brassavola Digbyana x Cattleya Schilleriana, and it will be seen that both 
the dwarf habit and the floral structure of the Cattleya parent come out 
very strongly in the hybrid. The lip is very strongly three-lobed, and both 
the front and side lobes are beautifully fringed, the side lobes being infolded 
round the column. Unfortunately we cannot yet state the colour, as Mr. 
Miiller was not able to send a flower, but he has promised to do so when 




another seedling blooms. The sepals and petals, however, appear to be 
dark in colour, while the lip is delicately veined with a darker tint when 
examined with a lens, though this character is not quite so obvious in the 
reproduction. As regards the shape of the flower, it is most comparable 
with Brassocattleya Pluto, derived from C. granulosa and B. Digbyana, but 
it has a very much dwarfer habit, and the resemblance in floral structure 
maybe attributed to the fact that in both C. Schilleriana and C. granulosa 
the lip is very deeply three-lobed, and the side lobes acute. It is a very 
interesting addition to the group, and has probably not yet reached its full 
development. 



242 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL^HORTICULTURAL. 

The first meeting after the Holland House Show was held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on July 20th, and 
produced a very fine display of Orchids. The awards consisted of four 
medals, three Cultural Commendations, two Awards of Merit, and three 
Botanical Certificates. 

F. Menteith Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), 
received a Silver Flora Medal for a very fine group, consisting chiefly of 
well-grown and flowered Odontoglossum crispum, noteworthy among them 
being O. crispum Madonna, bearing a fine spike of beautiful pure white 
flowers, with a yellow disc to the lip, and O. c. Mrs. J. W. Whiteley, 
with handsomely blotched sepals and lip. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), sent several interesting and beautiful things, including the rare 
Calanthe japonica, with bright purple flowers, Cirrhopetalum papillosum 
(Rolfe), a very interesting little Siamese species, characterised by its 
papillose-hispid lateral sepals, a very beautiful plant of Vanda X Miss 
Joaquim (teres X Hookeriana), bearing five fine spikes of flowers, and about 
a dozen and a half well-grown and flowered plants of the brilliant 
Habenaria rhodochila, which made a fine display. Cultural Commendations 
were given to Mr. White for the two latter. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a very interesting little group, including the rare Cirrhopetalum 
Macraei, a good C. biflorum, a Javan species bearing long purplish flowers, 
Bulbophyllum cocoinum, B. laxiflorum, a graceful white-flowered species, 
Masdevallia trichaete, Nephelaphyllum pulchrum, Odontoglossum X Astarte 
(Harryanum X tripudians), Lasliocattleya epicasta, Gatton Park var., a very 
showy thing, and Laelia X gattonensis (L. anceps Dawsoni x cinnabrosa), 
having bright yellow sepals and petals, and the lip veined with claret-purple. 
An Award of Merit was given to Spathoglottis plicata alba, a very pretty 
albino of the species. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), showed 
Odontioda Charlesworthii, a remarkably well-grown plant, bearing two 
spikes of seven and eight fine flowers, from the leading pseudobulb. A 
Cultural Commendation was deservedly awarded. 

Eustace F. Clark, Esq., Chamonix, Teignmouth, sent a flower of 
Cypripedium X Eustaceanum (superbiens X Argus). 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 
Odontioda gattonensis, derived from Odontoglossum Kegeljani and 
Cochlioda Noetzliana, Odontoglossum Astarte (Harryanum X tripudians), 



August, i 909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 243 

O. X Nerissa rosefieldiensis (nsevium X crispum), a very charming little 
hybrid, and a very handsome Odontoglossum called O. x Queen Alexandra 
var. Magnificence, having broad yellow sepals and petals, heavily blotched 
with olive brown, and the lip white at the apex, and handsomely marked 
with violet below. 

Lieut.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. 
Mr. Alexander), sent Lseliocattleya X Antigone Westonbirt var. (L. 
purpurata X C. Schilleriana), a handsome form with rosy-lilac sepals and 
petals, and the front of the lip ruby purple, and L.-c. Radium (L.-c. 
Antigone X C. Warscewiczii), a very fine hybrid, having rose-purple sepals 
and petals, and the front lobe of the lip bright ruby crimson, somewhat 
darker in the throat. 

C. J. Lucas, Esq., Warnham Court, Horsham (gr. Mr. Duncan), sent 
the handsome Brassocattleya X Maronse (C. Warscewiczii X B. Digbyana). 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, staged a handsome group, which 
gained a Silver Flora Medal. It contained some handsome Laeliocattleyas, 
noteworthy among them being a richly-coloured form of L.-c. Ophir, and a 
handsome example of L.-c. Clive var. broomfieldensis, some good Vanda 
ccerulea, the beautiful Cattleya Warscewiczii Sanderiana, Cypripedium X 
Mabelia? var. Lord Derby, a pretty Sophrocatlaelia, derived from C. 
Harrisoniana and Sophrolaelia laeta, Odontoglossum x spectabile brugense 
(crispum X Harryanum), a very large and richly-blotched form, and various 
other handsome things. An Award of Merit was given to Odontoglossum 
X ardentissium Starlight (nobile X crispum Starlight), a beautiful hybrid, 
having mauve-pink sepals and petals, with numerous small purple spots, 
arranged much in the same way as in the pollen parent, and the lip white, 
with some red-brown blotches in front of the crest. A Botanical Certificate 
was given to Megaclinium Arnoldianum, an ally of M. falcatum, but having 
lighter coloured flowers, arranged on either side of a very narrow rachis. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, including some beautiful examples of Vanda 
ccerulea, a plant of the rare V. X Charlesworthii, a natural hybrid between 
V. coerulea and V. Bensoni, a well-flowered batch of Epidendrum vitellinum, 
Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, a pretty white form of C. Mossiae, with pink 
freckling on the front of the lip, a very beautiful Sobralia macrantha alba, 
Bifrenaria tetragona, Miltonia vexillaria albiflora, a pretty Laeliocattleya 
derived from L.-c. Phoebe X Ascania, having bronzy-red sepals and petals, 
and a purple lip, Dendrobium superbum giganteum, Disa sagittalis, 
Satyrium membranaceum, and other pretty South African species, Odonto- 
glossum crispum, some good O. X Rolfese, and other Odontoglossums. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, also received a 
Silver Flora Medal for a fine group, including a lot of fine Cattleya 



244 THE OkCHW REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

Gaskelliana, ranging from purple to white, Dendrobium thyrsiflorum, the 
handsome D. regium, Odontoglossum Pescatorei, with a handsome spike 
of thirty-five flowers, some good O. crispum, Epidendrum vitellinum, 
Oncidium macranthum, and other well-flowered species, Brassocattleya 
Pocahontas alba (C. Eldorado alba X B. Digbyana), Cypripedium niveum, 
C. X Juno, Drewett's var., &c. 

Mr. Gurney Wilson, Haywards Heath, sent the handsome Brasso- 
cattleya Veitchii, Glenthorne var., bearing four flowers, and Oncidium 
pumilum, a dwarf Brazilian species, with very fleshy leaves, and small 
panicles of numerous yellow flowers, the latter receiving a Botanical 
Certificate. 

Mr. G. Bailey, Burgess Hill, sent a few good plants of Odontoglossum 
crispum. 

Messrs. William Bull & Son, Chelsea, sent a batch of about two dozen 
of the pretty Lseliocattleya Norba (C. Mossiae X L. xanthina). 

Mr. J. H. Hill, Burgess Hill, sent a small group of Oncidium 
macranthum, Miltonia vexillaria, and other Orchids. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
At the meeting held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on July 1st, the 
first meeting of the new Session, only a moderate number of plants were 
staged. The Committee sat as follows : Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), 
R. Ashworth, Ward, Cowan, Arthur, Shill, Thorp, Keeling, Holmes, 
Ashton, Parker, and Weathers (Hon. Sec). 

J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a 
good group of Cypripediums, for which he was awarded a Silver Medal. I 
noted a fine plant of C. callosum Sanderse, with nearly a dozen flowers, 
worthily obtaining a Cultural Certificate. The group also included C. X 
Cetewayo, C. x Gowerianum magnificum, C. X Euryades, Heaton var., C. 
X Princess, C. X Czarina, C. X Perfection, &c. 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a mixed group 
of plants, all well grown. I noted good plants of Odontoglossum cordatum, 
O. X Lambeauianum, O. X concinnum, Dendrobium atroviolaceum, also 
several Lgeliocattleyas, Miltonias, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Fern Bank, Ashton-on-Ribble, showed a small but 
select group of Cypripediums, gaining a Silver Medal. C. X Lawrence- 
Ashburtonae received an Award of Merit. Other plants were C. X 
Gowerianum, Birkinshaw's var., C. callosum Sanderse, C. x Maudise, C. X 
Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, C. Rothschildianum, &c. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Mollington Road, Blackburn, gained a Bronze Medal 
for a small group of Oncidiums, comprising plants of O. curtum, O. 
crispum, and O. Gardneri. 



August, 1909] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 245 

Elijah Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, showed Cattlcya 
Mendelii Bluntii, E. Ashworth's var., and C Mossia; Reineckiana var. Mr. 
Jno. Ashworth, the latter having a large amount of golden colouring in the 
lip. Both received First-class Certificates. 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), showed 
two plants of Odontoglossum crispum xanthotes, one of which, called 
Beeches var., gained a First-class Certificate. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), 
showed the fine Odontoglossum X armainvillierense Robsona: (First-class 
Certificate), and O. X eximium Warburton's var. (Award of Merit). 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), received Awards 
of Merit for Odontoglossum X percultum, Beardwood var., and O. X 
amabile var. Fairlight. 

Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Woore), showed 
Cypripedium Godefroyse xanthochilum var. Dorothy (Award of Merit), C. 
niveum, C. bellatulum, &c. 

Mrs. Bolton, Heightside, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Eastwood), showed the 
fine Odontoglossum X excellens var. R. Ashworth, which gained an Award 
of Merit. 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Albert Road, Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), showed 
Laeliocattleya Eudora var. Archieana (Award of Merit). 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, staged a small group, which included a 
good Odontoglossum x amabile, Epidendrum vitellinum, Miltonia 
vexillaria, and some good seedling Cypripediums. 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a mixed group, 
in which I noted Bulbophyllum saurocephalum, B. birlorum, Restrepia 
Dayana, Renanthera Imschootiana, Miltonia Phalaenopsis, &c. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed Lycaste costata, Anguloa 
eburnea, and Sigmatostalix Elise (Botanical Certificate). 

Mr. W. Bolton, Warrington, showed a fine seedling Cypripedium 
obtained from C. Gowerianum X Lawrenceanum. 

At the meeting held on July 22nd a fair show of plants was exhibited. 
The Committee present were: Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), Thorp, 
Ward, Cowan, Arthur, Leemann, Keeling, Holmes, Ashton, Parker, and 
Weathers (Hon. Sec). 

A. Warburton, Esq., Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged a good 
group of well-grown Odontoglossums, chiefly O. crispum, with O. X 
armainvillierense Robsonse, O. Harryanum, O. X Lambeauianum Purple 
Gem (Silver Medal). 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), staged a nice 
group, containing several Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, a fine plant of 



THE OR CHID RE VIE IV. [ Au 



Odontoglossum X Rolfese (Cultural Certificate), 0. X 

A First-class Certificate was given to Cattleya Gaskelliana alba var. Cyme, 

and an Award of Merit to C. Harrisoniana violacea (Silver Medal). 

R. Ashworth, Esq., J. P., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), 
staged a fine group of mixed plants, which gained a Silver Medal. I noted 
fine plants of Miltonia vexillaria, Odontoglossum X excellens, O. X 
ardentissimum, and several Cypripediums. 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a miscellaneous 
group which gained a Silver Medal. I noted a fine plant of Miltonia 
Candida grandiflora (Cultural Certificate), Cattleya Leopoldi, C. 
Harrisoniana, Brassia verrucosa, Odontoglossum cordatum, Phalsenopsis 
Rimestadiana, &c. 

J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), gained a 
Silver Medal for a nice group of Cypripediums, C. X Fallax (gigas 
Cordeanii X Charlesworthii), a fine hybrid with the Charlesworthii blood 
very prominent, gaining a First-class Certificate. I noted also several 
plants of C. niveum, C. bellatulum, C. X triumphans, C. X Gowerianum 
Schofield's var., C. callosum Sanderae, C. X Euryades, Heaton var., &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a 
group of Cattleyas, Laelias, &c, which gained a Silver Medal, while Brasso- 
cattleya X Pluto and Lseliocattleya Aphrodite alba both received Awards 
of Merit. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, gained a Bronze Medal for a 
small group of Cypripediums, including C. X Gowerianum, C. X 
Harrisianum superbum, C. Curtisii, C. X Maudias, &c. C. X Ultor, Fern 
Bank var., received an Award of Merit. 

H. Thorp, Esq., Boothroyden, Rhodes, showed a group of miscellaneous 
plants which gained a Bronze Medal. 

J. H. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), gained a 
First-class Certificate for a grand plant of Miltonia vexillaria Queen 
Alexandra, a similar award going to Odontioda Charlesworthii, Craven's var., 
a small plant bearing three flowers of bright brick-red colour. Miltonia 
vexillaria var. Fairy Queen received an Award of Merit. 

Z. A. Ward, Esq., Cringlewood, Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), 
showed a fine form of Odontoglossum X spectabile, having a large flower 
with dark marbling (Award of Merit). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), gained a First- 
class Certificate for a good form of Odontoglossum x armainvillierense 
xanthotes. He also sent a plant of Cypripedium X Olga Bagshawe. 

H. Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, gained an Award of Merit for Oncidium 
Gardneri magnificum. 

Mr. J. Young, St. Albans, sent a group of choice things, in which I 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 247 

noted Cattleya gigas, C. Gaskelliana, Cypripedium X Ultor var. Youngii, 
C. Curtisii virescens, and several good Odontoglossums. 

Messrs. Keeling, Westgate Hill, Bradford, sent Cypripedium callosum 
Sanderae, Miltonia X Bleuana nobilior, and Cirrhopetalum Roxburghii 
(Second-class Botanical Certificate). Oncidium dasytyle and Cypripedium 
X Rothschildiano-augustum both gained Awards of Merit. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, showed Odontoglossum 
X armainvillierense xanthotes and Cypripedium Godefroyae. 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed two plants of Anguloa 
Clowesii, nnd Sigmatostalix Eliae, curiously flowering a second time on a 
flower spike which was exhibited at the Temple Show. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, sent a few plants, which included a 
fine Cypripedium X St. Albans, C. X Felicity, Odontoglossum X 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent Cattleya gigas, &c. H. Thorp. 



ORCHID COLLECTIONS ROUND MANCHESTER. 

{Continued from page 206.) 
Thk Bridge Hall Collection.— The collection of O. O. Wrigley, Esq., 
Bridge Hall, Bury, is one of the oldest in the district, and an interesting 
communication from Mr. Wrigley on Cypripedium insigne appeared at page 
365 of our first volume. It must have been soon after that we had the 
pleasure of seeing the collection, and Mr. Wrigley, in a letter, remarks that 
the climate and surroundings have become considerably worse since then, 
and consequently he has to grow such things as will stand the smoke and 
fogs of the district, hence his main collection consists of Cypripediums and 
a few other things which flower in the summer months. 

Several houses are devoted to Orchids, and in looking through them in 
company with Mr. Rogers, who has had charge of the collection for a good 
many years, we found many interesting things in bloom. We first entered 
a Cypripedium house and saw some thriving plants of C. Fairrieanum, and 
Mr. Rogers remarked that they were grown in peat and loam, about half of 
each, with the addition of a little tufa to keep the compost open. 

In a Cool Intermediate house we found the brilliant Epidendrum 
vitellinum in bloom, with Oncidium concolor and the rare Cypripedium 
virens. C. insigne Gladys was pointed out as a true albino, being clear 
yellow, without even the brown hairs seen on the petals of C. i. Sanderianum. 
It was not in bloom, but there was no trace of markings anywhere in the 
foliage. Vanda coerulea was also growing very well here. A few plants of 
Vanda coerulea were also placed in a house of Clivias, where the temperature 
is cooler in winter than in the Intermediate house, and the plants were 
doing quite as well. Oncidium Wentworthianum was in bud here. 



24 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

In the front of a stove we found a number of Cattleyas, &c, with a few 
others hanging up, and noticed in bloom examples of C. Lawrenceana, C. 
intermedia alba and Lseliocattleya highburiensis. We also observed good 
plants of Oncidium Lanceanum, O. splendidum and O. ampliatum. 

The Odontoglossum house is new and very well arranged, and the plants 
were in good condition. We noted a lot of O. crispum, of which a few 
were in bloom, with examples of O. Edwardii and O. triumphans. 

Lycaste Skinneri is a great favourite with Mr. Wrigley, and in great 
demand for cut flowers, one side of a house being devoted to a large batch 
of them, all in the most vigorous health, and one bulb measured as much as 
six inches long. In this connection we may mention the beautiful plant of 
L. Skinneri alba, which was figured at page 113 of our last volume. Both 
this and various fine coloured forms were well represented. Anguloa 
Clowesii grows very well with the Lycastes. The other side of the house 
was devoted to Cypripediums, all the plants being in robust health, and 
including a lot of C. X nitens, X Hera, and various other winter-blooming 
kinds, for which the collection is famous. 

Another Cypripedium house is largely devoted to choice forms of C. 
insigne and its hybrids, which all appear strong and healthy, and among a 
few others we noted in bloom a good C. X Beeckmanii, C. glaucophyllum, 
some good C. X Maudiae, about a dozen and a half fine blooms of C. 
Mastersianum, a favourite kind, C. X Mabeliae, several good C. X gigas 
Corndeanii, and a lot of C. X Gowerianum. Some seed capsules were also 
noticed here. 

In other houses we saw a lot of C. Argus and C. X Maudiae in bloom, 
with examples of C. callosum Sanderse, C. X Phoebus, C. barbatum, C. 
Lawrenceanum, C. L. Owenianum, a very beautiful form with greyish-white 
marbled leaves, C. X Katharine, a pretty hybrid from C. callosum Sanderse 
and C. superbiens, with various others which must be passed over. We 
also noted a lot of seedlings, and may recall the fact that hybridising has 
been carried on here for a good many years. 

One side of a Pelargonium house was devoted to Odontoglossum grande, 
and the plants are said to have been grown here for twenty years. A few 
nice plants of O. grande aureum were pointed out, and we saw an example 
of Bifrenaria Harrisonse in bloom. In the next house we saw a lot of 
Odontoglossum crispum and some good Cymbidiums. 

We then came to a Warm Cypripedium house and found C. Rothschildi- 
anum in bloom, with many C. barbatum, X Gowerianum, Lawrenceanum, 
and its richly-coloured variety atrorubens, also some C. niveum, which is 
doing well in a compost of loam and tufa. C. bellatulum album was in 
bud. Some Anoectochili were grown in a small frame. 

The Dendrobiums were doing well suspended from the roof, and we 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 249 

noticed a lot of good D. Phalsenopsis. We also saw examples of Brassa- 
vola Digbyana, and some good Laelia majalis in bud. 

These notes were taken on the occasion of a rather hasty visit, during 
which we saw that Orchids were both extensively and well grown, and 
although the fog fiend makes too frequent incursions into the district during 
the winter, still Mr. Wrigley and his able gardener, Mr. Rogers, can point 
to a great amount of success, and especially in the favourite Cypripedium 
group, which makes such a fine display at Bury during the autumn. 
(To be concluded.) 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE ORCHIDACEiE. 

{Continued from page 196). 
In our last paper we outlined the characters of the Australasian subtribe 
Diuridese, and before proceeding to the Neottiese it may be interesting to 
mention a few special genera of the former group, some of which show a 
high degree of specialisation in the perianth. The genus Corysanthes may 
be compared with a dwarf Pogonia of the section Nervilia as regards habit 
and the consistence of the pollen, but the perianth is remarkably complex 
Both leaf and flowers are usually solitary, the latter being proportionately 
large, and the lip broadly tubular, with an oblique, fringed or denticulate 
mouth, and situated under the large, hood-shaped dorsal sepal, the lateral 
sepals and petals being very small. Fitzgerald says that the plants are to 
be found among leaves and sticks, and insects crawling through the mass 
of rotten vegetation may readily enter the funnel-shaped lip. The column 
is short, the pollinia very friable, crumbling at the slightest touch, and the 
viscus from the rostellum copious, but the details of fertilisation do not 
appear to have been made out, though Fitzgerald had little doubt that 
small insects of various kinds crawl into the lip and fertilise the flowers. 
The genus occurs also in New Zealand and Indo-Malaya. 

Pterostylis is a genus of upwards of thirty Australian and New Zealand 
species. The dorsal sepal and petals form a large hood over the column, 
while the lateral sepals reflex underneath. The lip is sensitive, and when 
the flower opens it reflexes over the lateral sepals, forming a landing stage 
in front of the flower. When an insect alights on the lip the latter springs 
up, carrying with it the insect, which is thus imprisoned in a small box, 
from which it can only escape by crawling out between the column wings 
and over the anther, and in doing this it gets smeared with viscid matter 
from the rostellum, to which the pollen masses adhere, and on repeating 
the process on another flower the pollen grains adhere to the stigma and 
fertilisation is effected. If the insects are excluded seeds are not produced. 
The lips remain closed for some time, and on re-opening is again sensitive 
to a touch. The flowers are frequented by small flies. 



250 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

Caladenia is another large and characteristic Australian genus, with 
spreading and often narrow sepals and petals — hence some of them are 
called " Spider Orchids '* — and a broad recurved lip, which is usually 
densely studied with rows of papillae, and is attached at the base of the 
column by a slender elastic hinge, not unlike that of Bulbophyllum. 
Fitzgerald has recorded seeing a fly alight on the lip, which by the spring 
of the latter was thrown against the column, and on struggling to escape 
brought away the pollen masses and smeared them on the stigma. In 
another case a flower of C. dimorpha was pollinated in the same way by a 
house fly in an ordinary room, and Fitzgerald believes that some such large 
insects are the principal agents of fertilisation in the genus. If covered up 
the species fail to produce seed. 

Drakaea is a genus of four species of what are known as " Hammer 
Orchids," from the shape of the lip and the fact that it is attached to a long 
stalk. The blade of the lip trembles in the wind, but Fitzgerald could not 
make out the significance of the peculiar mechanism, " unless," he remarks, 
" it is useful as a decoy to insects from its resemblance to one in form and 
motion." Bauerlen, however, observes that in D. Hunteriana "at the 
slightest touch the labellum snatches across to the anther and stigma, 
subsequently returning with slowness to its remote position," and the 
specific name of D. irritabilis was given by F. Mueller in reference to a 
similar property. 

Caleana is a genus of four species, closely allied to Draksea, in which the. 
method of fertilisation was a mystery, but after long watching and 
examination was at last found out. The lip is uppermost, and is held in a 
state of unstable equilibrium by means of a narrow elastic hinge, while the 
column is expanded and forms a cup beneath. When an insect alights on 
the lip its weight brings down the column, and it is fairly caught in the cup, 
bringing away the pollen masses on escaping, when the lip again rights 
itself. These details were made out by experiment, but it is uncertain by 
what particular insect the flowers are normally fertilised. 

Thelynitra is another characteristic Australasian genus which shows 
evidence of degeneration, for some of the species are self-fertilised and in 
some cases the flowers fail to open, yet, Fitzgerald remarks, there is a 
viscid rostellum, and other structures adapted for cross-fertilisation are 
present, and in some cases the flowers are fertilised by insects. The perianth 
is regular, with six nearly equal segments, which are blue, purple, pink or 
yellow in the different species. The column wings are usually fringed or 
bear papilla?, and in some cases they are stalked. There are upwards of 
thirty species. 

Some of the Diurideas have small and inconspicuous flowers, and thus it 
will be seen that a very wide range of diversity may be seen within the 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 251 

limits of a single group, and that species having primitive characters in one 
part of the flower may show a high degree of specialisation in others. 

The subtribe Vanilleae is very similar to Arethuseae in the structure of 
the anther and pollinia. Bentham includes in it the genus Vanilla, which 
is widely diffused through the tropics, Galeola, extending from India and 
Japan to Australia, Eriaxis, a monotypic genus from New Caledonia, with 
the American genera Epistephium, Sertifera and Sobralia. 

Vanilla differs completely in habit from anything we have yet considered. 
It is a genus of tall climbers, and the much elongated fleshy stems produce 
aerial roots at the nodes, which besides absorbing nutriment act also as ten- 
drils in supporting the climbing stems. The flowers are borne in racemes 
or clusters toward the apex of the stems, and are very complex in structure. 
The lip is united to the margins of the column for a considerable distance, 
and then reflexes at the mouth, forming a tube and a landing stage on which 
the fertilising insects alight. These, according to Deltiel, are small bees of 
the genus Melipone, which visit the flower for the honey which is copiously 
secreted at the base of the tube. The disc of the lip bears a crest consisting 
of imbricating scales pointing downwards, and forming a sort of stiff hinged 
brush, which would allow an insect to enter the flower, but on retreating 
cause it to press closely against the column. There are two prominent 
column wings, and the stigma is situated beneath the flap-like rostellum. 
The pollen grains are simple, and held together by viscid matter, not by 
elastic threads. The insect on retreating from the flower would first push 
back the flap-like rostellum and then bring away the pollen messes, and 
when the process was repeated on another flower the latter would adhere to 
the stigma. V. planifolia, the Vanilla of commerce, is a native of Central 
America, where the flowers are fertilised by small bees, but elsewhere hand 
fertilisation has to be resorted to. The genus contains over fifty species, and 
in one small section of about a dozen species the plants have become leafless 
the work of nutrition being carried on by the chlorophyll in the green fleshy 
stems. The genus may be said to combine the terrestrial and epiphytic 
habit, for the plants grow in the first place in the soil, but derive part of 
their food from the aerial roots produced by the stems. The fruits are 
fleshy, and the seeds roundish, with a smooth shining crustaceous testa. 

Galeola is an allied genus of terrestrial leafless saprophytes, which Ridley 
remarks appear in the most unexpected places, sometimes covering old 
stumps, or climbing up the tree trunks in thick jungle, sometimes in hot 
and exposed grass fields, and even clambering on the roofs of native huts. 
The stems also produce aerial roots, and the flowers are borne in large 
terminal panicles, and closely resemble those of Vanilla in structure. The 
fruit is capsular, and the seeds broadly winged. 

Eriaxis rigida is a very curious New Caledonia monotype, having very 



252 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

hairy brown flowers, and the lip violet-rose, with a longitudinal yellow crest 
of deflexed toothed scales on the disc, passing into clavate hairs at the base. 
The flowers are much like those of Vanilla in structure. Bentham reduces 
it to Galeola, but it has green leaves, closely resembling those of 
Epistephium, though it has not the little cupulate calyculus found at the 
base of the perianth of that genus. It was very imperfectly described by 
Reichenbach, and I am inclined to think that the plant described and 
figured by Kranzlin under the name of Epistephium Regis-Alberti (Xen. 
Orch., iii. p. 158, t. 291) is the same species. 

Epistephium is a Tropical American genus of about a dozen species, 
having showy purple flowers much like those of Vanilla in structure, but 
in habit it is nearer Sobralia. It is readily distinguished from its allies by 
the presence of a small cupulate calyculus at the base of the perianth. E. 
Williamsii, Hook. f. {Bot. Mag., t. 5485), is the only one I know to have 
been in cultivation. R. A. Rolfe. 

(To be continued.) 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

A charming blush-white form of Cattleya Mendelii, having a large light 
purple marbled blotch in front of the yellow disc, is sent from the collection 
of James Geddes, Esq., Ascot. It is from a plant imported in 1907, now 
producing a four-flowered spike for the first time. 

A very fine form of Cattleya Warned is sent from the collection of 
P. C. P. Lupton, Esq,, Wellingtons, Southminster, Essex, also a good form 
of Laeliocattleya Schilleriana. They are from a large collection made 
during a long residence in the State of Rio Paulo, Brazil, with a few others 
purchased or given by friends there. 

Several interesting Orchids are sent from the collection of J. J. Neale, 
Esq., Penarth, by Mr. Haddon. A plant of Thunia X Veitchiana has 
produced a branched inflorescence, there being a side branch with two 
flowers. Mr. Haddon does not remember such a thing before, but remarks 
that the plants are very strong this year. He also mentions a plant of 
Brassia verrucosa with eight spikes, and some good plants of Epidendrum 
vitellinum with six, making a good show. Flowers are also sent of the 
handsome Laslia grandiflora (majalis), Cattleya Aclandise, a good form of 
Laeliocattleya Measuresii (C. maxima X L. pumila prtestans), good 
blotched forms of Odontoglossum crispum, O. X Fascinator, Bifrenaria 
vitelliana, Dendrobium mutabile, the rare Masdevallia O'Brieniana, M. 
demissa, Lycaste aromatica, Maxillaria tenuifolia, the handsome 
Epiphronitis Veitchii, Paphiopedilum Parishii, and various familiar species 
which flower at this season of the year, from which it is evident that there 
is now a fine show of bloom in the collection. 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 253 

Two pretty hybrids are sent from the collection of the Right Hon. J. 
Chamberlain, M.P., Highbury, Birmingham. One is believed to be Lselia 
X splendens, derived from L. crispa and L. purpurata, as it has white sepals 
and petals, and the front of the lip purple with a much crisped pale margin. 
The other has buff yellow sepals and petals, and a deep purple lip with some 
yellow at the base and apex. It is believed to be a form of L. X Pacavia. 
Mr. Mackay remarks that they are seedlings which were purchased under 
quite different parentage — in fact both should have been Leeliocattleyas, but 
there are eight pollinia in each case, and we believe that the parentage 
above given is correct 

A three-flowered inflorescence of what is evidently a hybrid of Cattleya 
granulosa and Laelia purpurata is sent by his Honour Judge Philbrick, K.C., 
Bodorgan House, Bournemouth. The flowers are large, the sepals and 
petals whitish, and the lip very deeply three-lobed, with a long isthmus to 
the front lobe, which is purple behind and white with purple veins in front, 
while the tips of the front lobes are also purple. It is a form of Laelio- 
cattleya burbagensis. 

We have received flowers of several handsomely blotched Odonto- 
glossums from Mr. John Robson, of Altrincham, but unfortunately without 
names or parentage, though they are evidently seedlings of garden origin, 
one apparently being a very dark form of O. X armainvillierense, and all 
probably contain O. crispum in some form or other. 

A very fine dark form of Odontoglossum Harryanum is sent from the 
collection of John S. Moss, Esq., Wintershill Hall, Bishops Waltham, by 
Mr. Kench. The flower measures four inches across its broadest diameter, 
and the segments are also very broad and of a rich dark, almost blackish purple. 

A very fine inflorescence of Odontioda Charlesworthii superba with eight 
flowers is sent from the collection of W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, 
Stone, by Mr. Stevens. It is one of two spikes from the plant which 
received a Cultural Commendation at the last meeting of the R.H.S. The 
sepals and petals are deep ruby crimson, and the lip bright brick-red with 
an orange-yellow disc. It was originally purchased from Messrs. Charles- 
worth and Co. Flowers of four seedlings of Odontoglossum X Rolfeae from 
the same pod are also sent, showing much variation, and all beautiful. 

A flower of Cattleya Warscewiczii rubens is sent from the collection of 
Richard Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch, Manchester, by Mr. 
Fletcher. The sepals and petals are bright rose purple, with a darker 
band near the apex and some darker marbling on the basal half, and the lip 
is very dark purple crimson, with the eye-like blotches rather small. He 
also sends a flower of Odontoglossum X excellens var. Richard Ashworth, 
from a panicle of forty-two flowers. It is a very distinct and pretty form, 
having a white ground and purple-brown blotches on the sepals and lip. 



254 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

A magnificent form of Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, called Richard 
Ashworth's var., is sent from the collection of A. Warburton, Esq., Vine 
House, Haslingden, by Mr. Dalgleish, together with a flower of the 
handsome Odontoglossum X ardentissimum Robsonae, which received 
a First-class Certificate at the Temple Show two years ago, and was 
figured at page 241 of our fifteenth volume. The plant has this year borne 
two spikes, each with five very fine flowers. 



RAISING HARDY ORCHIDS FROM SEED. 

A Correspondent asks if there is any way of raising hardy Orchids from 
seed. The question may be answered in the affirmative, and in fact was 
dealt with very fully in our first volume (pp. 246-248), where the methods 
adopted by three different raisers were detailed. One of them is M. Moe, 
Curator of the Botanic Gardens at Christiana, who is said to have succeeded 
in raising nearly all the Orchids indigenous to Scandinavia, including 
Epipactis. 

The essential points seem to be to provide a suitable soil and situation, 
and to prevent the seedlings from being choked with taller things and from 
being disturbed when at rest. A few Orchises are often grown in a border 
or on a rockwork, and are occasionally found where they are not known to 
have been planted, particularly in clumps of dwarf-growing things which 
have not been disturbed for some time. It is believed that these are self-sown 
seedlings, which have not been noticed until large enough to flower, and 
the fact affords a useful hint. A few compartments of the rockwork might 
be planted with various dwarf alpines, among which the Orchid seeds could 
be scattered. The alpines would form a carpet to the soil, and give shade 
to the young seedlings, also protecting them from disturbance when at rest, 
and all the grower need do would be to give a little water when necessary 
and await the result. A difficulty might often be found in obtaining seeds, 
unless one had already a stock of plants. Some species will only succeed 
in a calcareous soil, but one raiser remarks that a mixture of two parts of 
loam, one of leaf mould and one of sand, with an admixture of a little lime, 
is sufficient for most kinds. The species also differ in their requirements 
with respect to shade and moisture, but suitable spots could often be chosen 
in accordance with these varying needs. 

A carpet of some dwarf vegetation seems necessary, both for shade and 
to protect the surface from disturbance when the plants are at rest, for a 
bare spot almost invites disturbance, with disastrous results to any tiny 
tubers that may be underneath. 

The seeds of these hardy Orchids mature and ripen very quickly as 
compared with the tropical epiphytic species, and we have seen capsules 



August, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 255 

ripen in two months from the time of flowering, and the seeds were 
perfectly plump and good when examined under the microscope. 

We should be glad to hear of any one who has made experiments in 
raising seedlings, and especially of any experiments in hybridising. Natural 
hybrids are not at all rare on the Continent, and a few have been found in 
Britain, and their production by hand should present very little difficulty if 
the seedlings could be grown. 

NOTES. 

Three meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the 
Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during August, on 
the 3rd, 17th and 31st, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual 

No meeting of the Manchester and North of England Orchid Society 
will be held during August. The date of the next meeting is September 
gth. The Society has again arranged a very attractive programme for 
the 1909-10 session. There are five Cup competitions. The Charlesworth 
Cup, value 50 guineas, is again offered to the amateur exhibitor who gains 
the largest number of points for plants which have not previously been 
certificated by the Society, with a prize of five guineas to the gardener. The 
Ward Cup for amateurs who grow Orchids without the aid of a gardener is to 
be competed for according to the Society's table of points, and to be won out- 
right in the session. The Sander Cup for Cypripediums, value 50 guineas, is 
limited to amateurs, and must be won twice, not necessarily in succession. 
A prize of five guineas will be given to the gardener. Stuart Low & Co.'s 
Cup is for Cattleyas, Laelias and allies, and is limited to amateurs, with a 
prize of five guineas to the gardener. The Robson Cup for Odontoglossums, 
value 40 guineas, will be given to the amateur who gains the highest number 
of points for Odontoglossums, with a prize of five guineas to the gardener. 

The fine group of Dendrobiums exhibited by Messrs. Armstrong & Brown 
at the R.H.S. meeting held on April 6th last, and to which the Society's 
Gold Medal was awarded, is figured in the Gardeners, Chronicle for July 3rd 
as a supplementary illustration. 



R.H.S. Orchid Committee.— Some interesting Orchids have appeared 
at recent meetings of the Orchid Committee, and the following notes are 
extracted from the report :— 

May 4th, 1909 : — 

Hybrid Orchids.— Mr. Rolfe showed flowers of Epidendrum evectum 
(purple) and E. xanthinum (yellow) and the hybrid raised by crossing them 
{= E. x kewense, of a salmon colour). He also showed flowers of E. X 



a 5 6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [August, 1909. 

kewense crossed with E. evectum, producing a hybrid having purple flowers 
(but not of the same shade as E. evectum), and of E. X kewense crossed 
with E. xanthinum, this cross bearing flowers resembling E. X kewense. 
When E. X kewense was self-pollinated it reproduced flowers of three 
sorts bearing great resemblance in colour to E. evectum, E. x kewense, 
and E. xanthinum respectively. 

May 18th, 1909 : — 

Orchid Hybrids. — Mr. G. Wilson sent flowers of seedlings of the cross 
Dendrobium nobile album X D. Findlayanum (= D. x Cybele). All the 
seedlings which had flowered (about sixty) had borne coloured flowers 
approaching D. nobile, with one exception, where the flowers were white 
with a faint pink tinge. 

June 8th, 1909 : — 

Malformed Orchid.— Mr. Rolfe exhibited an Odontoglossum in which 
the petals had acquired somewhat the coloration of the lip. — This was the 
curious Odontoglossum crispum cristatum exhibited by Messrs. Armstrong 
& Brown, and recorded at page 212. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Cattleya Mossi^e Mariana. — Amer. Gard., 1909, p. 1216, with fig. 

C02LOGYNE asperata. — Gard. Chro?i., 1909, ii. p. 34, iig. 15. 

Cypripedium X Chapmanii.— /owr«. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 75, with fig. 

Dendrobium thyrsiflorum. — Journ. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 3, with fig. 

L^liocattleya Berthe Fournier, Westonbirt var.— Journ. Hort., 
1909, ii. p. 99, with fig. 

L^liocattleya Martinetii var. The Prince. — Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 
553, with fig. 

L^eliocattleya Mikado. — Gard. Mag., 1909, p. 313, with fig. 

Miltonia Harwoodii. — Journ. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 51, with fig. 



VANDA C02RI 


jlea. — Amer. Gard., 1909, p. 


1217, with fig. 








ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 






[Orchids are named and questions answered here as 
requested to give the native country or parentage of plants 
sent if a reply by post is desired (abroad, reply postcards sho 
zvill be dealt with in the body of the work]. 


far as possible. C 
uld be used). Subjects 




£:, 


J.P. Clearly. 


1 hybrid from Cattleya granulosa 


and Laelia purpurata, 


and thus a 


for,,, 



of Laeliocattleya burbagensis. 

J.W.F. Odontoglossum Lindleyanum. 

G.W. We can supply unbound copies of the Orchid Stud- Book, which you - 
interleaved before binding up, when additions can be posted in as they appear. 

J.G. Please use a reply post card, as foreign stamps will not frank a letter to 



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notify that he has taken over the 
Royal Nurseries, Bush Hill 
Park, together with the larger part 
of the Orchid stock, and is carrying 
on business on the lines followed for 
so many years by the late firm, 
assisted by its capable staff. 

The ORCHIDS, of which a 
special feature will be made, will be 
specially represented by Messrs. 
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Ashton, while the cultivation of 
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The firm will be carried on under the 
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at the 
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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



Vol. XVII.] SEPTEMBER, igog. r No> 20I> 

NOTICE OF BOOK. 

Mendel's Principles of Heredity. By W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S., V.M.H. 

8vo., pp. 3g6, with three portraits of Mendel, six coloured plates, and 
3$ figures and diagrams. Cambridge University Press, igog. 
The object of this book is to give a succinct account of discoveries in regard 
to heredity made by the application of Mendel's Method of Research, which 
it is remarked in the preface has reached a point from which classes of 
phenomena hitherto proverbial for their seeming irregularity, can be 
recognised as parts of a consistent whole. It is divided into two parts, the 
first dealing with general principles, while the second contains a biographical 
notice of Mendel, and translations of his papers on Peas and Hieracium, with 
a Bibliography and a separate Index of subjects and authors. 

The first part contains sixteen chapters, the introductory one dealing 
with Mendel's Discovery. Then follow, the Material Investigated, 
Numerical Consequences and Recommendations, no fewer than five dealing 
with the Heredity of Colour, Genetic Coupling and Spurious Allelomorphism, 
Heredity and Sex, Double Flowers, Evidence as to Mendeiian Inheritance 
in Man, Intermediates between Varieties and the " Pure Lines " of 
Johannsen, Miscellaneous Exceptional and Unconformable Phenomena, 
Biological Conceptions in the Light of Mendeiian Discoveries, and Practical 
Application of Mendeiian Principles. 

The materials are drawn from a wide field, zoological and botanical, 
ranging from mice to lepidoptera, and from sweet-peas to Orchids, though 
the Orchidist will probably be disappointed to find so few facts drawn from 
his own particular field, considering the enormous number of experiments 
that have been carried out. But it is explained that the progress of 
experiments with the extension of Mendeiian conceptions has been so rapid 
that a difficulty was found in presenting the facts adequately within a 
moderate compass. But the Orchidist will be interested to learn the general 
principles involved, which he may then be able to apply for himselfi 

As regards the practical application of Mendel's principles, it is 
remarked that they "will probably far exceed any limits we can yet 
perceive," though after the claims that have been put forward it is 



2 5 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1969. 

disappointing to read, a few lines further on, that "for fanciers Mendelism 
can as yet do comparatively little . . . two things only. First, ... it will 
provide a most fascinating pursuit, which if followed with assiduous care 
may at any moment lead to some considerable advance in scientific know- 
ledge. Secondly, the principles already ascertained will be found of 
practical assistance in the formation of new breeds, and may save many 
mistakes and waste of time. But applied to the business of breeding 
winners in established breeds they cannot materially help, for almost always 
the points which tell are too fine to be dealt with in our analysis." 

But what is Mendelism ? Several attempts have been made to define 
it, and we have read of Mendel's Laws of Dominance, of Segregation and 
of Purity. But we are now told that " the dominance of certain characters 
is often an important but never an essential feature of Mendelian heredity. 
Those who first treated of Mendel's work most unfortunately fell into the 
error of enunciating a ' Law of Dominance ' as a proposition comparable 
with the discovery of segregation. Mendel himself enunciates no such law. 
. . . Mendel's principles of inheritance apply equally to cases where 
there is no dominance." Mendel's real discovery is thus defined. " The 
fact of segregation was the essential discovery which Mendel made." 

This brings us to Mendel's original paper. He there alludes to the 
numerous careful observers who had devoted a part of their lives to 
experiments in plant hybridisation, but expresses the conviction that none 
of these experiments had been " carried out to such an extent and in such a 
way as to make it possible to determine the number of different forms under 
which the offspring of hybrids appear, or to arrange these forms with 
certainty according to their separate generations, or definitely to ascertain 
their statistical relations." The paper records the results of such a detailed 
experiment, carried out for eight successive years with the genus Pisum. 
We cannot follow him through these experiments, but may remark 
that they were made by first crossing forms which differed in certain well 
marked characters, thus obtaining hybrids, and then self-fertilising the 
hybrids for several generations and classifying the results. At the same 
time he carefully self- fertilised the original parents to test their constancy. 
The results are well known, and we may summarise his conclusions with 
respect to the fundamental process ot reproduction. 

For the purpose of sexual propagation he points out that one pollen cell 
and one egg cell unite into a single cell, which is capable by assimilation 
and formation of new cells of becoming an independent organism. This 
development follows a constant law, which is founded on the material 
composition and arrangement of the elements which meet in the cell in a 
vivifying union. If the uniting cells be of the same kind and agree with the 
foundation cell [fertilised ovumj of the mother plant, the development of 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



-'.sy 



the new individual will follow the same law which rules the mother. If it 
chance that an egg cell unite with a dissimilar pollen cell, we must then 
assume that between those elements of both cells which determine opposite 
characters some sort of compromise is effected. The resulting compound 
cell becomes the foundation of the hybrid organism, the development of 
which necessarily follows a different scheme from that obtaining in each of 
the two original parents. If the compromise be taken to be a complete one, 
in the. sense that dissimilar qualities are, in the hybrid embryo, entirely 
and permanently accommodated together, the further result follows that the 
hybrids, like any other stable plant species, reproduce themselves truly in 
their offspring, the reproductive cells formed in their seed vessels 
and anther cells being of one kind, and agreeing with the fundamental 
compound cell from which they originated. With regard to those hybrids 
whose progeny is variable, he assumed that between the differentiating 
elements there also occurs a compromise, in so far that the formation of a 
cell as foundation of the hybrid becomes possible, though the arrangement 
between the conflicting elements is only temporary, not enduring 
throughout the life of the hybrid plant, but as no changes are perceptible 
during the whole period of vegetation, we must assume that it is only 
possible for the differentiating elements to liberate themselves from the 
enforced union when the fertilising cells are developed. In the formation 
of these cells all existing elements participate in an entirely free and equal 
arrangement, by which it is only the differentiating ones which mutually 
separate themselves. In this way the production would be rendered 
possible of as many sorts of egg and pollen cells as there are combinations 
possible of the formative elements. 

Mendel carefully compared his results with the very different ones 
obtained by Gartner and Wichura, in which certain hybrids remained 
constant in their progeny, and propagated themselves as truly as the pure 
species, remarking that the correctness of the facts had been guaranteed 
and could not be doubted — Gartner indeed had the opportunity of following 
up the constancy of a hybrid Dianthus to the tenth generation, since it 
regularly propagated itself in the garden— and he added, " To the history of 
the evolution of plants this circumstance is of special importance, since 
constant hybrids acquire the status of new species." 

He also made the following very significant remark : " It is more than 
probable that as regards the variability of cultivated plants there exists a 
factor which so far has received little attention. Various experiments force 
us to the conclusion that our cultivated plants with few exceptions are 
members of various hybrid series, whose further development in conformity 
with law is varied and interrupted by frequent crossings inter se. The 
circumstance must not be overlooked that cultivated plants are mostly 



i6o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 190$. 

grown in great numbers and close together, affording the most favourable 
conditions for reciprocal fertilisation between the varieties present and the 
species itself. The probability of this is supported by the fact that among 
the great array of variable forms solitary examples are always found, which 
in one character or another remains constant, if only foreign influence is 
carefully excluded. These forms behave precisely as do those that are 
known to be members of the compound hybrid series." 

Mendel thus showed that segregation was not only a quite familiar 
phenomenon, but also that in some cases it did not occur, and he formed his 
conclusions accordingly. His paper passed almost unnoticed for thirty 
years, when suddenly it was brought into the light, and his results with peas 
were confirmed by other observers. The subsequent extensions of the 
Mendelian conceptions are treated in the work under review, and some of 
them would probably have startled Mendel himself, could he have seen 
them. 

Examples drawn from Orchidology are not numerous, and are cited from 
other sources. Several genera are said to show Mendelian Inheritance of 
Colour character, and the facts are said to be exactly comparable with sweet- 
peas. The cases mentioned are albino Cypripediums and Cattleyas. Of 
the former it is stated that C. callosum Sanderae X C. bellatulum album 
gives all coloured offspring, and the same with C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum 
X C. bellatulum album, but, on the other hand, C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum 
X callosum Sanderae gives offspring all albinos, and the following conclusion 
is reached. " If therefore we suppose that bellatulum album is carrying one 
of the complimentary factors, say C, and that the other factor R is present in 
callosum Sanderae and in Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, the results are correctly 
and consistently represented." In this connection we may recall the case of 
C. bellatulum album X C. insigne Sanderae, which failed to give albinos, as 
we shewed over a year ago (O.R., xvi. p. 105, fig. 18). Again we read : "As 
regards the behaviour of the pure types, however, there is one occurrence to 
be recorded which cannot be explained. . . . Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, 
when selfed, gave 14 albinos, but in addition one coloured plant, which 
Mr. Cookson tells me cannot be thought to have resulted from error. Such 
an occurrence is as yet unaccountable." But we do not see why reversion 
to the normal should be unaccountable. 

The case of albino Cattleyas may be summarised thus : " C. Mossiae 
Wageneri crossed with both C. Gaskelliana alba and with C. intermedia 
alba gave all albinos, but when the two latter were united with C. Schrcederae 
alba and C. Harrisoniana alba the hybrids were all coloured. But whenC. 
Gaskelliana alba was crossed with C. Warneri alba both albinos and coloured 
forms resulted. We do not think this quite comparable with the case of the 
sweet-peas cited, where the intercrossing of two whites gave a purple, " in 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 261 

appearance actually the original type of sweet-pea," and we must leave it to 
our author to explain. He remarks : " From these statements it may with 
great probability be inferred that the albinism of Mossiae Wageneri 
Gaskelliana alba and intermedia alba is due to the absence of one factor 
(say C) ; that in Harrisoniana alba and Schroderse alba it is the other 
complimentary factor which is wanting (say R) ; and that Warneri alba is 
heterozygous for the presence of one of them (being Rr, on this scheme). 
It is to be hoped that some Orchid grower will make the various unknown 
combinations and extend the series." 

The other case taken from Orchidology is called Monolepsis in Orchids, 
and refers to the notorious example of Zygopetalum Mackayi, which, when 
fertilised with various other Orchids, gives nothing but Z. Mackayi, an 
anomaly which proves no more explainable from the Mendelian standpoint 
than from any other. 

A question of great importance remains, namely the relation of Mendelism 
to Evolution. The names of Darwin and Wallace naturally occur in this 
connection, and we read, " Had Mendel's work come into the hands of 
Darwin, it is not too much to say that the history of the development of 
evolutionary philosophy would have been different from that which we have 
witnessed." We also read of the "various plausible but frequently 
unsatisfying suggestions put forward, especially by Wallace." A remark on 
another page may be taken in this connection. " The difficulty that some 
feel in realising the significance of Mendelism arises from the habit of looking 
on the bodies of animals and plants as single structures." But the knowledge 
that they are "double," or that two cells— it may be even from the same 
individual— unite to form the new generation, helps us little in tracing the 
evolution of species that breed true from generation to generation. 
True, it is pointed out that Mendelian discovery does not run 
counter to the cardinal doctrine that species have arisen by natural selection 
— and we are heartily glad to rind some common standing ground — but we 
also read that " the conception of Evolution as proceeding through the 
gradual transformation of masses of individuals through impalpable changes 
is one that the study of genetics shows immediately to be false." We will 
omit the word impalpable — it matters not the amount, if only variation takes 
place — and enunciate our profound conviction that it is by this means that 
What are termed representative species arise. All species do not arise by 
hybridisation, nor yet by Mendelian segregation following hybridisation. 

One further remark in this connection we do not understand. Speaking 
of the general acceptance of the doctrine of natural selection by scientists, the 
author remarks there was the remarkable exception that systematists for the 
most part remain aloof. But two of the greatest systematists of the day were 
amongst its warmest supporters, namely Sir Joseph Hooker and the late 



2 6 2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

Dr. Asa Gray, and it seems unlikely that those who kept aloof would have 
found in Mendelism anything more satisfying. 

We may be warm admirers of the thoroughness of Mendel's 
work, and of the sagacity with which it was planned — especially 
considering the period — without accepting all the conclusions which 
it has recently been sought to attach to it. And we may doubt the 
definiteness of some of the differentiating characters ; indeed, Mendel 
remarked, " some of the characters noted do not admit of a sharp 
and certain separation, since the difference is of a ' more or less ' nature, 
which it is difficult to define." And if we doubt the definiteness of 
some of these now-called " units," still more do we question the praticability 
of ascertaining their nature by Mendelian analysis. For example, Mendel 
pointed out that if the parents differ in seven characters, the combination 
series of their union would contain 2,187 various forms. We doubt whether 
in practice there would be so many, for some would be correlated together, 
but if their number and kind could only be ascertained by experimental 
analysis, the magnitude of the task before u:; staggers the imagination. And 
organisms have been crossed which differ in more than seven characters. 

And we doubt the reality of some of the modern extensions of Mendelism, 
especially that relating to sex. There are hosts of correlated secondary 
sexual characters, all of which may be represented in the same individual, 
as in Catasetum and Cycnoches, only manifesting themselves under certain 
conditions, and we fail to see the utility of speaking of their presence or 
absence as due to dominance or recessiveness of the sex factor. 

Some of the modern conclusions seem to be entirely " in the air." We 
read of " imperfect dominance " where an intermediate condition or 
unconformable factor disturbs the even tenor of the argument. Dominance, 
where it exists, might be supposed to have some relation to a pre-existing 
order of things, but our author considers that the idea of dominance being 
an attribute of the phylogenetically older character has not been borne out 
by more extended investigation. The continued absence of a lost character 
when " selfed " and its return when " crossed " might be supposed to have 
some relation to reversion to the normal, and to the well-known effects of 
cross and self-fertilisation which obtain in biparental organisms in a state of 
nature, but we find no mention of it. 

Another important consideration is that the organisms obtained under a 
continuation of strict Mendelian methods are abnormal, and whole hosts of 
them would in a wild state not survive to leave descendents. Its subjects 
would largely disappear under the bracing influence of natural selection, a 
fact which illustrates very well the subordinate position of Mendelism in any 
attempt to explain the origin of species. That it has contributed its quota 
to the great fabric of evolutionary philosophy no one doubts, but it does not 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 263 

explain all the phenomena of variation, and variation is the material on 
which natural selection works. 

The book contains a full exposition of Mendelian methods, and a selection 
from a large number of experiments made by various observers, whose 
assistance is acknowledged. Some of the phenomena are also beautifully 
illustrated. But it is written entirely from the Mendelian standpoint, and 
contains a good many conclusions which, we believe, have not yet reached 
finality, and not a few which were absent from Mendel's original essay. 

WILD ORCHIDS FROM SEED. 

You ask, Mr. Editor, for notes on the successful crossing of our wild 
Orchids, a subject that has always interested me, though hitherto I have 
not been successful. The reason, I think, why I have failed is that I have 
wished to get the bright colour of Orchis mascula into other early flowering 
species on the Riviera, and so perverse is the way of O. mascula that it will 
not flower a day earlier in the south of France than it does in England, and 
so I have failed to get its pollen with which to hybridize O. Robertianum. 
No one who has ever been at Nancy in the spring can fail to remember the 
remarkable beds of the finest form of O. mascula which is there used with 
great success as a spring bedder, and the tubers and roots, grown in the soft 
leaf mould they there employ, bear transplanting after flowering so as to 
ripen in reserve beds, with no apparent harm, judging by results. If we 
could get its colour and vigour into other hardy Orchises it would be a very 
desirable thing. 

Orchis longibracteata, or Robertianum, is an exceptionally handsome and 
vigorous winter blooming Orchid that is quite common on the Riviera, but 
many of its forms are dull in colour, so I vainly tried to induce O. mascula 
to flower at the same time, but with no success. I then tried O. longical- 
carata, the Algerian Orchis, as a pollen parent, but hitherto I have seen no 
trace of it appearing in the seedlings raised. What has succeeded in a 
wonderful degree is the improvement in colour by only seeding the brightest 
coloured forms of O. longibracteata, and I now can show perhaps a hundred 
or more plants of this Orchis with greatly improved colouring. The most 
important thing, it seems to me, is not to allow more than six seed pods to 
mature on any stem, however strong it may be. The seed is then so well 
developed ("fed") that I now have many hundreds of self-sown seedlings 
coming up in the grass over an area of several acres ; and in a few years 
there will be too many, so rapidly do they grow and increase. The earliest 
spikes open at Christmastide, and the latest spikes last well into March, so 
for three months this bold growing Orchis is very handsome in the winter 
season, and makes one wish for something else as striking. 

There are also many Ophryses, but though their flowers are beautiful in 



264 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

the hand, they make no effect in the grass ; indeed most folk will walk over 
Ophrys aranifera in full flower, with six or seven flowers open on the stem, 
so curiously harmonised is it to its surroundings of both green and withered 
winter grasses. 

The Ophrys tribe are particularly interesting from their habit ot 
appearing or vanishing without any apparent reason. No doubt some are 
dormant, or rather only make tuber growth beneath the surface, but the 
way that strong flowering plants will appear when I am sure they were not 
in existence the year before, is a continual surprise to me. It is almost 
equally a certainty that if there is a particularly large group of them one 
spring, and you put a mark in the grass, so as to be sure of their where- 
abouts next year, you will more often find none ; yet I have known one or 
two isolated tubers that have come up yearly in the same exact spot for ten 
years without ever failing. It is one of the elusive charms of the Orchis 
family to puzzle their admirers by their wayward behaviour ! 

Scarborough. Edward H. Woodall. 



[Orchis longibracteata is the interesting species whose history was given 
at page 93 of our fourteenth volume, under the title of " An Early Orchis," 
a plant brought from the Riviera, having flowered in the open air in Norfolk 
at the end of February. It is a widely distributed Mediterranean species, 
ranging from Cyprus to the Canary Islands, and found also in North 
Africa. It is said to flower from January to March. It is figured at t. 357 
of the Botanical Register, from a plant which flowered at Liverpool about 
ninety years ago. It is called the Winter Orchid of Sicily, as it flowers in 
the depth of the Mediterranean winter.— Ed.] 

PROMEN/EA MICROPTERA. 
The pretty little Promenaea microptera has been re-introduced, a plant 
which was imported growing in a clump of P. stapelioides in Messrs. Stuart 
Low & Co.'s nursery, proving to belong to this rare species. It was 
described as long ago as 1881 (Rchb. f. in Gard. Chrun., 1881, ii. p. 134). 
Its habitat was not stated at the time, though the genus so far as at present 
known is entirely Brazilian. It has the dwarf habit of its allies. The 
pseudobulbs are elliptical-oblong, and about half an inch long, and the only 
leaf seen is lanceolate, acute, and 3! inches long by under half an inch 
broad. The flowers have an expanse of i£ inches, and the sepals and petals 
are light green, lanceolate and acute, while the lip is three-lobed, the basal 
half white with numerous narrow purple bars, and the front lobe green with 
about three or four broad purple bars. The column is pale green, with a purple 
stain at the base. The history of the genus was given about four years ago 
(O.R., xiii. pp. 260-263). R. A. R. 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 265 

PHYSOSIPHON LODDIGESII. 

The annexed photograph shows a well-grown specimen of Physosiphon 
Loddigesii from the collection of Dr. Otto N. Witt, Westend, Berlin. The 
plant was purchased with others from a gentleman who has grown Orchids 
for over twenty years, doing everything himself without the assistance of a 
gardener, but he has had to give up his collection owing to a stroke of 
paralysis. He told Dr. Witt that it was found as a seedling on the roots of 
a Mexican Laelia, was taken off and matured, and now it flowers profusely, 
looking exactly like a Masdevallia when not in bloom, though of course the 
small brownish-yellow flowers are quite different. The species was 
originally described and figured by Loddiges, in 1830, under the name of Stelis 




Fig. 20. Physosiphon Loddigesii. 
tubata (Bot. Cab., t. 1601), from a plant which is said to have been collected 
at Xalapa, by Deppe, but was afterwards made the type of a new genus, by 
Lindley, on account of the sepals being united at the base into a narrow tube, 
somewhat inflated at the base and constricted at the mouth, the plant being 
called Physosiphon Loddigesii (Lindl. Bot. Reg., sub t. 1797). It has 
since been well figured in the Botanical Magazine <t. 4869.) Reichenbach 
changed the name to Physosiphon tubatus (Walp. Ann., vi. p. 188), and 
although the Vienna Rules require the adoption cf the earliest correct 
specific name, we prefer to retain the one given by Lindley, on the ground 
that " tubatus" is incorrect, being obviously a mistake for " tubulatus." 



266 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

When Lindley established the genus he added a Peruvian and a 
Brazilian species, these being based on old synonyms, and about a dozen 
others have since been added. There are now seven Brazilian species, 
six from Mexico and Central America, and one each from Peru and 
Colombia. The showiest species known is P. Lindleyi, Rolfe {Kew Bulletin, 
1893, p. 61), in which the flowers are larger and much darker in colour 
than in P. Loddigesii. It is a very floriferous and handsome plant. P. 
Moorei, Hort. {Kew Hand-List Orch., ed. i.p. 189), is the same species. 

R. A. R. 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR SEPTEMBER. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
General remarks. — All shadings should be removed by the second week 
in this month, as the sun will have lost its burning power. Canvas blinds 
should be dried and stored away for the winter ; any patching can be done 
in spare time. Where the lath roller blinds are used they should be left on 
the houses for use in frosty weather. They will be found to make a con- 
siderable saving in the coal bill, especially in snowy weather, when they act 
as a blanket, and it will not be necessary to force the fires. Where per- 
manent shading has been used it should be thoroughly cleansed off the 
glass. The down spouts into the tanks should be stopped up during these 
operations, as if allowed to run into the tanks it will soon cause an offensive 
smell, as well as mark the foliage if the water is used for syringing purposes. 
All the houses should be scrubbed down inside, and the bare walls lime- 
washed, as this always makes the houses lighter during the winter, especially 
lean-to houses. All pots and stages should also be scrubbed. Where coke 
is used on a double stage, this should also be washed through a sieve, and 
then the stone work swilled off with the hose pipe, which will help con- 
siderably in ridding houses of slugs, woodlice, &c, especially if the walls are 
washed down with hot lime. 

Re-staging. — When re-staging the houses all plants should be put in 
their winter quarters, and be raised as near the glass as possible with safety, 
though if they are too near they are liable to get chilled when it is very cold 
outside. As plants finish up their growths they must be more carefully 
watered, but do not allow them to become dry enough to shrivel, or over- 
water them and cause spot. Try to get the happy medium. 

Damping down will not require to be done so often now, though the 
houses should not be neglected. Always keep a nice buoyant atmosphere 
without getting the houses close and damp. If they are ventilated on every 
favourable occasion they can easily be kept in good growing condition. 

Insect pests. — Should any insect pests make their appearance the 
houses should be fumigated or sprayed lightly. It is better to do them 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 267 

twice gently than to give one strong dose. Slugs and cockroaches must be 
kept down or they will soon destroy a lot of flowers and spikes. They can 
be trapped with lettuce leaves or in fact any green stuff, and poison for 
cockroaches and woodlice will generally clear both out in a short time. 

Temperatures. — Fires must be carefully looked after now, as a sudden 
check will do a lot of harm. Night frosts may be expected at any time, 
and the fires should be kept clean and ready to use at any time that they 
may be wanted, without having to get the pipes red hot to get up tem- 
peratures quickly, which is a sure method of breeding thrip and red spider, 
as well as causing injury to the plants. 

Dendrobium formosum and D. Phal^enopsis will be in full flower, 
and should be kept on the dry side as soon as the flowers are fully expanded, 
when they will last a long time in perfection, especially if staged in a dry 
house and kept warm. They should not be given a lower temperature than 
6o° at any time. The Cattleya house is a good place to rest them in ; and 
they should be suspended from the roof at the warm end. They will need 
very little water until they commence to grow again. 

L^lias, Cattleyas and their hybrids. — All the autumn flowering 
varieties should be carefully watched for water until the flowers are 
expanded, and with the species and numerous hybrids a fine show can be 
maintained throughout the winter season. Those which are pushing up 
their spikes can be staged together at the cooler end of the Cattleya house, 
and those that are growing can be staged at the warm end of the house. 
In the case of the hybrids it is almost impossible to rest the whole house, 
as can be done with species only, for the former are still growing during the 
winter months. I don't think keeping the house a little warmer and 
moister to suit the hybrids makes any difference to the species, for they 
seem to flower just as well as they did when they used to get baked, and 
certainly there are not as many deaths now as by the old treatment. Where 
the plants have not been densely shaded during the summer months, they 
will throw up fine spikes, without shrivelling the bulbs. 

In washing down and re-staging this house the plants should be looked 
over for scale, as it will often be found on the new growths, and if not 
removed will make the leaves look very unsightly. A light spraying with 
insecticide after the growths are made up will keep them clean, but if 
insecticide is used while the growths are young it must be carefully applied, 
and rather under strength, for if it lodges in the growths they are liable to 
rot away before the damage can be seen. All young growths should be 
neatly staked and tied up, for if allowed to bend over in moving about they 
generally rot off, and not only bulb but flower spike is lost. 

Laelia anceps will also be pushing up its spikes, and these should be 
staked and kept well tied up, as they easily get broken when moving about. 



268 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

The plants should be given all the light possible, and staged where they can 
get plenty of fresh air. They are worth a little extra trouble, as they make 
a beautiful show while they are in flower. They are grand for grouping, 
as with their long spikes they can be staged at the back, and make a good 
contrast to the Cattleyas and hybrids. If given plenty of light and air they 
are easily grown, but they must have plenty of sunshine to get them to flower 
well. It is no use shrivelling the bulbs to make them flower next year, and 
if they have not done so this year, give them a light, airy position, and there 
will be plenty of flowers and good growths. 

Dendrobiums. — As these finish up their growth they should have the 
supply of water gradually lessened until they commence to flower. Do not 
allow the bulbs to shrivel, or the flowers will be small. All the D. nobile, 
Wardianum, crassinode, Falconeri, aureum, &c, with their hybrids, will 
do in a temperature of 55 for their resting period. D. thyrsiflorum, 
spectabile, Gibsoni, fimbriatum, Bensoniae, Dalhousieanum, Dearei, 
atroviolaceum, &c, should be kept in the Stove or Cattleya house for the 
resting season, or in a temperature which does not fall below 6o°. All 
Dendrobes should be given a sunny position to ripen up their bulbs in, and 
then they will give abundance of flowers. A good syringing on sunny days 
will help to keep the bulbs plump and avoid over-watering at the roots. 

Sophronitis grandiflora will now be growing freely, and should be 
removed to slightly warmer quarters until the plants have finished flowering. 
The cool end of the Cattleya house suits them during the winter months, 
and with slightly warmer treatment the flowers come much larger and do 
not spot. They are very showy when in flower, and will require plenty of 
water until that period. 

Odontoglossum Rcssii will also be growing freely, and should be given 
plenty of water during the growing season. Although these are small 
growers their flowers are very showy, and come in handy for the front row 
of groups. They should be suspended or staged near the glass to encourage 
them to make strong growths, and after they have flowered they can be 
kept on the dry side until they commence to grow again. 

Oncidiums. — Many varieties will be pushing up their flower spikes, and 
these should be carefully staked, and have a piece of cotton wool wrapped 
round the base of the stem to prevent slugs from getting on the spikes. A 
very small slug will eat the head off a fine spike in a very short time. The 
spikes should not be left on the plants too long, as they are easily distressed 
when carrying a large spike. As soon as the bulb shows signs of shrivelling 
the spike should be cut, and they will last for a long time in water after- 
wards if the spikes have a very little piece of the stem nipped off each 
morning, so that they can get plenty of water to sustain the flowers. The 
smaller growing section, such as O. ornithorrhynchum, flexuosum, dasytyle 



September, igog.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 2 6g 

&c, are very pretty when grown in pans or baskets, and the miniature 
flowers are a great contrast to the more showy varieties. 

Odontoglossums which have been newly potted should have the stages 
and floors damped several times daily until they get re-established, and 
they should also be sprayed overhead whenever the weather is good. Do 
not allow the new compost to become dust dry, or as much harm will be 
done as with over-watering. Water whenever a plant is dry, and give it 
plenty, not just damp the top and leave the bottom dry, or the bulbs will 
soon shrivel. The house or the end of it in which the newly-potted plants 
are staged should not be so freely ventilated until the plants get established 
again. 

A REVISION OF THE GENUS CYCNOCHES. 

The last issue of the Kew Bulletin contains a paper by Mr. R. A. Rolfe, 
bearing the above title, giving an historical account of the genus Cycnoches, 
accompanied by figures showing the sexes in the two distinct sections which 
it contains, and an enumeration of species. A summary of the paper may 
be interesting. 

For many years the genus proved an inexplicable puzzle to botanists. 
Soon after the original species was described, Lindley recorded the 
occurrence of a second form, which he had no doubt was a second species 
until both forms were produced on the same plant. A few years later a 
similar phenomenon was observed in a second species, and the only 
suggestion offered was that the genus was in a so-called sportive condition, 
as in the allied genus Catasetum. 

The genus was established by Lindley, in 1832, upon a plant which had 
been sent from Surinan by Lance to Messrs. Loddiges, and which shortly 
afterwards flowered in their nursery, and was called Cycnoches Loddigesii. 
The generic name was given in allusion to the gracefully curved column, 
resembling the neck of a swan. 

Four years later, when speaking of the curious behaviour of the genus 
Catasetum, Lindley mentioned a Cycnoches which had been sent to him by 
Mr. Wilmer, of Oldfield, near Birmingham, which greatly differed from C. 
Loddigesii, especially in the very short column, broader, shorter sepals, and 
in being scentless. This he had no doubt was a distinct species, and called 
it C. cucullata. But in the following autumn a plant of Cycnoches in the 
garden of the Horticultural Society produced from opposite sides of the 
same stem two racemes, one showing the well-known fragrant flowers of 
C. Loddigesii, and the other the scentless flowers of the new C. cucullata. 

In 1837 Cycnoches ventricosum was described, from a plant which had 
been introduced from Guatemala by Skinner, and flowered in Mr. Bateman's 
collection at Knypersley. The figure showed an inflorescence of five 



270 THE ORCHID REVIEfr. [September, 1969. 

flowers (now known to be males), and a seed capsule, the significance of 
which will presently be apparent. Bateman remarked upon the huge size 
of the capsule and the innumerable quantity and minuteness of the seed. 

In the following year C. chlorochilon was described by Klotzsch, from 
a plant which had been sent from Caracas by Moritz, and which flowered at 
Berlin. This species was afterwards confused with C. ventricosum. 

In 1840 C. maculatum was described by Lindley, from a plant which 
flowered in the collection of Mr. Barker, of Birmingham, and which was 
thought to be a native of Mexico, though it was added that a collector of 
Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. had found the plant in La Guayra, and the 
Venezuelan habitat is now known to be correct. 

In July, 1842, Bateman figured C. Egertonianum, whose remarkable 
history is reproduced verbatim, but as this has appeared in these pages, 
together with a reproduction of the original and a recent figure (O.R., xvi. 
pp. 296, 297, fig. 38, 39), we need not repeat it. 

A year later Lindley published a very interesting figure, which ought to 
throw further light on the subject. It represented an inflorescence which 
appeared in the collection of R. S. Holford, Esq,, of Westonbirt, Tetbury, 
and which was described as showing two purple flowers of C. Egertonianum, 
one green flower which Lindley called "nearly C. ventricosum," and two 
flowers in a transition state so far as the colour and shape of the flowers are 
concerned. The plant was exhibited at a meeting of the Horticultural 
Society. Lindley was unable to offer any explanation of the significance of 
the phenomenon, merely remarking that with such cases all ideas of species 
and stability of structure in the vegetable kingdom were shaken to their 
foundation. 

Other species were successively described, and in 1852 Lindley gave an 
enumeration of the so-called species of Cycnoches, nine in number, 
remarking that five of them had not been known to sport. Two of them 
are now excluded from the genus. 

In the same year C. Warscewiczii was described by Reichenbach, on 
what, from internal evidence and from a flower preserved in Lindley's 
Herbarium, is now known to be a female of some species of Cycnoches, and 
distinct from that afterwards figured under the same name. 

The discovery of sexuality in the allied genus Catasetum threw the first 
ray of light upon the subject, but the matter was never cleared up, 
Darwin merely remarking that " from the analagous differences in the 
labellum of the sexes in Catasetum we may believe that we here see the 
male, female, and hermaphrodite forms of Cycnoches." It is now known 
that the third sex does not exist in either genus. 

In 1879 another remarkable example appeared, and was exhibited at a 
meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society by Mr. W. Bull, of Chelsea, 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 271 

who received a Botanical Certificate for it. It was called C. Warscewiczii, 
and was described and figured in the Gardeners' Chronicle, as a curious 
Orchid with green flowers borne on two separate spikes, those on one spike 
being much larger and totally different in appearance from those on the 
other — so much so that seen separately they would be taken as belonging to 
different genera. It was also remarked that the explanation of this and of 
similar appearances in Catasetum was that the different flowers represented 
the male and female flowers of the species. 

In 1889 a plant of Cycnoches pentadactylon in the collection of Mr. E. 
Gotto, The Logs, Hampstead Heath, produced flowers of both sexes. 

Two years later a new species was described from materials of both sexes 
which appeared in the collection of Mr. H. J. Ross, of Florence, under the 
name of C. Rossianum. It had been purchased under the name of C. 
Warscewiczii, and had flowered on various occasions before January, 1889, 
when a female flower was produced. This female flower was then thought 
to belong to a totally different species, but the subsequent production of 
male flowers and the discovery that there was only a single plant of 
Cycnoches in the collection established the identity. 

In 1891 the female of Cycnoches chlorochilon appeared, first in the 
collection of M. Houzeau de Lehaie, Hyon, Mons, Belgium, and afterwards 
on three different plants with Messrs. Sander, at St. Albans. In each of 
these cases the female only was borne by the plant, but shortly afterwards 
both sexes appeared on the same plant in M. Houzeau's collection. 

By this time it had become increasingly evident that something was 
wrong with Bateman's figure, which showed two kinds of male flowers on 
the same pseudobulb, and the receipt shortly afterwards of male flowers of 
another species led to the re-examination of all the available materials, 
which showed that an unfortunate mistake had been made, probably through 
the two kinds of flowers not being borne simultaneously, and the earlier 
being restored by the help of a drawing. It was unfortunate that the flowers 
were not preserved, or the mystery might have been cleared up earlier. The 
re-introduction of the species after a long interval supplied the necessary 
confirmation. In the autumn of 1894 a living plant of a Cycnoches was 
sent to Kew from Costa Rica by the late Mr. Ricardo Pfau, which on 
flowering in April of the following year proved to be C. Egertonianum, and 
three months later the female flowers also appeared, and proved to be quite 
different from the green flowers figured by Bateman. 

The circumstances just detailed led to a very curious discovery, namely 
that the flowers depicted by Bateman as produced by the same pseudobulb 
belonged not only to distinct species, but to distinct section? of the genus, 
which are described and illustrated in the paper under notice. In the 
section Eucycnoches, to which C. ventricosum belongs, the sepals, petals 



2 7 2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

and lip are fairly similar in the two sexes, though there are slight differences 
in size and texture. In the sexual organs the differences are very marked. 
In the male the column is very long and slender, arched like the neck of a 
swan, and bearing the anther at the summit, without a stigma or column 
wings, while the ovary is reduced to a simple pedicel. In the female the 
column is very short and stout, with a normal stigma, protected by a pair 
of triangular, fleshy wings, without an anther, while the pedicel is much 
stouter than in the male, from the fact that it contains the incipient ovary. 
In the section Heteranthae the female is shaped as in Eucycnoches, but the 
male is usually very much smaller, the sepals and petals much thinner in 
texture, soon becoming recurved after expansion, and in some cases 
markedly different in colour, while the lip is reduced to a small, usually 
rounded disc, margined with clavate teeth. Correlated with the smaller 
size of the males we find a greatly increased number of flowers, which are 
borne in a long pendulous raceme. These characters are shown in the four 
figures which represent C. ventricosum and C. Egertonianum, the female of 
the former being from a flower which appeared in the collection of Sir Philip 
Egerton, in 1849, and of the latter from one which appeared at Kew 
in 1895. 

Six species of Eucycnoches are enumerated, namely C. Loddigesii, 
LindL, C. ventricosum, Batem., C. chlorochilon, Klotzsch, C. Lehmannii, 
Rchb. f., C. Haagei, Rodr., and C. versicolor, Rchb. f., of the three latter 
the males only being known. Of Heteranthae there are ten species, namely 
C. Egertonianum, Batem., C. pentadactylon, LindL, C. stelliferum, Lodd., 
C. aureum, Lindl., C. Rossianum, Rolfe, C. densiflorum, Rolfe, C. 
maculatum, LindL, C. Dianae, Rchb. f., C. glanduliferum, Rich. & Gal.,and 
C. peruvianum, Rolfe, of the four latter the males only being known. Thus 
in nine out of the sixteen species both sexes are known. A complete list of 
figures and references is given under each species, and the synonymy shows 
that there has been a good deal of confusion, though in only one case does 
it affect the nomenclature, the species usually known as C. Warscewiczii 
now appearing as C. stelliferum, Lodd., which arises from the fact that it is 
not the original C. Warscewiczii, Rchb. f., which is believed to be the 
female of C. aureum Lindl. 

Two females of doubtful identity are enumerated, one which appeared 
with Messrs. Sander, in 1895, and is said to have been imported with C. 
peruvianum, and may therefore be the female of that species, and another 
which flowered with Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., in 1903, and is said to 
have been imported with C. chlorochilon, which is suggested as the 
unknown female of C. maculatum. 

It is to be hoped that the increased attention now being given to these 
interesting plants, may help to complete the history of the genus. 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 273 

CYCNOCHES MACULATUM. 
It is interesting to record the appearance of the female of another species 
of Cycnoches so quickly after the publication of the paper summarised in the 
preceding pages. Three plants of C. maculatum have just bloomed at Kew, 
and one of them has produced flowers of both sexes, of which a photograph 




Fig. 21. Cycnoches maculatum. 
taken by Mr. F. W. Rolfe is reproduced in the annexed figure. The upper 
inflorescence bore two female flowers, measuring 3^ inches from tip to tip of 
the petals, so that the figure is a shade over one-third natural size. The 
sepals and petals of the female are bright green, with a suffusion of olive 



274 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

brown at the margin, and the lip is porcelain white, with a slight suffusion 
of greyish green in front and olive green behind, while the column is light 
green, with a blackish purple blotch at the base. As regards shape little 
need be said, for the broad, fleshy sepals and petals, the ovate very fleshy 
lip, and the short column are all well shown in the figure, and contrast 
strongly with the narrow recurved membranous sepals and petals of the male 
inflorescence, with its small toothed lip and very slender column. The 
male inflorescence carried 21 flowers, but the lower nine had to be omitted 
from the photograph, in order to avoid excessive reduction. The sepals and 
petals of the male are light green, with a slight brown suffusion and many 
dark brown spots, and the lip is white. The female flowers were previously 
unknown, for the plant showing both sexes figured as C. maculatum earlier 
in the year {Gard. Chron. 1909, i., pp. 26, 27, fig. 19) belongs to C. densiflorum, 
Rolfe, a species which was figured at page 104 of the present volume, 
and of which the denser inflorescence and much smaller male flowers will be 
immediately noticed. It is also figured att. 8268 of the Botanical Magazine. 
The female flower mentioned on page 272 as possibly the unknown female 
of C. maculatum must also be different, and its identity remains uncertain. 
A complete collection of the species would form a very attractive feature in 
a Warm house, besides affording occasional surprises. R. A. Rolfe. 

ORCHIDS AT WEST BANK HOUSE, HEATON MERSEY. 

The collection of Orchids brought together by John Leemann, Esq., West 
Bank House, Heaton Mersey, is probably the finest in the North of England. 
Within the last three or four years the old Orchid houses have been taken 
down and rebuilt, with many additions, in a more suitable part of the 
grounds, and in the rebuilding Mr. Leemann has adopted every modern 
improvement for the welfare and comfort of his plants. Eight span-roof 
houses, each 50 ft. long, open into a long heated corridor, 130 ft. long. The 
houses are double-roofed, the upper roof being raised about seven inches 
above the lower glass, and between these roofs the air plays quite freely in 
the summer time, and in the winter the intervening space can be wholly or 
partially closed, whilst a hot water pipe running between takes the cold edge 
off the ventilation before entering the houses. Mr. Leemann thinks very 
highly of this arrangement, particularly in the Cattleya and warmer houses, 
and the cultural results are everywhere excellent, and certainly justify this 

On entering the first house we find it devoted to ail the best types of 
spotted and blotched Odontoglossum crispum and hybrids, for which the 
collection is famous, but brief mention can only be made of a very few. I 
noted strong plants of Odontoglossum crispum Perfection, O. c. rubellum, O. 
c. Autocrat, O. c. Brigadier, O. c. Campania, O. c. Luciani, &c. Of the white 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 275 

crispums O. c. Mount Everest is probably the finest white in cultivation, 
followed closely by O. c. Mrs. Mary Gratrix and O. c. Mont Blanc. Many 
of these fine varieties are duplicated two or three times, and Mr. Leemann 
holds the entire stock. 

The second house contains seedlings, hybrids, natural and home-raised, 
and the best forms of ordinary Odontoglossums, if large flowers of excellent 
shape and substance can be called ordinary, as Mr. Leemann has a very 
high standard, and all doubtful plants are rigorously weeded out. These, 
by the by, with Cattleyas, Laelias, Cypripediums, &c, are all presented to 
a neighbouring town, and have already formed a good nucleus for a public 
collection. 

The third house is filled with Cypripediums, the majority fine strong 
plants, for here they are not cut up for sale purposes, with the inevitable 
one growth and break, but are encouraged to grow and moved on into large 
pots as required. I noted C. X Germaine Opoix, C. X fulshawense, C. X 
Euryades vars. magnificum and splendens, C. X Minos, C. X Maudiae var. 
Amy Leemann, C. X Thompsoni magnificum, C. X aureum in variety, &c, 
the lower division being filled with all the good varieties of C. insigne and 
hybrids derived from it. This division has a great many seedlings of the 
best blood, from one to four years old. I noted Sophrocattleya Doris and 
similar hybrids growing freely in this house. 

Entering the fourth house we find it higher and wider, with central 
stages, this and the next four houses being devoted to Cattleyas, Laelio- 
cattleyas, &c. The collection is particularly rich in albino Cattleyas and 
hybrids, and all the plants are fine strong pieces and of that fine dark green 
colour so beloved of Orchid growers. Brief mention can only be made of 
a select few, but when all are good it makes discrimination difficult. Of 
Laeliocattleyas I noted a fine batch of Fascinator, Arnoldiana, Canhamiana 
Rex, callistoglossa, Fred. Boyle var. Kerchoveae (L. anceps alba X C. 
Trianas alba), luminosa Saturn, this last very fine, and one from 
Laelia grandis x C. Schrcedera;, of rich bronze tint, also some good 
Cattleya X Mantinii nobilior. Then turning to the white Cattleyas we find 
C. Mossiae Reineckeana var. Sheila, C. gigas Frau Melanie Beyrodt, C. 
Mossiae nobilior, C. M. Victoria-Regina, C. M. Excelsior, and C. M. 
Reineckeana Hardy's variety. I noted one plant of this last variety 
flowering on the leading bulb and also on one three bulbs back. Of many 
of these plants Mr. Leemann has quite a nice stock, as, for instance, I 
counted over thirty plants of Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, fifty fine plants of 
Cattleya Adonis (Enid), &c. Brassocattleyas are represented by many 
fine varieties, B.-c. Maronae, Leemanniae, Mariae, heatonensis, Veitchii var. 
Queen Alexandra, and Thorntoni being a few selected at random. 

The last two houses are filled with undowered seedlings of Cattleyas and 



276 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

Leliocattleyas, and for the propagation of back bulbs of the finest varieties. 
One small house at the end of the corridor was filled with varieties of white 
Laelia anceps, looking remarkably healthy. On the north side of the 
corridor is a house filled with Cymbidiums, Odontoglossum grande, 
Oncidiums, &c, used for cutting purposes. 

I must not forget to mention the remarkably fine series of paintings, 
which must amount to several hundreds in number, each of which is 
represented by one or more plants in the collection. 

Mr. Leemann's Orchid grower, Mr. Sydney Smith, is very skilful at his 
work, modest and unassuming, and he takes a deep personal interest in the 
welfare of the valuable plants under his care. It must be a great source of 
gratification and pleasure to both master and man to see the results 
achieved, the one sparing neither money nor expense, the other devoting all 
his skill and care to their well-being. H. Thorp. 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
A meeting of this Society was held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, 
Vincent Square, Westminster, on August 3rd, the day after Bank Holiday, 
when the exhibits were not numerous, but included a number of interesting 
things, and among them was the new Dendrobium Sanderse, to which a 
First-class Certificate was awarded. Other awards were two medals, 
one Award of Merit, one Botanical Certificate, and one Cultural 
Commendation. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
staged a very interesting little group, including a good plant of Cycnoches 
chlorochilon with a spike of six flowers, Catasetum tabulare, a fine 
Bulbophyllum grandiflorum, the singular little B. lemniscatoides, Cirrho- 
petalum picturatum, Cryptophoranthus Dayanus, Masdevallia infracta, 
Odontioda Bradshawiae, Cattleya Gaskelliana ccerulescens, Laelia X 
gattonensis (anceps X cinnabrosa), a good plant of Ancistrochilus 
Thomsonianus with seven spikes, and a good example of the citron yellow 
Sobralia X Colmanii (xantholeuca X Veitchii) in the centre. A Botanical 
Certificate was given to the rare Phaius pauciflorus, a very distinct species, 
characterised by having flowers borne in axillary pairs on the stem, and 
white in colour, with some purple stripes on the lip. 

The Hon. Mrs. Foley, Packham, Fordingbridge, Hants (gr. Mr. 
Newman), exhibited an excellent specimen of Angraecum caudatum with 
four long spikes, each bearing from ten to twelve greenish buff flowers 
with very long twisted spurs. A Cultural Commendation was awarded. 

W. Waters Butler, Esq., Southfield, Norfolk Road, Edgbaston, received 
an Award of Merit for Cattleya Warscewiczii var. W. Waters Butler, a 



September i 9 M THE ORCHID REVIEW. 277 

very large and richly-coloured form, having rose-purple sepals and petals, 
and a much darker lip, with two large deep yellow blotches in the throat. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis), 
showed Lseliocattleya Louisa Fowler (L.-c. callistoglossa X C. granulosa), 
a fine thing, most resembling the Cattleya parent in shape, and having bright 
rose-coloured sepals and petals with some darker veins, and a strongly 
three-Iobed rose-purple lip with some yellow markings at the base. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent Cattleya X 
Wavriniana and Odontoglossum crispum Primrose, the latter a pale whitish 
yellow form. 

F. J. Hanbury, Esq., Brockhurst, E. Grinstead, sent Cattleya X 
Maroni-aurea (Maroni X Dowiana aurea), having buff-yellow sepals and 
petals, and the lip veined with rose, a fine plant of C. X Euphrasia Brock- 
hurst var., and two plants of Brassocattleya Joan (B. Perrinii X C. 
Warscewiczii), having white flowers, most like the Brassavola in shape, and 
with some purple spotting on the lip. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), showed 
several plants of Odontioda Thwaitesii, derived from Cochlioda vulcanica 
and Odontoglossum Harryanum, and now developed into a very beautiful 
hybrid. The sepals and petals are claret red, and the lip mottled with 
violet on a lighter ground. The best and darkest form was called var. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, staged a very fine group, which 
received a Silver Flora Medal. It contained a fine specimen of Odontioda 
Devossiana, the rare Bletia catenulata, Phaius Zollingeri, having white 
flowers marked with sepia brown on the lip, examples of Dendrobium 
longicornu, D. bellatulum, and the handsome D. regium, two fine plants of 
Brassocattleya Pluto, Lgeliocattleya Antigone, Maxillaria venusta magnifica, 
a very fine dark form of Vanda coerulea, Cypripedium x Martin Cahuzac 
superbum, an interesting hybrid between Laelia grandiflora and L. X 
xanthina, having cream white flowers with some purple lines on the lip, and 
others. A First-class Certificate was given to Dendrobium Sanderas, the 
beautiful novelty whose portrait and history were given at page 209. The 
flowers are large, pure white, with some green at the base of the lip, and 
some rose-purple lines on the side lobes and base of the front lobe. It 
promises to be a very handsome companion to D. Dearei, to which it is 
most allied. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., received a Silver Banksian Medal for an 
interesting and pretty group, including a fine plant of Dendrobium 
sanguinolentum, D. macrostachyrum, the rose-purple D. glomeratum, 
Bulbophyllum Dearei and B. miniatum, the latter having slender scapes of 
purple flowers, with white feathery lips, Cirrhopetalum maculosum, Lycaste 



278 THE OrCHW REVIEW. [SfiPtEMBER, L909. 



a, Oncidium Kramerianum, O. abortivum, Masdevallia calura and 
others, the handsome Bollea Lalindei, Epidendrum trachychilum, the pretty 
little Angraecum distichum, A. Scottianum, and other interesting things. A 
Botanical Certificate was given to Eria ornata, a large species, having an 
erect inflorescence of brownish woolly flowers, with some crimson markings 
on the lip. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a choice little 
group, including a fine specimen of Chysis laevis, a well-bloomed Oncidium 
trulliferum, a good plant of O. uniflorum, Catasetum Bungerothii, 
Octomeria diaphana, and a pretty secondary hybrid of Cattleya Mendelii, 
having blush white flowers with a bright rosy-purple front lobe to the lip. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, sent a group of well-grown 
plants of Odontoglossum crispum, the centre plant being a particularly fine 
form, having large, very round white flowers, with clusters of red-brown 
spots on the sepals. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Ghent, sent a small group of hybrid Odonto- 
glossums, including some good blotched forms. 

At the meeting held on August 17th there was a fine display of Orchids, 
including a very beautiful group of Disa grandiflora, and the awards 
consisted of five medals, three First-class Certificates, four Awards of Merit, 
and a Cultural Commendation. 

Mrs. Bischoffscheim, Warren House, Stanmore (gr. Mr. Taylor), staged 
a very beautiful group of Disa grandiflora, consisting of some 42 plants, the 
best about four feet high, and bearing seven flowers, while two others bore 
six, and several five each. The foliage was dark green and perfect, and the 
flowers varied greatly from orange-scarlet to bright scarlet, and the lips 
from white to light yellow, with the usual markings. Scarcely any two 
were alike in colour. The species is often found difficult to grow, but these 
were excellent, and gained the award of a Silver-gilt Flora Medal. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent a choice 
little group, which gained a Silver Banksian Medal. It contained the 
distinct Brassolaelia Thwaitesii (L. grandiflora x B. Digbyana), a fine 
Cypripedium X Lairessei with two scapes, each bearing three fine flowers, 
C. X H. S. Goodson, Rodriguezia secunda, five plants of Miltonia Roezlii 
alba, Cattleya X Pittiana Herberti, C. X Atalanta illuminata, with three 
others, which gained special awards. A First-class Certificate was given to 
Odontoglossum X Goodsoni (Uroskinneri X Pescatorei Charlesworthii), a 
handsome thing, showing much of the Uroskinneri habit, and the flowers 
white, heavily blotched with dark red-purple, except near the margin of the 
nearly circular front lobe of the lip. An Award of Merit was given to 
Lasliocattleya Black Prince (L.-c. bletchleyensis x C. X Hardyana), having 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 279 

rose-purple, somewhat connivent sepals and petals, and a very rich ruby 
crimson lip of nearly uniform colour. A Cultural Commendation was given 
to a fine plant of Cattleya Gaskelliana alba Goodsonae, bearing six spikes of 
bloom. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), sent Cattleya X Tacitus (bicolor X Germania), having dusky 
purple sepals and petals, and a rich purple lip, with very small side lobes, 
and Laeliocattleya Jason (L.-c. Massangeana X C. Dowiana aurea), having 
greenish yellow sepals and petals, and a rich crimson lip with a trace of 
yellow veining at the base of the throat. The latter gained an Award of Merit. 

G. F. Moore, Esq., Chardwar, Bourton-on-the-Water (gr. Mr. Page), 
sent Cypripedium X Fair Maude (Fairrieanum X Maudiae), most like the 
latter in shape and the former in colour, but with both characters modified 
in detail. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, staged a large and handsome group, 
to which a Silver-gilt Flora Medal was awarded. It contained a number of 
good Brassocattleya Pluto, Laeliocattleya Fournierae, La France, Doinii, 
and Pomeroyae, with L.-c. Lady Crossley (L.-c. elegans X C. Harrisoniana), 
bearing neat lilac pink flowers, with some light purple stripes near the front 
of the slightly three-lobed lip, and a good series of the more familiar hand- 
some forms, Laelia X venustula (grandiflora X xanthina), having cream 
white sepals and petals, and a white three-lobed lip, tinged with lilac in 
front and striped with purple, half a dozen plants of the handsome 
Dendrobium regium, Odontoglossum X harvengtense cinnamomeum, a 
handsome form which opens yellow, changing to cream, and bears yellowish 
brown blotches, two distinct forms of Odontoglossum X MacNabianum, 
the handsome O. X Rolfeae Sander's var., having large dark blotches and a 
very square lip, some good Cattleya Warscewiczii, the charming little 
Hemipilia amethystina (Rolfe), a Burmese plant with a pretty variegated 
leaf and a spike of purple flowers, Phaius flavus, Bulbophyllum barbigerum, 
Odontioda Bradshawiae and Vuylstekeae, Gongora galeata, Cirrhaea 
saccata, Rhynchostylis retusa, Cypripedium X Ultor, a few C. Godefroyae 
leuchochilum, Vanda Parishii, V. tricolor, &c. Awards of Merit were 
given to Vanda ccerulea Dreadnought, a remarkably fine form, bearing a 
spike of ten large, dark blue and strongly tessellated flowers, and to Laelio- 
cattleya Invincible (Dominiana X bletchleyensis), a very fine hybrid, 
having bright purplish rose sepals and petals, and a deep ruby-claret lip. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a choice group, containing some good Laeliocattleya callistoglossa, 
and other brilliant Laeliocattleyas, examples of Cattleya X Germania 
magnifica, X Venus, X Hardyana, X Vulcain, X lucida, a fine C. 
Gaskelliana alba, Masdevallia velifera, Mormodes luxatum punctatum, with 



z8o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909 

numerous minute dots on the segments, Odontoglossum bictoniense album, 
a fine O. X Rolfeae, the rare Angraecum Rothschildianum and A. arcuatum, 
Miltonia X Hyeana, Trichopilia Turialvae with eight flowers, the rare 
Capanemia uliginosa, good examples of Dendrochilum filiforme, &c. A 
First-class Certificate was given to Cirrhopetalum pulchrum Cliftoni, a 
very fine form, heavily blotched with dark rose-purple. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, also received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a fine group, containing two plants of the handsome Oncidium 
Lanceanum, with O. Kramerianum, superbiens and raniferum, Anguloa 
Clowesii and Ruckeri, Angraecum Scottianum, the rare Promenasa 
microptera, whose history is given at page 264, a very beautiful Sophrolaelia 
Gratrixiae, with rich cinnabar orange sepals and petals, and a bright scarlet 
lip with a white throat, Cattleya velutina, X Pittiana, granulosa, Harrison- 
iana and several C. Gaskelliana, the latter including the variety aurantiaca, 
with a very deep orange throat to the lip, Cirrhopetalum guttulatum, 
Physosiphon Loddigesii, Masdevallia infracta, Gongora galeata, a good 
Dendrobium sanguinolentum, Odontoglossum X Rolfeae, Laeliocattleya 
stellata (L. xanthina X C. intermedia alba), a pretty light form, with some 
light purple at the sides of the lip near the apex, Cypripedium niveum, &c. 

Messrs. J. W. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, received a First-class 
Certificate for Dendrobium acuminatum (Rolfe), a handsome Philippine 

species of the section Sarcopodium, bearing an erect inflorescence of 

fifteen deep rose-coloured flowers. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Vale Bridge Nursery, Haywards Heath, sent a pretty 

little group, including a good Cattleya X Elvina, C. Harrisoniana alba, C. 

Gaskelliana, Sophrocattleya Chamberlainii, Cypripedium X Princess, C. X 

Juno, Laeliocattleya Clive, and a fine example of the variety broomfieldiensis, 

with a very dark lip. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent a flower of Cattleya 

Warscewiczii Boltoni, of model shape, and having broad rosy-lilac sepals 

and petals, and a rose-purple lip, with a circular white area extending on 

each side beyond the light yellow blotches in the throat. 

THE HYBRIDIST. 

Odontoglossum X Goodsoni. — This is a handsome hybrid from the 
collection of H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney, to which a First-class 
Certificate was awarded by the Royal Horticultural Society, on August 17th 
last. It was derived from O. Uroskinneri x O. Pescatorei Charlesworthii, 
and has much of the habit, the erect inflorescence, and long pedicels of the 
latter. A flower has been sent by Mr. Day, which shows well the influence 
of both parents. The segments are broad and short, giving a very full 
round shape. The sepals are mostly dark red-purple, with a few transverse 



September, 1909.] TBE ORCHID REVIEW. 281 

whitish lines, and the petals heavily blotched with red-purple on a white 
ground. The lip is pandurately three-lobed, with a very broad nearly 
circular front lobe, and the ground colour is white, blotched with red-purple, 
except at the margin, and there is a transverse band of similar colour in 
front of the crest. The latter is broad, concave, and extends in a pair of 
prominent truncate keels in front. The column is white, with purple spots 
behind, and very broad, denticulate, almost hatchet-shaped wings. It is a 
handsome acquisition. 



THRIPS. 

What is the best remedy for the red thrip affecting Cypripediums ? This 
has been introduced to Australia on plants imported from England, and 
in Brisbane it has almost destroyed some collections of Cypripediums. 
They grow them in a bush or shade house which cannot be fumigated. My 
experience is that with constant fumigation, and growing the plants in a 
cool airy place, with constant spraying overhead, I can reduce the thrips 
to a minimum, but I am not certain if I have exterminated them. They 
have not spread to any other plants. 

I was in England a year ago, and when visiting Kew Gardens I was 
informed by one of the young gardeners attending to the Orchid houses, that 
they regularly used some weak insecticide when spraying the plants, which 
kept all scale and thrips down. If this is so could you give the name or 
formula of the insecticide used, and the proper strength ? 

The Orchid Stud-Book is very complete, and such a book was badly 
wanted. It is to be hoped that it will become the authority regularly used 
by all growers. Arthur Yates. 

Sidney, New South Wales. 

By a singular coincidence the last issue of the Kew Bulletin contains an 
account of the the thrips found at Kew by Mr. Richard S. Bagnall, a 
summary of which will be generally interesting to Orchid growers. It 
occurs in a paper entitled " Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew." Under the heading Thysanoptera, Mr. 
Bagnall writes (p. 254) :— 

" Until recently only three species of thrips were recorded from European 
greenhouses, namely, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Bouche; H. femoralis, 
Reuter, and Parthenothrips dracamae, Heeger. In 1904, however, Prof. 
Reuter described Leucothrips nigripennis, from hothouses, Helsingfors, 
Finland, found on species of Pteris ; and in 1907 Mr. Dudley Moulton, 
described Euthrips orchidii, from four specimens found on Orchids in a 
hothouse, California, U.S.A. The writer has taken both Leucothrips 
nigripennis, Reuter, and Euthrips orchidii, Moulton, in the houses of the 



282 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

Botanical Gardens, Brussels, and from greenhouses in the North of England, 
and this year described Euthrips longipennis and Cephalothrips spinosus 
from Brussels, and Anaphothrips orchidaceus from England, Ireland* 
Scotland, and Belgium. . . . 

" We are only able to put on record five species of Thysanoptera 
from the conservatories and propagating pits of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, four of which have been collected by the late Mr. George Nicholson. 
. . . It should be said that the houses are peculiarly free from these 
little pests. The writer on two occasions spent the whole day collecting in 
the propagating pits as well as the larger houses ; on the first occasion a 
single specimen of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Bouche, was seen, and on 
the second, when special search was made for the species heretofore 
mentioned, only a few specimens of Anaphothrips orchidaceus, Bagnall, and 
Thrips tabaci, Lindeman, were captured. It is probable that the various 
ants which swarm in most of the houses help to keep down the thrips ; the 
writer has found many species of hothouse thrips freely in several well- 
regulated and attended houses where ants are absent or scarce, but has 
always found thrips to be very scarce in houses infested by ants." 

The two species recorded as occurring on Orchids at Kew are 
Anaphothrips orchidaceus, collected on Zygopetalum, Epidendrum, and 
Cymbidium, and Heliothrips femoralis on Lissochilus spp. The former is 
said to occur also on Cypripedium and Odontoglossum, and we suppose is the 
" yellow thrip " too familiar to Orchid growers. 

The note places the maligned ant in a rather new light, for this insect 
has the reputation of carrying scale from plant to plant, and suffers much 
persecution in consequence. But perhaps Orchid growers prefer to keep 
thrips down by fumigation or spraying with some nicotine solution. The 
solution used at Kew is, we believe, the XL All liquid sold for the purpose, 
diluted to the strength recommended, but fumigation is also resorted to 
when necessary. 

ORCHID COLLECTIONS ROUND MANCHESTER. 

(Concluded from page 249.) 
The Harefield Hall Collection.— The collection of E. Ashworth, 
Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, is a large and representative one, which 
has occupied a prominent position in the Manchester district for many years, 
and contains many features of interest. We were particularly pleased to see 
several healthy plants of the rare Trevoria Chloris, with flowering examples 
of Dendrobium Victoria-Regina, and the charming little Epidendrum 
Endresii — but we will not anticipate the order of our notes. 

On our way to the Orchid houses we passed through a corridor, where 
in a light and airy corner was a good plant of Cymbidium Lowianum 



September, t 9 o 9 .] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 283 

concolor, and a plant of C. grandiflorum was pointed out as flowering 
during the proper season, without any difficulty in getting the buds to open, 

The first Orchid house contained a lot of Dendrobium Phalaenopsis 
growing freely, with a number of Laslia anceps and Brassavola Digbyana, 
all suspended from the roof. Then came a house of seedling Cypripediums, 
where we noted flowering examples of C. X tessellatum porphyreum, 
C. X Haynaldo-Chamberlainianum, C. X Fraseri, and a very attractive C 
X Edithae, with about a dozen C. callosum Sanderas in bud, and a few 
capsules, also a lot of healthy seedlings. In a second small house C. X 
insigne Sanderianum was in bloom, with a good C. hirsutissimum, and C. X 
Arthurianum X Chamberlainianum. There were also some small seedlings, 
and a few C. callosum Sanderse X bellatulum album about large enough to 
bloom. We also noticed some Cattleyas suspended from the roof, and 
seedlings of Cattleya Schrcederse alba X amethystoglossa alba, whose 
flowering is awaited with interest. 

Passing into a Warm house we noticed several plants of the handsome 
Zygopetalum Ballianum in bloom, showing a good deal of variation in 
colour, also good examples of Laeliocattleya Cappei, and Cattleya X 
Harrisiae, while plants of the rare Cattleya superba alba, C. Harrisoniana 
alba, and the white Laelia Jongheana Ashworthii were pointed out. An 
adjacent house contained flowering plants of Dendrobium x Nestor, D. x 
rhodopterygium and D. X rhodostoma, with the handsome D. x Arthur 
. Ashworth, derived from D. pulchellum x Brymerianum, and quite inter- 
mediate in character. We also saw a very fine Cypripedium Rothschildi- 
anum, with a few others, in some cases bearing capsules, and a plant of 
Selenipedium X Hardyanum, with long petals, and most comparable with 
a pale S. X grande. 

Then came three houses largely devoted to Odontoglossums, containing 
a profusion of bloom, but what immediately caught the eye was a batch of 
the beautiful Dendrobium Victoria- Regina suspended from the roof, with 
over a dozen plants in flower. Since adopting this position Mr. Ashworth 
finds no difficulty in growing it. The Odontoglossums contained some 
good O. crispum, Pescatorei, cirrhosum, triumphans, luteopurpureum, Hallii, 
cordatum, X Adrianae, showing a remarkable amount of variation, x 
Andersonianum, X harvengtense, Edwardii, Uroskinneri, pulchellum, 
Reichenheimii, apterum, platychilum, X Wilckeanum, X mirificum, and 
others. O. Pescatorei Lindeni was pointed out as a very good form, with a 
few purple spots on the sepals and lip, and a dark blotch in front of the 
crest, while O. X Rolfeae superbum was particularly fine. A good plant of 
the charming Odontioda heatonensis carried two spikes, the best having 
fifteen flowers. We noted also examples of Ada aurantiaca, Cochlioda 
rosea and vulcanica, the charming little Epidendrum Endresii, Lycaste 



284 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [Se^tfmrer, 1909 

gigantea with nine' flowers, L. Skinneri and L. S. alba, the pretty 
Oncidium chrysopyramis, Masdevallia caudata and xanthina, several forms 
of M. Chimaera, a profusely-flowered M. Arminii, M. X Pourbaixii with 
ten blooms, and a number of the scarlet-flowered group, these houses 
altogether containing a fine display of bloom. 

The two houses devoted to the Cattleya group contain quite a 
representative collection, and among those noted in bloom were a lot of 
C. Mossiae, showing the usual variation, C. Mendelii, Skinneri, 
Lawrenceana, Schilleriana, Lselia purpurata, Lseliocattleya Cappei with a 
very fine spike, Epidendrum radicans, E. evectum, &c. Cattleya Mossise 
Arthur Ashworth is a beautiful variety of the Reineckeana type, having a 
slate-blue tint over the front of the lip. The rare Trevoria Chloris was 
represented by five healthy plants, not now in bloom. We noted also the 
remarkable Cirrhopetalum Collettii, Bulbophyllum barbigerum, Den- 
drobium pulchellum, a capsule of D. Coelogyne, Oncidium phymatochilum, 
Selenipedium caudatum, Phaius X Norman, Spathogiottis X Colmanii, and 
some good Vanda teres, Coelogyne speciosa was in bud, and we noted a 
capsule which has taken a long time to develop, the flower having been 
crossed with C. fuliginosa in November, 1907, and is still unripe. The 
reverse cross was also made. 

A few other interesting things were noted in the remaining houses, 
including Phaius maculatus, Coelogyne Massangeana, Oncidium maculatum, 
Odontoglossum citrosmum, Cypripedium X Godseffianum, several C. X 
Deedmanianum, and four plants of a cross from C. X Lathamianum X 
hirsutissimum, raised here many years ago, one of them bearing seven 
flowers, most comparable with those of a light-coloured C. X Germinyanum, 
but with more white on the dorsal sepal. 

Mr. Ashworth is a very enthusiastic Orchidist, and takes the keenest 
personal interest in every department of his collection, which has been 
under the charge of Mr. Holbrook for many years, and is in a thriving 
condition generally. Some further notes may be found at pp. 181, 182, 
of our eighth volume. 

Dr. Hodgkinson's Collection. — Another old-established collection is 
that of Dr. Hodgkinson, The Grange, Wilmslow, which we have twice 
previously had the pleasure of seeing (O.R., ii. pp. 195-197 > vm - PP- 1 7^~ 
180). Several houses are devoted to Orchids and contain many well-grown 
plants, and a number of very interesting rarities. 

The Odontoglossums were in a thriving condition, and many strong 
plants, with very large bulbs, were pointed out. They are grown in a 
compost of Osmunda fibre. We saw a lot of good O. crispum, including 
spikes of a dozen flowers, the handsome O. c. Lindeni, and O. c. Woorei, a 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 285 

well-shaped and finely blotched form. There were also good examples of 
O. Hallii, X ardentissimum, X Andersonianum, X Fascinator, X Coradinei, 
pulchellum, &c, while O. X Thompsonianum was producing a fine spike, 
and we noted a good form of O. X Wattianum princeps. There were also 
examples of Cochlioda sanguinea, Colax jugosus, Laelia pumila prsestans, 
and a good example of Dendrobium Victoria-Regina, in this case not 
suspended, though in a light position, near the glass. Oncidium 
macranthum was also producing very fine bulbs in the same compost. 

In an Intermediate house we saw the richly-coloured Zygopetalum X 
Perrenoudi in bloom, with Dendrobium infundibulum, a good Ladiocattleya 
Schilleriana, the pretty Cymbidium tigrinum with three racemes, 
Epidendrum vitellinum, Odontoglossum Uroskinneri, a good example of 
Ornithidium Sophronitis, Chondrorhyncha Chestertoni in bud, a number of 
seedling Cypripediums, and other interesting things. 

The next house contained numerous choice Cypripediums, and among 
those in bloom we noted fine examples of C. Mastersianum, Rothschildi- 
anum, and Argus, with a very fine C. x nitens, and a number of good C. 
bellatulum from a batch imported many years ago. These included C. b. 
album and the pretty light-coloured variety Princess Clementine. A plant 
of the rare Dendrobium Hodgkinsoni was pointed out, with some good D. 
Phalaenopsis and other Dendrobiums, while D. cretaceum and a few good 
Vanda teres were in bloom. It was remarked that some plants of C. 
bellatulum have been in the collection for 21 years. 

In another house we found a number of C. Godefroyae leucochilum in 
bloom and bud, and Dr. Hodgkinson remarked that a plant of C. niveum 
was found in one of the imported clumps, thus affording interesting 
evidence that the two grow together. Some young seedlings were also 
pointed out germinating on the leaves of imported plants, and some have 
been taken off and potted. The fine C. Godefroyae xanthochilum, with a 
clear yellow lip, appeared in the same importation. These plants are 
grown in loam, and are placed in a warm sunny position. With them were 
some forms of C. niveum. There were also plants of the charming C. X 
Aylingii, and C. X Vipani, with C. Lawrenceanum Hyeanum, some 
seedlings of C. bellatulum, and a nice plant of C. niveum X Lawrenceanum 
Hyeanum. A plant of the rare Dendrobium Lowii was also noted. 

The Cattleya house contains a good series of the popular kinds, with a 
number ot hybrid seedlings, and a good plant of C. labiata Peetersii was 
pointed out, with six or eight plants of the rare C. Rex, from an early 
importation, and these are said to flower well at the proper season. There 
were also some good forms of Laelia purpurata, Laaliocattleya Schilleriana, 
the pretty little L.-c. Doris, a good Brassocattleya Veitchii, and a fine spike 
of the rare Schomburgkia tibicinis var. grandiflora. The plants are grown 



286 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

in Osmunda fibre, which is found to give excellent results. Leaf mould has 
been tried as a compost, but has now been given up. A large plant of 
Vanda ccerulea stood at the end of this house, where it grows and flowers 
well. 

A number of Phalaenopsis are grown, some of them having been 
obtained from the Philippines many years ago, and we noted some good 
plants of P. Schilleriana, several P. Lueddemanniana in bloom, and a plant 
of P. X intermedia Portei throwing up a spike. There were also plants of P. 
amabilis Rimestadiana, some being in bloom, and one of the very rare 
P. Lowii. We also saw plants of Bollea ccelestis, and the rare Aganisia 
ionoptera, while A. lepida was in bud. These occupy a rather shady 
position in the house. We also saw a plant of the rare Catasetum 
Bungerothii Pottsii, and one of Arachnanthe Cathcartii which was growing 
well. 

The collection is a particularly interesting one, containing a good many 
rareties in addition to the usual popular species, and some of the plants 
have been successfully grown here for many years, a fact which speaks well 
for the skill of Mr. Woore, Dr. Hodgkinson's excellent gardener, under 
whose care it has been for a long period. There are also a number of 
hybrid seedlings, for a few hybridisation experiments have been carried on 
from time to time, partly in the hope of raising novelties, and partly for the 
interest felt in watching the development of the seedlings. In fact, Dr. 
Hodgkinson finds in Orchid growing a delightful hobby, and the possession 
of such a collection affords a perpetual source of interest. 



ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 

A flower of the handsome Cattleya Warscewiczii var. W. Waters Butler, 
which received an Award of Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society on 
August 3rd, is sent from the collection of W. Waters Butler, Esq., of 
Edgbaston. It is of excellent shape, and has bright rose-purple sepals and 
petals, and a much darker lip, with a pair of large yellow blotches in the 
throat. 

A flower of a fine dark form of Odontoglossum Harryanum is sent from 
the collection of D. L. Thorpe, Esq., Etterby Scaur, Carlisle. It has the 
usual markings on the petals and lip, but is much darker in colour than 
the typical form. 

A flower of Cattleya X Louis Bleriot is sent from the collection of the 
Right Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P., Highbury, Birmingham, by Mr. Mackay, 
who remarks that it is a hybrid from C. X Chamberlainiana X Hardyana. It 
has light rose-purple sepals and petals, and a broad, open, very dark crimson- 
purple lip, which is entire, and has a prettily undulate margin, and some 
yellow and paler veining in the throat. It appears to be the first hybrid 



September, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 287 

from C. X Chamberlainiana, and an analysis of parentage would give half 
C. Dowiana, and a quarter each C. Leopoldi and C. Warscewiczii. 

A three-flowered inflorescence of a pretty little hybrid is sent from 
the. collection of Mrs. T. Fielden, Grimston Park, Tadcaster, by Mr. G. 
P. Bound, who remarks that it was derived from Cattleya Harrisoniana X 
C. granulosa, and is the first hybrid raised at Grimston. It is a form 
of C. x Gratrixiae (Orchid Stud-Book, p. 58), and has rosy lilac sepals 
and petals, and a strongly-three lobed lip, with acute side lobes, rosy 
lilac outside and pale yellow inside, and the broadly-stalked front lobe is 
veined and reticulated with crimson purple. It shows unmistakable 
evidence of its parentage. 

A fine flower of Cattleya Grossii is sent from the collection ot Richard 
Ashworth, Esq., Newchurch, Manchester, by Mr. Fletcher. It is a near 
ally of C. b-color, but has a much broader front lobe to the lip. The sepals 
and petals are purple-brown, and the lip light rose-purple, with a broad 
white band on the disc. It was figured at page 305 of our tenth volume. 



NOTES. 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the 
Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during September, 
on the 14th and 28th, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual 
hour, 12 o'clock noon. On the latter date, at 3 p.m., the second Masters 
Memorial Lecture will be delivered by Prof. Hugo de Vries, the subject 
being " The Production of Horticultural Varieties," and will be illustrated 
by lantern slides. Chairman, Prof. Bateson, F.R.S., V.M.H. 

Meetings of the Manchester and North of England Orchid Society will 
be held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on September gth and 23rd. 
The Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits are open to inspection 
from 1 to 4 p.m. 

An International Exhibition of Horticultural and allied subjects will be 
held at Ghent from October 30th to November 1st, 1909, under the auspices 
of the Societe Royale d' Agriculture et de Botanique de Gand, in which 
thirteen classes are set apart for Orchids. Prizes are offered for groups of 
50, 25 and 20 Orchids, also for groups of Odontoglossums, Cattleyas and 
Laelias, and Cypripediums, also for single specimens of the same. 

Cattleya Mendelii His Majesty. — The Gardeners 9 Magazine states 
that the owner of this superb variety (which it previously illustrated), Mr. 
Francis Wellesley, J.P., Westfield, Woking, has succeeded in dividing it, and 
that Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to accept from him 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. [September, 1909. 

This has been sent to Frogmore, and is now under 



Under the title, " A Famous Orchid Hybridist," we also find a portrait 
of Mr. J. Charlesworth, of Haywards Heath, the head of a firm that has 
figured largely in Orchid raising and cultivation during the last twenty years. 

A fine group of nine specimens of Ccelogyne cristata from the collection 
of Earl Cawdor, Llandilo, is figured in a recent issue of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle (p. 75, fig. 31). The plants are in six-inch pots, and have not 
been repotted for three years. They are literally covered with flowers. 

ORCHID PORTRAITS. 

Bulbophyllum Dearei.— Joum. Hurt., 1909, ii. p. 147, with fig. 

Cceeogyne cristata (group). — Gard. Chrou., 1909, ii. p. 75, fig. 31. 

Cycnoches densiflorum, Rolfe. — Bot. Mag., t. 8268. 

Cypripedium x The Premier. — Gaid. Mag., 1909, p. 663, with fig. 

Dendrobium acuminatum, Rolfe. — Gard. Chrou., 1909, ii. p. 150, fig. 
64; Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 659, 660, with fig. 

Denlrobium Sander.e, Rolfe. — Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 621, 622, with 
fig- 

Disa grandiflora (group). — Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 154, fig. 65. 

L^eltocattleya X Choletiana.— /owm. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 195, with fig. 

L^liocattlya X Statteriana.— Joum. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 123, with fig. 

Sophrol^lia heatonensis.— Joum. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 171, with fig. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

tent if a reply by post is desired (abroad, reply postcards should be used). Subjects of special interest 

S. Y. — I. Epidendrum dichromum, Lindl. 2. The Phakenopsis leaves appear to be 
affected with the well-known "spot," which sometimes troubles our own grow 
the winter. A chill, with moisture on the foliage, is believed to be the cause, the fungus 
afterwards appearing on the dead tissues. Prevention seems to be the only remedy. 3' 

E. B.— Phaius amboinensis, Blume. 

H. B.— Two forms of Cattleya Leopoldi, which is somewhat variable in colour. The 
other is a natural hybrid which we will report upon. 

H..G. A.— Cirrhaea viridipurpurea, Lindl. 

L. L.— Unavoidably held over till next month. 

H. F. W.-Catasetum fimbriatum, Lindl. 

H. H.— Stanhopea oculata, Lindl., and Oncidium excavatum, Lindl. 

W. H. W.— The note is unavoidably held over till next month, with some others. 

Catalogue Received.— We have received the Descriptii 
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Vol. XVII.] OCTOBER, 1909. [No. 202. 

THE 

ORCHID REVIEW: 

an 3llii0rate& Journal of ©rcbifcolog^ 



Amateur's Collection 292 Lailia crispa (fig. 23) 

Anguloa uniflora and A. eburnea 316 Notes 

Answers to Correspondents 320 Oncidium sarcodes .. 

Calanthe X Dominyi (fig. 22) 297 Orchid Portraits 

Calendar of Operations for October ... 301 Orchids in season 

Cattleya X Wilsoniana 296 Orchids of Sao Paulo, Brazil 



Hybridist 

Cattleya X iridescens 
Lasliocattleya Dayana 
Odontioda Graireana 
Sophrocattleya Blackii 



iOrchidacea? 289 



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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



OCTOBER, 1909. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE ORCHIDACE^E. 

{Continued from page 252.) 
SOBRALIA is placed both by Lindley and Bentham in the subtribe Vanilleae, 
which we last considered, but Pfitzer places it, together with Elleanthus and 
a few others, in a distinct group, Sobraliinae, the last-mentioned genus being 
placed by Bentham near to Calanthe in the tribe Epidendreae, where it is 
not very well placed. Sobralia is a genus of tall, reed-like, Tropical 
American Orchids, having stiff plicate leaves, and usually large Cattleya-like 
flowers, of rather membranous texture, which seldom remain fresh beyond 
a few days. They are found from Mexico to Peru, and usually inhabit 
sunny, rocky places, sometimes forming extensive thickets. The lip is 
convolute round the elongated column, and the pollinia are less powdery 
than in the Vanilleae. The exact affinity of the group is not yet clear. 

The small subtribe Corymbieae has some resemblance in habit to the 
preceding, while the floral structure resembles the Spirantheae. The species 
are mostly Indo- Malayan, with a few African and American representatives, 
but they are very rarely seen in cultivation. Bentham places the group 
between Vanilleae and Spirantheae, though that may not be their true 
position. 

We now come to the great subtribe Spirantheae, the Neottieae proper 
of Lindley, of which Bentham recognises about thirty-five genera, and 
defines as follows : " These are all terrestrial, with creeping or short rhizomes, 
not forming, so far as known, any underground tubers. The flowering 
stems are erect, simple, with membranous leaves, or very rarely leafless, and 
a simple terminal raceme, sometimes condensed into a spike. The rostellum 
is terminal and erect or inclined forward, the anther behind the rostellum 
and parallel to it, and the pollen masses after dehiscence either suspended 
from or attached to the gland of the rostellum, or affixed to the end of a 
stipes descending from that gl d." The flowers are usually somewhat 
pubescent, and the sepals and p3 +ls cohere into a hood over the column, 
while the lip is very various in shape, and usually more or less saccate or 
sometimes spurred at the base. The group is found throughout the warmer 
parts of the globe, with a few representatives in temperate regions. The 



2 9 o THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

best known cultivated species are comprised under Ancectochilus and a few- 
allied genera — grown chiefly for their handsomely variegated leaves — 
and a few species of Spiranthes and Stenorrhynchus, but a few others are 
occasionally seen. Among British and hardy representatives may be 
mentioned Listera, Spiranthes, Goodyera, and Neottia, the latter containing 
the remarkable saprophytic Neottia Nidus-avis, or Bird's-nest Orchid. The 
pollen masses are generally sectile, the compound granules being regularly 
packed in rows round a central axis, to which they are attached, forming 
a true caudicle, the latter being further united to the gland of the 
rostellum. 

Very little is known of the fertilisation of the tropical members of the 
group, but that of some of the temperate representatives has been studied, 
and in the case of Spiranthes and Listera has been recorded in detail. 
Darwin watched a number of Spiranthes autumnalis at Torquay for about 
half an hour, and saw three humble bees of two kinds visit them. He 
caught one and found two perfect pollinia on its proboscis, and the discs of 
three others, showing that the bee had removed the pollinia from five 
flowers, and had probably left the pollen of three on the stigmas of other 
flowers. Next day he found another at work. The bees always alighted on 
the bottom of the spike, and crawling spirally up it, sucked one flower after 
the other, something like a woodpecker in search of insects. As soon as the 
flower opens nectar is found in the sac, and there is only a very narrow 
opening between the lip and the column, through which a fine bristle or 
the proboscis of an insect can be passed, and on being withdrawn brings 
away the pollinia. In a day or two the column moves away from the lip, 
leaving a wider passage to the stigma. Everything is beautifully arranged 
for the purpose in view. The bee, on visiting a spike for the first time, 
would bring away the pollen from the youngest and last-opened flower, and 
then fly away to another spike, alighting on the lowest and oldest flower, 
into which a wide passage has now been formed by the reflection of the 
column, thus allowing the pollinia to come into contact with the stigma. 
If the stigma were in an adhesive condition it would capture the pollen 
attached to the insect, but if already covered with pollen this would not 
happen until the bee reached a flower in the right condition. Finally, 
on reaching the upper flower it would withdraw fresh pollinia before flying 
to the next spike. Thus, as Darwin remarks, the bee "as she goes her 
rounds, and adds to her store of honey, continually fertilises fresh flowers, 
and propagates the race of our autumnal Spiranthes, which will yield honey 
to further generations of bees." The rostellum is endowed with a peculiar 
kind of irritability, for it is slightly furrowed in a longitudinal line, and if 
this furrow be touched with a small bristle it splits longitudinally, and a 
little milky fluid exudes, which serves to attach the pollinia to the insect. 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 291 

Darwin shows that the splitting does not take place spontaneously, and can 
be prevented by excluding insects with a net. 

The Australian Spiranthes australis is markedly different in its 
economy, for Mr. Fitzgerald could never detect any trace of a rostellum or 
of viscid matter, and the flowers are as completely self-fertilising as those 
of Ophrys apifera, even if the visits of insects are prohibited by a bell-glass. 
The pollinia are said to touch the upper edge of the stigma and fertilise it 
at an early stage. The flowers are white, and are arranged on the spike in 
the same spiral manner as in S. autumnalis. 

The Tway-blade, Listera ovata, is a common British Orchid which 
Darwin considers to be one of the most remarkable in the whole Order. It 
has small green flowers, with a long and narrow pendulous lip. The 
rostellum is of large size, thin or foliaceous, and arches over the stigmatic 
surface. Internally it is divided by longitudinal septa into a series ofloculi, 
which contain viscid matter and have the power of violently expelling it. 
As soon as the flower opens, if the crest of the rostellum be touched, ever so 
lightly, a large drop of viscid fluid is instantly expelled, which is milky at 
first, but on exposure to the air sets hard in two or three seconds, and 
assumes a purple brown tint. So exquisitely sensitive is the rostellum that 
a touch from the thinnest human hair suffices to cause the explosion. As the 
pointed tips of the pollinia lie on the crest of the rostellum they are always 
caught by the exploded drop. The fertilisation of the flower is thus 
described by Darwin : " Small insects alight on the labellum for the sake of 
the nectar copiously secreted by it ; as they lick this they slowly crawl up 
its narrowed surface until their heads stand directly beneath the overarching 
crest of the rostellum ; when they raise their heads they touch the crest ; 
this then explodes, and the pollinia are instantly and firmly cemented to 
their heads. As soon as the insect flies away it withdraws the pollinia, 
carries them to another flower, and there leaves masses of the friable pollen 
on the adhesive stigma." 

On watching a group of the plants Darwin saw numerous small Hymen- 
■opterous insects of two species flying about the plants and licking up the 
nectar. The flowers whose pollen had been removed were visited over and 
over again, but at last he saw both species crawl into younger flowers and 
suddenly retreat with a pair of bright yellow pollinia sticking to their fore- 
heads. Darwin's son watched another bed some miles away, and brought 
home the same two insects with attached pollinia, and also saw some 
Diptera visiting the flowers. He was also struck with the number of 
spiders' webs spread over these plants, as if the spiders were aware how 
attractive the Listera was to insects. In one case Darwin found an 
extremely minute Hymenopterous insect vainly struggling to escape, with 
its head cemented by the hardened viscid matter to the crest of the 



2Q2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 19 

rostellum and the tips of the pollinia. "The insect was not so large as one 
the pollinia, and after causing the explosion had not strength enough 
remove them ; it was thus punished for attempting a work beyond 
strength, and perished miserably." R. A. R. 

(To be continued.) 



THE AMATEUR'S COLLECTION. 

Ax Amateur's Page. — "It has several times been suggested that an 
Amateur's page would be an acceptable feature of the Review, this being 
specially devoted to those who have only a small house, and attend to their 
plants for the most part themselves. If some amateur of this kind who has 
gained sufficient experience could be induced to conduct such a page its 
success would probably be assured. But the most experienced were 
beginners once, and although the writer long ago passed the initiatory stage, 
he will endeavour to keep in view those early days, in writing the following 
notes for beginners in Orchid culture." 

With these promising words commenced some time ago what I hoped 
would develop into a regular monthly page for amateurs, but it was soon 
discontinued. Perhaps the writer became absorbed in the stream of new 
discoveries and forgot all about his early days. Orchidology seems such a 
progressive subject. Almost every issue of the Review tells us of the 
appearance of some interesting novelty or rarity, or the flowering of some 
striking hybrid, and perhaps we may occasionally see them at one of the 
horticultural meetings, but they are usually inaccessible, and we have to be 
content with more everyday Orchids. It is very interesting to know what 
the last new Odontioda is like, or to read about the latest discovery in 
Mendelism, but we like to think that our own little collections are not 
forgotten. There is something about them which is not quite provided for 
in the monthly Calendar of Operations, useful as it is as a cultural guide, 
and I think we ought to have an Amateur's page as a regular feature. At 
all events here are a few ideas to begin with. 

Orchid Growing as a Hobby.— A well-arranged Orchid house is a 
source of perpetual pleasure. Throughout the year, from January to 
December, the interest never flags. There is always something going on, 
something growing or flowering, and one might almost fancy that the 
seasons were abolished inside. There is something unique about the very 
appearance of the plants, their varied habit of growth, the peculiar shapes 
of the pseudobulbs, the curious aerial roots which many of them possess, 
the way some are suspended from the roof, the infinite variety in the 
inflorescence and the shape and colour of the flowers, the curious 
resemblance to all kinds of animate and inanimate things, and especially to 
certain insects, invest them with a fascination which is exercised by few 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 293 

other plants. Then their convenient size and accommodating character 
must be taken into account, as well as their moderate requirements in the 
way of potting and watering. And they are really very little trouble when 
once their requirements are properly understood and provided for. A 
suitable amount of light and warmth, with proper attention to the 
ventilation and to providing the necessary amount of humidity in the 
atmosphere, are among their chief requirements. 

The Orchid House.— Orchids are very various in their requirements, 
and it is no use attempting to grow them all in a single house, for either 
the warmer or cooler-growing kinds must suffer, and ultimately disappear. 
A single house should, if possible, be divided by a glass partition, so as to 
provide a warmer and a cooler half, which would increase the number of 
kinds that can be successfully grown, and if a third house or division can 
be provided, and the temperatures maintained as Warm, Cool and Inter- 
mediate, a quite representative collection can be grown successfully. An 
interesting article by Mr. T. Anstiss, on " How to Construct an Orchid 
House," has just appeared in the Journal of Horticulture, which may be 
reproduced : — 

" Where new houses are required, or alterations are necessary, the 
present time is usually chosen for carrying out such work, and where they 
are intended for Orchid culture a few details maybe useful, because however 
efficient the horticultural builder may be, it is almost impossible for him to 
be so well acquainted with the needs of the plants as the man in charge is. 

"The Site.— We are often victims of circumstances, and cannot 
select an ideal spot ; but when possible the house or houses ought to be 
built in an open space, away from dwelling houses and the shade of trees; 
while about 18 ft. should be allowed between each structure if it is decided 
to build a range. An Orchid house is best running from north to south, 
and of the span-roof type. The lean-to, once so popular for cool Orchids, 
is now rejected by practical growers. For Cypripediums, Odontoglossums, 
and seedlings, a low house is recommended, say about 9ft. high in the centre, 
and 11 ft. wide, with the front lights 18 in. in depth. These can either be 
fixed or be made to open; I prefer the latter; then if at any time one 
desires to substitute another class of plant no difficulty would be experienced 
in admitting air. 

" Ventilators must be ample, both top and bottom, and the first- 
named are arranged in every third light to open from the inside, while the 
lower ones are made of wood, let into the brick wall in such a way that the 
current of air passes over the hot-water pipes before coming in contact with 
the inmates. They are placed on both sides of the house, and to prevent 
cats or vermin entering during the night, a piece of fine gauze may be nailed 
to the frame of the bottom ventilators. 



294 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

" Blinds will be needed, which are either made of wood laths or 
canvas, but they should be raised from 6 in. to gin. above the roof by means 
of an occasional parallel rafter, to ensure a circulation of air over the glass. 
If specimen Lselias and Cattleyas are wanted then a larger house will be 
required, with a central stage, but the method adopted is exactly identical 
with the smaller structures. 

" The Interior. — Inside the house a rain-water tank should be dug, 
capable of holding sufficient for three or four months' supply. For damping 
purposes tap or pump water can be used, thus saving the rain water for the 
Orchids. The stages should be 4 ft. wide, running both sides of the house, 
and formed of slate or other durable material, resting on iron supports, 
and covered with a layer of finely-broken coke or shell shingle to a depth of 
2 in. Above this another stage is usually placed, made of unpainted battens, 
so as to raise the plants near the glass, and facilitate damping down ; while 
they retain moisture for a longer period than when painted. In some 
collections, however, this second stage is dispensed with, and inverted 
flower pots are used instead. 

" Regarding artificial heat, more piping should be allowed than is really 
necessary for a normal winter. It is far better to exceed the orthodox 
quantity, as it prevents that smell of fire heat so detrimental to plant life 
and the hard driving of the fires during frosty weather. Four inch pipes 
leading from the main are generally chosen, and six would be ample. 

" Brick or tiled floors must be ignored, and what is known as coke 
" breeze " flooring substituted, which can be forked over at intervals, and 
renewed whenever needed at a small cost. Such a pathway, when sprinkled 
over, ensures that sweet, moist atmosphere in which all Orchids thrive. In 
some instances, wood lattices are laid over the floors, but they are apt to 
become slippery, and therefore dangerous ; while the cost of renewing them 
is no small matter. Underneath the stages the bare earth is advised, 
wherein may be planted Begonias, Pilea muscosa, ferns, and a host of other 
subjects which will occur to the thoughtful cultivator." 

With houses of the kind described, and the necessary range of tempera- 
ture, Orchid growing may be attempted with confidence. The three 
divisions mentioned may not always be represented, but for the purpose of 
these notes we will assume their existence. 

The Intermediate house is now gay with Cattleyas, Miltonias, Oncidiums, 
and a few others. The Cattleyas include C. Warscewiczii, C. Dowiana, 
and several of the slender-bulbed group, as C. Harrisoniana, velutina, 
Leopoldi, Forbesii, bicolor, and several hybrids, while Laeliocattleyaelegans 
and a number of artificial hybrids are flowering freely, also the pretty little 
La;lia pumila and L. Dayana. Oncidiums include O. incurvum, oblongatum, 
prsetextum, varicosum and several species of the crispum group, while 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 295 

Miltonia Candida, M. spectabilis Moreliana, and two or three natural hybrids 
are in bloom. Vanda Kimballiana and coeruleaare throwing up good spikes, 
and the pretty little Paphiopedilum Fairrieanum is sending up a number of 
scapes. Odontoglossum grande is now throwing up some good spikes, and 
will soon make a fine show, and Maxillaria grandiflora is blooming freely. 
In this house the chief thing that requires attention now, will be to mature 
the growths in preparation for the coming winter. 

In the Cool house not very much is now in bloom, except a few 
Masdevallias and Odontoglossums, though among the latter are the hand- 
some O. Uroskinneri, Wallisii, Pescatorei, Krameri, with odd plants of O. 
crispum, and a few others out of season. O. crispum seems to bloom at 
any season, and a few spikes of this and others are pushing up. The plants 
are now growing freely, and care should be taken not to let the temperature 
fall low enough on cold nights to give them a check, also to see that they do 
not suffer from want of moisture. They will want all the light possible 
during the coming dull season. The pretty little Stenoglottis longifolia is 
beginning to bloom, and Zygopetalum maxillare, growing on tree fern 
stems, is throwing up spikes. 

In the Warm house the handsome Vanda suavis is in bloom, with 
Listrostachys Chailluana, Phalaenopsis Esmeralda, Ancistrochilus Thom- 
sonianus, a few Angrsecums, and other things, while the beautiful Dendrobium 
Phalssnopsis is producing a number of spikes, and some are already in 
bloom. In foggy localities the blooms often suffer, as it is one of the most 
susceptible to fog, on which account it should be encouraged to grow and 
bloom as early as possible. The summer-flowering Cypripedes are not yet 
over, and a number of hybrids are in bloom in this house. This is the time 
when the American species of the Phragmopedilum set produce their new 
spikes, and the hybrids Sedeni, cardinale and others are now very effective, 
and will continue to bloom freely for months. They have an unfortunate 
habit of dropping their flowers before they fade, but it seems to make 
little difference to the display, and they are among the easiest of Orchids to 



STANHOPEA GRAVEOLENS. 

Since pointing out the confusion between Stanhopea inodora and S. 
graveolens (Orch. Rev., i. p. 258) I have come across some additional informa- 
tion respecting the latter, and the receipt of a flower from Messrs. Stuart 
Low & Co. affords an opportunity of putting it on record. Its history was 
previously given. Mr. Day has twice drawn the species, first in August, 
1864 (Orch. Draw., iii. t. 58), from a plant which he obtained from Messrs. 
Rollisson, as S. Wardii, but afterwards corrected the name, and again in. 
August, 1886 (I.e., li. t. 41). On this occasion he wrote : " Being anxious 



29 6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, j 9 o 9 . 

to get my drawings of this genus quite authentic, I sent flowers to Professor 
Reichenbach, and got the name as above, as I expected. It is powerfully 
scented and not very pleasant, chiefly from the strength of it." To the 
former drawing Mr. Day has added : " Plants imported from Guatemala by 
Low & Co. bloomed with me in 1866, and are evidently the same as this, 
but much finer and larger. They had magnificent spikes of from nine to 
thirteen flowers." The flower sent by Messrs. Stuart Low & Co. is quite 
identical in shape and colour. The sepals and petals are light yellow, with 
many minute dusky dots and a deep yellow base, and the hypochil of the lip 
is oblong, orange-yellow, with a few reddish dots, chiefly inside, while the 
horns and epichil are straw-coloured, with many minute brown dots. The 
column wings are broad, and extend to within one- fifth of the base. 

The plant "figured by Lemaire under the name of S. graveolens (Fl. d. 
Ser., tt. 69, 70) has a larger sac beneath the hypochil, and is probably 
different, also the variety Lietzei, Regel (Gartenfl., xl., p. 20T, t. 1345)- 

R. A. R. 

CATTLEYA x WILSONIANA. 
A very interesting natural hybrid Cattleya is sent from the collection of 
P. C. P. Lupton, Esq., Southminster, Essex, by Mr. Bennett, who remarks 
that the plant has elongated pseudobulbs, about 18 inches long, with two 
leaves, and the spike is five-flowered. The plant was brought from Brazil 
by Mr. Lupton. The flower bears the most unmistakable resemblance to 
C. Harrisoniana, having light purple sepals and petals of very similar shape 
and texture, as also are the front lobe of the lip and the corrugated light 
yellow disc, but the side lobes are only two-thirds as long as the column, as 
in the hybrids of C. bicolor, which was probably the other parent. I have 
seen nothing quite like it before, and the question arises whether it is C. X 
Wilsoniana, a species only known from description, but which I have 
suggested as possibly of the same origin as C. x sororia, Rchb. f. C. X 
Wilsoniana came home with C. bicolor, and the flowers were said to be 
equal to a well-developed form of that species, but the sepals and petals of 
a beautiful deep purple. C. X sororia was described by Reichenbach as 
having the growth of C. bicolor and the flower like a good C. Harrisoniae, 
yet he suggested C. Walkeriana and C. guttata as possible parents. It is 
figured in the Orchid Album (vii. t. 307), where it is said to have come home 
with other Cattleyas of similar growth, as C. bicolor, C. velutina, &c. 
Whether all three are of identical parentage must remain uncertain, but 
Mr. Lupton's plant is nearer to C. Harrisoniana than the one figured. It 
is unfortunate that the matter cannot be cleared up for want of material, 
but anyone who happens to have the two species in bloom might make the 
cross in the hope of settling the matter. R. A. R. 



orer, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 297 

CALANTHE x DOMINYI. 
'his striking plant, the first hybrid Orchid raised by hand, is again 
ering freely at Kew, the plant carrying eleven spikes, thus being rather 
nger than last year, when the annexed photograph was taken by 




Mr. F. \V. Rolfc Its history was given in our first volume (pp. 3, 4). 1 
was raised by Mr. John Dominy— the pioneer of Orchid hybridisation— i 
the establishment of Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, from Calanthe Masuc; 
a purple-flowered Indian species, and C. furcata, a white-flowered Philippin 



298 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

plant which is believed not to be in cultivation at the present time. The 
seed was obtained in 1854, and in October, 1856, a seedling was in flower, 
when little over two years old. It was named by Dr. Lindley in honour of 
its raiser. The flowers are lilac-purple, with a rather darker lip, which 
changes to buff as the flowers get old. It is an easily grown and free- 
flowering plant. Besides being historically interesting, it is so easily grown 
and floriferous, that it deserves a place wherever hybrid Orchids are grown. 
It is one of the few hybrid Orchids which have been figured in the Botanical 
Magazine (t. 5042), and its portrait is very appropriately given as the frontis- 
piece of the Orchid Stud-Book, where its history is given in detail. 



ORCHIDS OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. 
We recently referred to flowers of Cattleya Warneri and Laeliocattleya 
Schilleriana sent from the collection of P. C. P. Lupton, Esq., of 
Southminster, Essex (p. 252). The plants in question had been sent from 
the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, by a friend, Dr. 'F. S. Lane, and now 
Mr. Lupton sends the following very interesting information from him. 
Dr. Lane writes : — 

" The L.-c. Schilleriana came from Praia Grande, near Santos, and is, as 
Mr. Rolfe says, a hybrid between Laelia purpurata and Cattleya intermedia. 
It was found about one mile from the seashore, in the low swamp land that 
generally has about six inches to a foot of water on it in the wet season. 
The plant was about ten feet from the ground. The C. Warneri comes 
from the State of Espirito Santo. There is a very similar one, C. labiata 
autumnalis, that comes from Pernambuco (Northern Brazil). I have also 
some exceptionally fine labiata from Ceara, but they are rare and hard to 
get. Occasionally I get species from the Rio Negro and Upper Amazon 
districts, but as I have no hothouse they do not doso well here. 

" There is a great variety of Orchids here in this State of which I can 
give accurate information, but for those outside it I have to rely on the 
information of collectors, and that is not always reliable. 

" This State has Laelia purpurata, cinnabarina, flava, crispa, crispilabia, 
and the tiny L. Regnellii, which is the smallest of the Lselias, and to-day 
quite rare. It is a perfect miniature of L. crispa. Of Cattleya there are 
C. Harrisoniana, Loddigesii, Forbesii, guttata, intermedia, Walkeriana, 
bicolor, velutina, and several natural hybrids, also Laeliocattleya Binoti. 
Of Oncidium there are O. crispum (two varieties), Marshallianum, 
Forbesii, prsetextum, aureum, sarcodes, pulvinatum, pumilum, pubes, 
micropogon, longipes, cornigerum, concolor, Brunleesianum, barbatum, 
unicorne, varicosum (two varieties), and a number of interesting types, 
many of which I believe are unclassified. Between O. sarcodes and 0. 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 299 

pubes, especially, there are a number of interesting types that I can rind no 
classification for. There are also Miltonia Regnellii (three varieties), 
Candida, Clowesii, cuneata, spectabilis (three or four varieties), and several 
natural hybrids, with a number of Maxillarias and Epidendrums, mostly of 
no value, several Catasetums, Stanhopeas, two Gongoras, five different kinds 
of Sophronitis, and a number of small Orchids that are beautiful but of no 
commercial value." 

Mr. Lupton now sends two beautiful flowers of Cattleya Harrisoniana 
alba, which are pure white except for the usual yellow disc to the lip. The 
plant was sent to him by Dr. Lane, who remarks that it is part of a plant 
that came from the Rio Parahyba, near Taubate, in the north of the State 
of Sao Paulo. 

ONCIDIUM SARCODES. 

An important question is raised by Dr. Lane in his interesting article on 
the Orchids of Sao Paulo (p. 298). He remarks : " Between Oncidium 
sarcodes and O. pubes, especially, there are a number of interesting types 
that I can find no classification for." I have long had a suspicion that the 
rare Oncidium amictum, Lindl., was a natural hybrid with some such 
origin, but the evidence was not conclusive, and as it was difficult to 
ascertain which particular species grew intermixed a paper on Hybrid 
Oncidiums (O.R., i. pp. 298-302) was left unfinished. 

The history of O. sarcodes is very imperfect. It was described by 
Lindley in 1849 (Joum. Hort. Soc, iv. p. 266) as a Brazilian species received 
in April, 1849, from Mr. P. N. Don, and it was remarked that the habit was 
entirely that of O. pubes and O. amictum. Over forty years later Messrs. 
Veitch wrote : " Although one of the most admired of Oncids, and one that 
is generally cultivated, the records of the botanical and horticultural history 
of Oncidium sarcodes are of the slenderest description. . . . Its precise 
habitat does not appear to have been divulged. The importations are 
received from Rio de Janeiro, and the plants are said to be collected in the 
neighbourhood of Novo Friburgo, on the Organ Mountains (Veitch Man. 
Orch., viii. p. 76). 

A year after the publication of Messrs. Veitch's note the species was 
figured in the Orchid Album (x. t. 477), and a new locality was recorded. It 
was remarked: " Some few years ago we received a consignment from a 
gentleman who had been collecting plants in the province of Sao Paulo, and 
the cases yielded plants of Oncidium varicosum, praetextum, Cattleya 
Loddigesii, and some plants which appeared to be Oncidium sarcodes. As 
the small-flowered and worthless O. pubes, however, so exactly resembles 
this latter species, we hesitated, and wrote for information from the sender, 
who forwarded us some dry Mowers, which at once removed all doubts from 



300 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

our minds, and enabled us to offer O. sarcodes with a degree of confidence 
that we otherwise should not have felt. Since then we have from time to 
time received additional consignments of the species from the same party, 
so that its whereabouts in Brazil is well known, and we have great pleasure 
in publishing it for perhaps the first time." Dr. Lane's confirmation is 
interesting, and it may be added that in the Flora Brasiliensis Prof. Cogniaux 
only gives the garden records. 

We now come to the question of possible natural hybrids of O. sarcodes, 
and, as already remarked, I have long suspected O. amictum, Lindl., to be a 
hybrid between it and O. pubes. It was described and figured in 1847 
(Bot. Reg., xxxiii. t. 66). as a Brazilian plant which flowered with Messrs. 
Loddiges in April of that year. It agrees with the two species mentioned in 
habit, while the flowers are about intermediate in size, colour and structural 
details. It is significant that no one has ever obtained an importation of it, 
but I suspect that some of the forms between O. sarcodes and O. pubes for 
which Dr. Lane can find no classification will have to be referred here. I 
find also a significant note by Mr. Day. In June, 1875, he painted a flower 
(Orch. Draw., xviii. t. 70) from a plant purchased a few days earlier for £15 
at a sale of Mr. W. Bull's, held at Stevens' Rooms. It was sold under the 
name of Oncidium curtum, but is different from Lindley's plant of that 
name (Bot. Reg., xxxiii. t. 68). Mr. Day remarked : " It is very much like 
O. Forbesii and O. crispum, but differs much in the form of the bulbs. 
This has no column wings. It appears to me to approach O. sarcodes — 
perhaps it may be a hybrid." In June, 1S77, he painted the inflorescence, 
besides making a drawing of the whole plant (I.e., xxii., tt, 7, 8). He then 
remarked that the plant, though purchased at Bull's Sale, was grown and 
flowered by Mr. W. Marriott, of Edmonton, and added : " There were four 
others, so-called, but I thought only one of them was true." The plant 
figured seems to be a form of O. Gardneri, Lindl., which I have suggested is 
probably a hybrid, though from a different parentage. The question must 
be reconsidered in the light of the above facts. 

R. A. R. 



SOBRALIA LILIASTRUM. 

A flowering branch of a Sobralia has been sent from the Birmingham 
Botanic Garden, by Mr. T. Humphreys, which was recently determined as 
S. Elisabeths (Gard. Chron., 1909, i. p. 83). The plant was figured and 
described by Schomburgk, in 1841 (Verh. Befocrd. Gartenb. Prcuss., xv. p. 
135, tt. 1, 2), as a native of British Guiana, but proves identical with the 
earlier S. Liliastrum, Lindl. (Gen. & Sp. Orch., p. 177), a species very rarely 
seen in cultivation, though a flower was figured by Mr. Day in July, 1868 
(Orch. Draw., xiv. t. 25), and is recorded as " imported from Brazil by 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 301 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co. in April, 1864, and flowering now for the first 
time." Whether it had flowered previously in cultivation is uncertain, for 
there are no dried garden specimens at Kew, though when Lindley figured 
the plant, in 1839, fr° m a drawing sent by Schomburgk to Messrs. Loddiges 
(Sert. Orch., t. 29), he remarked : " Through the exertions of Mr. Schomburgk 
Messrs. Loddiges have at length added the white variety of this interesting 
plant to our collections. The species was originally discovered at Bahia by 
Salzmann, growing in sandy thickets, and afterwards in British Guiana by 
Schomburgk. Schomburgk made paintings, showing a white variety and 
another with rose-coloured petals and lip, both of which appear in Lindley's 
plate. The history of S. Elisabethse is curious, and indeed the name should 
never have been published, for two years previously Lindley had shown the 
identity of the two plants, and remarked : " Mr. Schomburgk, being 
misled by an erroneous description of the pollen masses of Sobralia, had 
regarded his plant as a new genus, and had sent drawings to Baron 
Humboldt for publication. . . . Neither the genus nor species is new, 
as has been supposed." He also added that Mr. Schomburgk supposed the 
red and white specimens belonged to different species, though the flowers 
appeared to be the same, and in any case the white one most certainly 
agreed with that from Bahia. S. Liliastrum belongs to the racemose 
section of the genus, the flowers being borne in succession from the axils of 
the bracts, which are borne distichously on a zigzag rachis, and the one sent 
by Mr. Humphreys shows twelve bracts, there being two undeveloped buds 
above the expanded flower. The flower is white, with the exception of the 
lemon yellow disc, as is also that drawn by Mr. Day. It is interesting to 
find the plant at last established in cultivation, and to clear up the confusion 
in its history. R. A. R. 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR OCTOBER. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
The last fortnight of bright weather has been a great help to Dendrobes, 
Cattleyas, Calanthes, &c, which were badly in need of sun to ripen them, 
after the dull summer we have had. Every advantage should be taken of 
bright days, and the syringe should be freely used in the morning, and 
ample ventilation afforded. The glass should also be kept clean, so as to get 
every benefit possible from the sun. Keep the fires low just while the sun 
is bright, but they should be kept clean and ready to start if the weather 
should change suddenly, as nothing is more harmful than sudden changes 
of temperature. 

Thrip. — In last month's Orchid Review I noticed an article on Thrip 
(pp. 2S1-282). This is about the worst time of the year for these insects, 
just as the damping is being slackened and more fire heat used. The plants 



3Q2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

are a little soft, and the extra dryness needed for winter seems to start the 
thrip going. The best remedy I find is the syringe and clean water used 
properly. We use the;'^ syringe, with the finger as a spreader. The finer 
the spray, the better it covers the leaves all over. It is not the quantity of 
water but the way it is used which keeps thrip down. Several people 
have written to me when I have advised this method, wanting to know what 
time it should be done, and how they were to prevent it from rotting the 
centre of the growths. There is no danger of growths rotting unless the 
plants are simply drowned with a rose syringe, which is commonly used 
because it is less trouble, but a little practice with a jet syringe will soon 
enable one to use it properly. We very seldom use insecticide, and when 
it is used it is made very weak. Any good make is suitable if used with 
care, and for safety rather under the strength given on the tins or bottles. 
One of the chief causes of injury to growths is insecticide carelessly used. 
There is a large collection of Cypripediums here, and neither thrip nor thrip 
marks can be found on the plants. The preventative used is the syringe and 
clean water, and care taken in using it, and we never lose young growths in 
the way mentioned. 

Oncidiums.— Many varieties will now be pushing up their flower spikes, 
and should be given a light position and carefully watered until the spikes are 
developed. Many varieties, such as O. varicosum Rogersii, Gardneri, 
crispum, ampliatum, incurvum, &c, throw tremendous spikes, considering 
the size of the plants, and should the latter show any signs of shrivelling, 
the spikes should be removed as soon as the flowers are developed, for often 
the strain of carrying a large spike will mean the loss of the plant if not 
carefully watched. Many of the Oncidiums are small, but very interesting 
flowers when closely examined. With few exceptions, Oncidiums like 
Intermediate house treatment, with a fair amount of sunshine. The bulbs 
should be ripened as much as possible before the dull days, as when soft 
they are liable to rot off in the winter, especially if they happen to get a 
drop too much water. O. Lanceanum will also be pushing up its flower 
spikes. This is a very sweetly-scented variety, and should be grown at the 
warm end of the Cattleya house or stove. It should be given plenty of 
water until the new leaves are fully grown, and then kept fairly dry until it 
commences to grow again. O. Papilio, the Butterfly Orchid, as it is 
commonly called, should also be grown warm. This species flowers at 
almost anytime of the year, and if a plant seems at all distressed after it 
has been flowering for some time, the spike should be removed, otherwise 
it would go on flowering until it kills itself. O. Cavendishianum and 
carthaginense should also be grown in the stove, and given plenty of water 
until the new leaves are made up. These should now be in full growth, and 
kept well up to the light. Care must be taken not to overwater them in 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 303 

the resting season, or the large fleshy leaves will soon rot off. Taking the 
Oncidiums generally, they are one of the most showy and useful classes of 
Orchids grown. 

Calanthe X Veitchii. — Now that the plants are pushing their flower 
spikes they should have manure water given them every time they are 
watered, as it helps to make strong spikes, and also gives much better 
coloured flowers. They should be given a light position, and the temperature 
should not be allowed to drop below 65 , with a little ventilation. Care 
must be taken not to overwater them, but do not let them buffer for want 
of water. When they commence to flower they will last a long time if 
carefully attended to in the matter of water and temperature. They make 
a fine show when staged with a few ferns amongst them to compensate for 
the loss of leaves at this period, and they are also very useful for cutting. 
The evergreen varieties are mostly summer-flowering, and should be kept 
growing until they show their spikes, when they should be given slightly 
drier treatment until they have finished growing. 

Cymbidium Tracyanum and giganteum will be showing their spikes, 
and should be given a little manure water if the plants are pot-bound. 
These like an intermediate temperature, and a plentiful supply of water 
while they are growing. They are very beautiful varieties, and flowering as 
they do in the winter are very useful. The flowers will last a long time in 
perfection. The foliage should be syringed on fine days till the flowers 
open, as they are rather subject to red spider. They are not particular as 
to where they are grown, so long as the temperature does not drop below 
55 , and they get plenty of water just while they are growing. 

Lycaste Skinneri will soon be finishing its growth, and should be 
given plenty of water until the bulbs are mature, and a temperature of not 
less than 55 at night. A drier atmosphere than the Cool house is 
necessary, or the leaves will spot. They are wonderful flowers to last, but 
are easily bruised, so care should be taken to stake the flowers clear of the 
leaves, and to handle them carefully when moving them to their flowering 
quarters. They like an airy position to grow in, and should be syringed on 
fine days to keep the foliage clean. L. Deppei, Lawrenceana and aromatica 
will need similar treatment. L. Lawrenceana is a very free flowering and 
pretty variety, and useful for buttonhole work. 

Phal.enopsis. — As the days get shorter these will need less water and 
less moisture in the atmosphere. A sharp look-out must be kept at all 
times for slugs, as they soon spoil the appearance of an otherwise fine plant. 
After the tips of the roots are sealed over they will only need sufficient 
water to keep the leaves plump. As soon as the spikes appear they should 
have a piece of cotton wool wrapped round the base, as an extra safeguard 
against slugs. This is onlv useful while the wool is dry, so that it must be 



3°4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

replaced with fresh wool each time it gets damp. A light spraying over 
with insecticide will keep the foliage free from thrip and spider, and also act 
as a preventative against slugs. Phalaenopsis like a sunny position during 
the winter months, and a stove temperature at all times to keep them in 
perfect health. 

Seedlings of all sorts should be kept moving as fast as possible. Do 
not let them become pot-bound at any time until they are of flowering 
size. As fast as they require it give them a shift into a slightly larger pot, 
but do not overpot them. A pot large enough to work a little fresh material 
all round will keep them growing and in a healthy condition. The pots 
must be kept clean, as well as all their surroundings. Scrub all wood-work 
and staging whenever re-staging is being done. Rubbish should not be 
allowed to lie about in the houses, as it forms a harbour for woodlice, &c. 
All empty pots should be cleared out that are not wanted for staging 
purposes, and not stored away under the stages. A nice light house, span- 
roofed if possible, and not too lofty, is best for seedlings. As the seedlings 
get to flowering size they should be removed to a temperature of about 5 
lower, to give them a chance of throwing as good a flower as possible. 
Stage them as near the glass as possible with safety. Where lath roller 
blinds are used they will be found very useful during the winter months if 
they are rolled out every night, as they will help to maintain an equal 
temperature, and anything staged near the glass is not so likely to feel a 
drop in the outside temperature as where these are not used. Russian mats 
will be found very useful if they are stretched over the roof at night. They 
can easily be made fast with ropes thrown over the roof. 

Damping Down. — A little judgment must be used when damping during 
the next few months. The outside conditions must be taken into con- 
sideration, especially where the houses are not very well heated. Where the 
grower has good boilers and well heated houses he is pretty safe to use 
plenty of moisture at almost anytime, but where they are underheated — and 
the majority of houses are, so far as my experience of them goes — one is 
pretty well ruled by outside conditions. If the houses do not dry quickly no 
hard and fast line should be followed, but damp them as often as they dry. 
Where blinds are used they will be found a great help in frosty weather. 
We use ours every night, as on a mild night one needs very little fire with 
them run out, and in a snowstorm they are as good as a blanket. Tem- 
peratures should read about as follows in the mornings : Cool house 55 , 
Intermediate house 6o°, Cattleya house 65 , Stove or Warm house 70 . 
Allow a rise of io° by sun heat, and 5 at midday, if fire heat has to be 
used all day. Always endeavour to keep the temperatures as even as 
possible, not have 10 or 15 degrees difference from day to day, as plants 
will not do well in an uneven temperature. 



October, 1909.] 



THE ORCHID REVIEW, 



305 



LiELIA CRISPA. 

This fine old species is now flowering freely in some of our collect 
is one of the parents of several very beautiful Lagliocattleyas, as L.-c 
exoniensis, Nysa, Pallas, and over a dozen others. It was introduced ti 
cultivation as long ago as 1826, in which year it was sent from Rio d 
Janeiro to the Horticultural Society of London by Sir Henry Chamberlain 
It flowered for the first time in Europe in the Society's garden at Chiswic 
in August of the following year, and shortly afterwards was described am 
figured by Lindley under the name of Cattleya crispa {Bot. Reg., t. 1172! 
It is a true Laelia, however, having eight pollinia, and was referred 






hat 




Fig. 2j. I 
genus by Reichenbach, in 1853 (Fl. 



It gr. 



Organ Mountains, according to M. Forget, in touch with L. Dayana, L. 
pumila, L. Perrinii, Cattleya Dormaniana, C. bicolor, and C. velutina, he 
having collected all of them at Novo Friburgo at the same time. He 
remarks: " They are cool temperate growers, that is to say, that immediately 
the sun sets one feels quite chilly in this part of the Organ Mountains." It 
is also a native of the States of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, in the latter, 
according to Messrs. Veitch, in the southern parts of the province, at an 
elevation of 2,500 to 3,500 feet.. 



306 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
A melting of the Royal Horticultural Society was held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on August 31st, when 
there was a very good display of Orchids, including a handsome new 
Odontioda to which a Certificate of Appreciation was given. The other 
awards were five medals, two Awards of Merit, two Botanical Certificates, 
and one Cultural Commendation. There was also a magnificent collection 
of about 150 photographs of Chinese plants and scenery, taken by Mr. E. H. 
Wilson, in his recent collecting trip on behalf of Harvard University, 
U.S.A., but the only Orchid included was one showing a fine clump of the 
handsome Cypripedium tibeticum growing in its native habitat. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. 
Mr. Alexander), staged a choice group of hybrids, raised in the collection, to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was awarded. A Cultural Commendation was 
also given to Mr. Alexander in recognition of the excellent culture shown. 
The group contained a beautiful form of Brassocattleya Mariae (C. Warned 
X B. Digbyana), good examples of Sophrocatlaelia Medeia, Cattleya X 
fulvescens with seven flowers, a line plant of C. X Euphrasia Westonbirt 
var., with two spikes of seven flowers each, C. X Iris, a very richly- 
coloured form of La;liocattleya Fournierse, L.-c. Lustre Westonbirt var., 
the beautiful L.-c. Golden Oriole, with rich golden sepals and petate, and 
the remarkably distinct Westonbirt var., in which these organs are deep 
purple, and the throat of the lip veined with yellow. An Award of Merit 
was given to the latter. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), also received a 
Silver Flora Medal for a fine group, including the handsome L^eliocattleya 
St. Gothard, L-c. bletchleyensis var. Othello, the dark L.-c. Chloe 
Goodson's var., L.-c. elegans, and a pretty hybrid between Cattleya 
velutina and Laelia crispa, some interesting Brassocattleyas, Cattleya X 
Iris, C. X Crashleyi, a pretty form of C. X Hopkinsii, two very distinct 
forms of C. X Adula, namely Goodson's var., having yellow sepals and 
petals, and Bronze Wing, with these organs salmon-rose, Miltonia Candida 
grandiflora, Odontoglossum crispum Herbertii, Cypripedium X Juno, C X 
H. S. Goodson, and other interesting things. 

M. H. Graire, Amiens, France (gr. Mr. Devoss), sent Odontioda 
Graireana, a remarkable hybrid derived from Odontoglossum Rossii and 
Cochlioda Ncetzliana, to which a Certificate of Appreciation was awarded. 
It was most like the Odontoglossum in habit, and bore a raceme of six 
brilliantly-coloured flowers. It is described on p. 315. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Chessington, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), sent 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 307 

three good plants of the handsome Odontioda Thwaitesii, five very distinct 
forms of Cattleya X Adula, showing much variation in colour, a fine hybrid 
of Laelia pumila of which the second parent is doubtful, Sophrocattleya 
warnhamiensis atropurpurea, a deep ruby-crimson variety, with some light 
yellow at the base of the lip, and S.-c. Blackii (S. grandiflora X C. X 
Hardyana), a very beautiful hybrid, to which an Award of Merit was given. 
The inflorescence bore two flowers, with a general appearance to those of S. 
Doris, and the colour scarlet-red, with some yellow at the base of the lip. 

Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford, Dorking (gr. Mr. 
White), sent the beautiful Warscewiczella amazonica (Lindeni), a large 
white flower, lined with violet-purple at the base of the lip, and Listrostachys 
forcipata, an interesting little species, having equitant leaves, and an 
umbellate inflorescence of pellucid white flowers, a Botanical Certificate 
being given to the latter. 

F. W. Moore, Esq., Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, exhibited 
Dendrobium muricatum (Finet), a remarkable species from New Caledonia, 
to which a Botanical Certificate was given. 

Arthur Burr, Esq., Lynwood, Udney Park, Teddington, showed a good 
form of Lgeliocattleya eximia. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), sent 
a very pretty little group, including a well-grown Laslia monophylla with 
ten flowers, Cirrhopetalum guttulatum with four spikes, Dendrobium 
ciliatum annamense, the dwarf Epidendrum (Nanodes) Matthewsii with 
nine blooms, and a well-flowered plant of Masdevallia nidifica. 

F. Lowenadler, Esq., Badgemore, Henley-on-Thames (gr. Mr. Hutton), 
sent a good example of Dendrobium acuminatum, bearing a spike of ten 
pretty rose-purple flowers. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine), sent a 
pretty little group of hybrids mostly raised in the collection, consisting of 
five plants of Cypripedium X Maudiae, each with two flowers or buds, a 
good form of C. Watsonianum, C. X A. de Lairesse, with two fine blooms, 
and C. X John Clark (Harrisianum superbum X Fairrieanum), a well- 
coloured hybrid most resembling the former in general character. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a fine group, to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was awarded. It contained the handsome 
Zygopetalum X Roeblingianum, the rare Miltonia Schrcederiana, M. X 
Hyeana superba, a beautiful example of Odontoglossum crispum xanthotes 
Charlesworthii, O. X Eleanor, O. Harryanum, Lycaste Skinneri alba, a 
good Cycnoches maculatum, a well-flowered Ccelogyne X Brymeriana, 
Oncidium incurvum, O. ornithorhyncum album, Cattleya X Venus, C. X 
Rhoda, C. Harrisoniana alba, C. X F. W. Wigan, C. X Mrs. Pitt, Lgelio- 
cattleya Elva, L.-c. callistoglossa, Cypripedium X Lawrebel, and others. 



3 o8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group, including two plants of the handsome Cypripedium X 
Rossetti, Angrsecum infundibulare, Listrostachys Chailluana, the handsome 
Cattleya X Ins, C. X Pittiana, C. x Wavriniana, and a very handsome 
hybrid from C. Mendelii X Whitei, having blush-white sepals and petals, 
and a strongly three-lobed lip, with a rose-coloured front lobe, and some 
yellow on the isthmus. Sophrocatlaelia Danas, Lseliocattleya elegans, a 
pretty hybrid between Cattleya Grossii and Laeliocattleya callistoglossa, 
having purple sepals and petals, and a lip closely resembling C. Grossii in 
shape and colour, with the addition of a pair of small whitish side lobes, 
Dendrobium pulchellum, a few plants of D. regium, Rhynchostylis retusa, 
and other good things. 

Messsrs. Stuart Low &Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, received a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a good group, containing some good forms of Cycnoches 
maculatum, Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, C. velutina, C. x fulvescens, C. X 
Atalanta, C. X Adula, C. X Pittiana, Oncidium Lanceanum, O. oblongatum, 
Bulbophyllum Dearei, Dendrobium formosum, Cypripedium X Wm. Lloyd, 
C. X Haywoodii,Odonto-lossumPescatorei, a fine Coelogyne Massangeana, 
Miltonia Warscewiczii, cSx. 

Messrs. William Bull & Sons, Chelsea, sent a pretty little group of 
seedling Cattleya x Maroni (velutina X Dowiana), showing much variation 
in colour, with examples of C. X Pittiana, C. X Maecenas, and Laelio- 
cattleya Parysatis. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, Hay wards Heath, sent 
two very good plants of Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, and the remarkable 
Bulbophyllum grandiflorum. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, showed a good form of Anguloa eburnea. 

At the meeting held on September 14th there was a good display of 
Orchids, and a specially interesting feature was a fine plant of Cycnoches 
stelliferum bearing flowers of both sexes. The awards consisted of four 
medals, one Award of Merit, one Botanical Certificate, and two Cultural 
Commendations. 

The President, Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., K.C.V.O., Burford, Dorking 
(gr. Mr. White), sent the pretty little Sophrocatkelia Dans, S.-c.-l. pum- 
eximia (L. pumila x Sophrocattleya eximia), and a very fine specimen of 
Angraecum Kotschyanum with eight long racemes, the best bearing fifteen 
flowers, this gaining a Cultural Commendation. He also received a 
Botanical Certificate for a good plant of A. stylosum, bearing a pendulous 
raceme of twelve white flowers. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
received a Cultural Commendation for a tine plant of Angnecum Eichierianum, 



October, 1909.] THE OkCtilD REVIEW. 3 o 9 

bearing thirteen flowers on a stem about three feet high. The flowers 
are borne singly on short axillary scapes, and are green with a broadly 
dilated white lip and a short inflated spur. He also sent plants of the 
chaste Dendrobium Phalsenopsis album, and D. P. Gatton Park var., with 
lilac coloured flowers marked with slaty blue on the lip. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, sent Cypripedium X 
Wiertzianum Exhims var. 

R. G. Thwaites, Esq., Christchurch Road, Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), 
sent several good forms of Cattleya X Adula, C. X Roupelliana (superba 
X Hardyana), a fine and very richly coloured novelty, bearing a deep rose- 
purple flower, with some darker colour in the throat, and Sophrolselia 
Ortoni (S. grandiflora X L. x Diana), a pretty scarlet flower with a yellow 
throat to the lip. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Hay wards Heath, staged a very fine group, 
to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained a tine series of 
Cattleya X Iris, showing much variation in colour, C. Gaskelliana alba, a 
fine form of C. X Venus, C. X St. Gothard, a brilliant series of Sophronitis 
hybrids, including Sophrocattleya eximia, Sophrolaslia heatonensis, S.-l. 
Gratrixiae, Sophrocatlselia Lcda, and the richly coloured S.-c.-l. Marathon, 
Oncidium ornithorrhynchum album, Epidendrum ciliare, Maxillaria 
grandiflora, two well-bloomed plants of M. Meleagris, Gomesa planifolia, &c. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, received a Silver 
Flora Medal for a fine group, including some good plants of the bright 
yellow Oncidium oblongatum, O. Marshallianum, O. unicorne, Ccelia 
macrostachya, Cycnoches maculatum and chlorochilon, Angrajcum 
distichum, Cattleya Haroldiana var. Hildegard, a beautiful white flower 
with some violet marbling on the front of the lip, Brassocattleya Pocahontas 
alba, Laelia pumila delicata, Sophrocatladia Danas, a good plant of 
Physosiphon Loddigesii, the pretty little Waluewa pulchella, Sigmatostalix 
radicans, Cirrhopetalum refractum, and other interesting things. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group, which contained a remarkable example of Cycnoches 
stelliferum (C. Egertonianum var. viride), bearing a long male inflorescenc 
and two short female inflorescences on the same pseudobulb, some fine 
examples of Cattleya X Iris, C. X Pittiana-, C. X Wendlandiana, Ladio- 
cattleya Phcenix (C. Uowiana X L.-c Henry Greenwood), a beautiful hybrid 
having light buff sepals and petals tinged with rose, and a claret-purple lip 
with some deep yellow in the throat, L.-c. carissima (C. Harrisoniana X 
L.-c. Charlesworthii), L.-c. Lucinda (C. bicolor X L. purpurata), L.-c. 
Nysa, bletchleyensis, Ella, and Baroness Schroder, the pretty little Sigma- 
tostalix radicans, Polystachya leonensis, Rhynchostylis retusa, and other 
good things. 



$ro THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Orchid Nursery, Vale Bridge, Haywards Heath, received 
a Silver Banksian Medal for a small group of choice things, including forms 
of Cattleya X Iris and C. X Adula, a fine form of C. X conspicua (Grossii 
X Gaskelliana), with sepals and petals of a dusky rose tint, and the lip 
rosy lilac with small whitish side lobes, Cypripedium X Nandii, C. X 
Maudi^e, C. X Lord Ossulston, &c. 

Messrs. Stanley & Co., Chase Side, Southgate, sent a very pretty hybrid 
Cattleya, called C. X iridescens, and said to be a hybrid from C. bicolor 
and C. Eldorado. There were seven plants differing greatly in colour, to 
one of which, called var. splendens, an Award of Merit was given. It had 
cream-coloured sepals and petals with a slight suffusion of rose, and the base 
and small side lobes of the lip white, the isthmus deep yellow, and the 
front lobes marbled with purple and margined with white. 

Messrs. J. & A. A. McBean, Cooksbridge, Sussex, sent a pretty little 
group, including a good specimen of Vanda Sanderiana with two spikes, 
two good plants of Oncidium incurvum album, Cattleya Dowiana, C. X 
Iris, Dendrobium Dearei, Cypripedium Rothschildianum, C. insigne 
Sanderianum, C. X James H. Veitch, &c. 

Mr. H. A. Tracy, Twickenham, sent a good plant of Cirrhopetalum 
guttulatum, bearing several umbels of greenish white flowers, spotted with 
purple. 



Manchester and North of England Orchid. 

A very fine show of plants and flowers appeared at the Society's meeting 
held on September gth. The seasonable and beautiful Cattleya X Iris 
was much in evidence, ranging in colour from pure yellow to deep chocolate 
brown. 

J. Talbot-Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float), staged a splendid 
group, which included many rare and beautiful hybrids and botanical species. 
A particularly fine form of Vanda ccerulea, of deep blue colour, stood out 
very prominently, and this was awarded a First-class Certificate, and a fine 
piece of the rare Dendrobium acuminatum, bearing ten flowers, received a 
similar award. Cattleya X Lytham Hall (Grossii X Gaskelliana), C. X 
Maroni Clifton's var., and C. X Armstrongia; received Awards of Merit, 
also Lifcliocattleya Nysa Lytham Hall var., the rare Miltonia Schrcederiana 
Houlletia odoratissima, Angrsecum Eichlerianum and Phalsenopsis Regnier 
Coundon Court var., whilst First-class Botanical Certificates went to P- 
Regnieri, Angraecum Scottianum, and Stenoglottis longifolia. The group 
included many Odontoglossums, Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, C. X 
Wavriniana, C. X suavior, Ccelogyne pandurata, Lycaste X Mrs. Rogerson, 
&c. (Silver-gilt Medal). 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), staged a very 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 311 

effective group, which included many varieties of Cattleya X Iris, well- 
flowered C. Gaskelliana alba, C. granulosa, Cycnoches chlorochilon, 
Odontoglossum x ardentissimum xanthotes, O. X loochristiense, and many 
others (Silver-gilt Medal). 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a nice miscel- 
laneous group, which included Cattleya X Iris, C. Eldorado, C. Dowiana 
aurea, and Lseliocattleya callistoglossa. Cattleya X Miss Barney (Eldorado 
X bicolor) received an Award of Merit. I noted also a fine pan of Miltonia 
spectabilis Moreliana, Cypripedium Parishii with seven flowers, C. Curtisii, 
C. Spiceiianum, Odontoglossum Uroskinneri, Oncidium incurvum, &c. 
(Silver Medal). 

Richard Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), 
gained a Silver Medal for a bright group, which included Cattleya X Iris, 
C. Gaskelliana in variety, Odontoglossum crispum, O. X mirificum, 
Miltonia X Bleuana, &c, all showing evidence of good culture. 

Norman Galloway, Esq., Great Horton, Bradford, staged a nice group of 
mixed plants. Cypripedium X pictum (Polletianum X Ashburtonse) gained 
an Award of Merit. I noted a distinct Cypripedium bellatulum, a good 
Odontoglossum grande, &c. (Silver Medal). 

J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a 
seasonable group of Cypripediums, for which he was awarded a Bronze 
Medal. The group included C. X gigas Corndean Hall var., C. Fairrie- 
anum, C. X Maudiae and the var. roseum, C. X St. Albans, C. X 
Rappartianum, &c. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), was awarded 
a Bronze Medal for a group of Cattleyas and hybrids. C. X Iris Hey 
House var., Lseliocattleya Bayardo, and L.-c. Henrietta received Awards of 
Merit. I noted a good L.-c. callistoglossa, &c. 

E. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury, staged a group consisting chiefly 
of Cypripediums, which gained a Bronze Medal. C. X Martha E. 
Rogerson (Godefroye X niveum), received an Award of Merit. I noted C. 
X Rossetti, C. X Olga Bagshaw, C. X Stanley Rogerson, C. X Lord 
Derby, C. X niveum, and Cattleya X Hardvana, Rochford's var. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, sent a small group of Cypri- 
pediums, in which I noted C. X Massaianum, C. X Ultor, C. X Maudiae, 
C. x Burtoni,&c. (Bronze Medal), 

Herbert Arthur, Esq., Blackburn, showed a distinct form of Oncidium 
X Mantini. 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Beardwood (gr. Mr. Lupton), showed Brasso- 
cattleya Maronae in good form. 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), showed the tine new 
albino hybrid Cypripedium X Holdeni (callosum Sandera; X Maudi«e),and 



3 i2 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [OcrokfcR, i 9 oc>. 

Cattleya x Iris Auburn House var., both of which gained First-class 
Certificates. 

The Rev. J. Crombleholme, Clay ton-le- Moors, received an Award of 
Merit for Cypripedium argenteum. 

The Liverpool Orchid and Nursery Co., Gateacre, staged a fine group of 
Cattleyas, Laeliocattleyas, &c, including many choice hybrids. I noted 
Cattleya granulosa, many varieties of C. X Iris, and a very pleasing hybrid 
from Laelia purpurata X C. bicolor, Lseliocattleya bletchleyensis, L.-c. 
Dominiana, and many others (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling, Westgate Hill, Bradford, staged a mixed group. The 
four following gained Awards of Merit : Cypripedium X Aphrodite var. 
roseum, C. X Lily Measures, C. X dourdanense, and Odontoglossum 
bictoniense album. A Cultural Certificate was given to a fine plant of 
Cypripedium X Burtoni. 

Messrs. Moore & Co.. Rawdon, Leeds, staged a nice group, which 
included the beautiful Cattleya X Adula (Hardyana X bicolor), C. X Iris, 
Lailiocattleya Myra, L.-c. Berthe Fournier, Dendrobium Dearei, Zygo- 
petalum rostratum, &c. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, staged a good variety of Cattleya X Iris, 
also C. 'Gaskelliana alba and C. Harrisoniana. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent an exceptionally dark 
form of Miltonia spectabilis Moreliana and a good Cattleya X Hardyana. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Vale Bridge, Haywards Heath, sent Cypripedium X 
Fletcherianum (Mabelia; X Godefroyse leucochilum), a fine hybrid which 
gained a First-class Certificate, and Cattleya X Iris Vale Bridge var. (Award 
of Merit.) 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, showed Bollea Lalindei and a fine 
Stanhopea of the insignis type. 

At the meeting held on September 23rd there was again a very good 
exhibition, the quality being excellent. Over 80 plants were placed before 
the Committee, which sat as follows: — Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), 
Thorp, Ward, Cowan, Arthur, Warburton, Ball, Shill, Keeling, Holmes, 
Ashton, Parker, and Weathers (Hon. Sec.). 

J, Talbot-Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float), staged a large and 
effective group, consisting of many choice plants. Sophrocatlselia De Vere 
Beauclerc, a hybrid of rich warm crimson of medium size, gained a First- 
class Certificate, Awards of Merit being given to Dendrobium glomeratum 
and Saccolabium violaceum var. Harrisonianum. I noted a very pretty 
Pachystoma Thomsonianum, a fine Cattleya Dowiana aurea, Phalaenopsis 
amabilis Rimestadiana, Dendrobium formosum, many Odontoglossums, &c 
(Silver-gilt Medal). 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 313 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a varied group 
of plants, which gained a Silver Medal. A specially fine variety of Oncidium 
Kramerianum received a First-class Certificate, an Award of Merit being 
given to Laeliocattleya Golden Oriole. The group included many well- 
grown Laeliocattleyas, intermixed with Cypripedium Fairrieanum, C. 
Spicerianum, &c. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), staged 
a group of choice plants. A new hybrid, Laeliocattleya Miss Marjorie 
Warburton, a flower of rich colour and large size, received a First-class 
Certificate, the same award being given to L.-c. Mont Blanc, Odontoglossum 
Uroskinneri var. Orpheus, a dark variety, and Cypripedium Godefroyae 
The President. An Award of Merit was given to Laeliocattleya Constance 
Wigan, Westfield var. The group included Cattleya X fulvescens, Cypri- 
pedium X Watsonianum, C. X Curtisii-Morganiae, C. X Massaianum, &c. 
(Silver Medal). 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Beardwood, Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), 
gained a Silver Medal for a good group, which included plants of Cattleya 
bicolor, Laeliocattleya Nysa, Brassocattleya Maronae, &c, the whole backed 
with some well-flowered plants of Oncidium varicosum of good type. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), received a 
Silver Medal for a group of Cattleya and Laeliocattleya hybrids, which 
included C. X Parthenia vernalis, C. X Adula magnifica, and C. 
Gaskelliana var. Vesta Tilley, all of which gained Awards of Merit. 

G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmorland (gr. Mr. Herdman), 
received an Award of Merit for Cattleya X Adula Ball's var., and First- 
class Botanical Certificates for Oncidium Ballianum and Cirrhopetalum 
Medusae. 

J. J. Holden, Esq., Auburn House, Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), gained 
a First-class Certificate for Cattleya X John Holden, a fine hybrid from 
C. X Fabia X C. X Hardyana, and an Award of Merit for Cypripedium X 
Dorothy Neil. 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, received a Bronze Medal for a 
small group of Cypripediums, and an Award of Merit for C X Kubele. 

Norman Galloway, Esq., Great Horton, Bradford, sent a small group of 
mixed plants, in which I noted Dendrobium Dearei, Cypripedium bellatulum, 
&c. (Bronze Medal). 

Saml. Gratrix, Esq., West Point, Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), sent 
the fine new Cypripedium J. E. Shill (gigas X Leeanum), which gained a 
First-class Certificate. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, Didsbury, sent Cypripedium X Hannibal 
(nitens X Leeanum), a grand flower with a bold dorsal sepal (First-class 
Certificate). 



3 i4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909 

Richd. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), 
received an Award of Merit for Cattleya X Davisii. 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall, Wilmslow (gr. Mr. Holbrook), sent 
Laeliocattleya X Mrs. John Ashworth (Award of Merit). 

J. H. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea, Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a 
small group of Cypripediums, including C. X Ultor, C. X St. Albans, C. 
bellatulum, and C- X gigas Corndean Hall var. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Enfield, sent a good group of fine things, 
and received Awards of Merit for Ccelogyne speciosa albicans, a very fine 
Vanda Kimballiana, Cattleya Gaskelliana Princess, Sophrocatlselia X Medeia, 
and the rare Oncidium oblongatum citrinum. I noted also the straw-yellow 
Lseliocattleya ilsingtonense, Trichopilia nobilis, &c. 

Messrs. Cowan, Ltd., Gateacre, staged a fine group, the hybrids from 
Cattleya bicolor and C. granulosa prevailing. Cypripedium X Evenor 
gained an Award of Merit. The group included Brassocattleya X 
Thorntoni, Cattleya X Vulcan, Vanda ccerulea, V. Kimballiana, and several 
Cypripediums of good quality (Silver Medal,). 

Mr. John Robson, Altrincham, sent Cycnoches maculatum (Award of 
Merit), several good Cattleya X Iris, C. Gaskelliana, Cypripedium X 
triumphans, &c. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, sent Cypripedium Fairrie- 
anum, C. X Rappartianum, and a good C. X Hitchinsiae. 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, sent several plants of 
Odontoglossum crispum of good type. 

Messrs. Keeling, Westgate Hill, Bradford, received a Vote of Thanks 
for a small group. H. Thorp. 

THE HYBRIDIST. 

Sophrocattleya Blackii.— A handsome hybrid raised in the collection of 
R. G. Thwaites, Esq., of Streatham (gr. Mr. Black), from Sophrocattleya 
grandiflora 2 and Cattleya x Hardyana <? , to which an Award of Merit 
was given at the R.H.S. meeting held on August 31st last. The plant is of 
dwarf, compact habit, bearing a considerable general resemblance to 
Sophrocattleya Doris (S. grandiflora x C. Dowiana), and the inflorescence 
is at present two-flowered. One of the flowers has now been kindly sent. 
It measures four inches from tip to tip of the petals, and most resembles the 
Sophronitis parent in shape, being well expanded, and the petals i\ inches 
broad. The lip is three-lobed, with a broad, nearly square front lobe, and 
infolded side lobes. The colour may be described as bright scarlet suffused 
with cherry red, and the lip crimson with a deep yellow throat. It is 
darker in colour than Sophrocattleya Doris, and a very charming little 
plant. 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



3'5 



Odontioda Graireana. — A remarkable hybrid, raised by M. H, Graire, 
Amiens, France, from Odontoglossum Rossii X Cochlioda Ncetzliana, to 
which a Certificate of Appreciation was awarded at the R.H.S. meeting 
held on August 31st last. The plant closely resembles the Odontoglossum 
in habit, the bulbs being ovate, somewhat compressed, and bearing a broad 
spreading leaf at the apex. The inflorescence is arcuate, and at present 
bears six flowers, one of which has been kindly sent, and measures 2\ inches 
from tip to tip of the petals. It is fairly intermediate in shape, the petals 
being elliptical-ovate, and acute, and the sepals narrower, while the lip is 
strongly three-lobed, and over an inch long. The sepals and petals may be 
described as light scarlet, inclining to salmon-colour, with the apex and 
margins of the petals light rose, and the lip pale creamy yellow with a 
suffusion of pink. The lip is free from the column, and the front lobe 
strongly recalls O. Rossii, being suborbicular, undulate at the margin, and 
nearly f inch broad. The side lobes are broadly rounded, and the large 
oblong crest is four-lobed in front, and bright yellow, with the basal part 
brown. The column is rose-coloured behind and paler in front, with a pair 
of rounded wings. It is a very distinct and striking form. 

Odontoglossum X moortebeekiense. — A very attractive hybrid, 
raised in the establishment of Messrs. Linden, Moortebeek, Brussels, from 
Odontoglossum Edwardii crossed with the pollen of O. cirrhosum, and 
most like an enlarged edition of the seed parent. It has oblong-lanceolate, 
undulate, very acuminate sepals and petals, which are deep violet-purple, 
with a lilac-coloured apex, while the lip is ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, and 
similar in colour, with a bright yellow crest. The flowers are about twice 
as large as in O. Edwardii, and very numerous. 

L^liocattleya Dayana. — A very pretty little hybrid from the 
collection of H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), whose 
parentage is recorded as Cattleya velutina X Lselia crispa. It is rather 
larger than the Cattleya parent, and has oblong-lanceolate, buff yellow 
sepals and petals, the latter being somewhat undulate. The lip is strongly 
three-lobed, cream yellow, with acute reflexed side lobes, and a rounded 
undulate front lobe, veined with purple at the basal angles, this colour 
extending along the sides of the isthmus, and down the disc to the base, 
while the centre of the isthmus and base of the front lobe are yellow. It is 
a distinct and attractive little hybrid. 

Cattleya X Crashleyi. — Another very pretty hybrid from the same 
collection as the preceding, said to have been raised from C granulosa X 
Loddigesii. The sepals and petals are bright rosy-lilac, and closely 
resemble those of the latter parent in shape. The lip is strongly three- 
lobed, with broad white acute side lobes, and a broadly rounded, crisped, 
front lobe, which is reflexed at the sides, and closely veined with bright 



3 i6 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909 

crimson on a lilac ground. The isthmus is similar in colour, and rather 
shorter than in many of the granulosa hybrids. 

Cattleya X iridescens. — A striking Cattleya, of which a group of 
seven plants was exhibited by Messrs. Stanley & Co. at the R.H.S. meeting 
held on April 14th last. It is said to have been raised from C. bicolor ? and 
C* Eldorado $ , and is comparable with C. X Iris in general character. 
It is most like C. bicolor in shape, but larger, and the petals about twice as 
broad, while the lip is much dilated and distinctly crenulate or denticulate 
in front, with infolded side lobes about half as long as the column, and a 
long, deep yellow isthmus. The colour is surprisingly variable, for in three 
of the seedlings the sepals and petals were deep yellow, in two others 
distinctly purple, while in the remaining two they were orange-buff, with a 
suffusion of salmon colour. The front lobe of the lip is bright purple, in 
some cases with a whitish margin, in others wholly violet-purple. Four of 
the forms have been sent by Messrs. Stanley, but we saw the others. It is 
a very beautiful and variable hybrid, and Messrs. Stanley are confident that 
the parentage has been correctly recorded. The variety splendens had light 
yellow sepals and petals, with a suffusion of rose, and the front lobe of the 
lip was marbled with purple on a lighter ground and the margin nearly 
white. 

ANGULOA UNIFLORA AND A. EBURNEA. 
Ax interesting Anguloa was exhibited at the R.H.S. meeting held on August 
31st last by Mr. H. A. Tracy, of Twickenham, which was said to have been 
imported from Peru, and the Orchid Committee suggested that it was 
probably identical with that on which Ruiz and Pavon founded the genus. 
It was described as far superior to the smaller and more angular form 
generally seen in cultivation ; the flower ivory white, of wax-like substance, 
and thelabellum spotted with red in the interior (Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 
174). I saw the plant and suggested that it was A. eburnea, and now that 
Mr. Tracy has sent the flower to Kew the identification can be confirmed. 
It is said to have been imported from Moyombamba by Mr. Kromer, 
together with Cattleya Rex. 

Anguloa eburnea was figured in the Orchid Album in 1884 (iii. t. 133), as 
an exceedingly rare and very distinct species, which had been received from 
the collection of Sir Trevor Lawrence. It was said to be a native of 
Colombia. It appears to have been first described in 1868 {Will. Orch. Gt. 
Man., ed. 3, p. 67). The details of the lip are not shown in the figure, but 
fortunately a flower was drawn by Mr. Day in August, 1883, with full 
analytical details {Orch. Draw., xxxvii. t. 49). Mr. Day remarked: "This 
is a very rare species. I once had a single plant. Mr. B. S. Williams sent 
me this flower which he received from Sir Trevor Lawrence for the Orchid 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 317 

Album." In July, 1891, Messrs. Sander sent to Kew for determination a 
flower which was said to have appeared in the collection of Mr. R. H. 
Measures, of Streatham, in an importation of A. Ruckeri, and two years 
later another came from M. A. Van Imschoot, of Mont St. Amand, Ghent, 
without record of origin ; while in September, 1894, another flower came 
from Messrs. Sander, from a plant said to have been received from Peru. 
All these proved to be the true A. eburnea, and the flower now sent by 
Mr. Tracy is identical. 

Anguloa uniflora, the original species of the genus, was described and 
figured by Ruiz and Pavon in 1794 (Fl. Peruv. ctChil. Prodr., p. 118, t. 26), 
from materials collected by them during their mission to Peru about 1777- 
1780. It is described as occurring at Muna and Chinchao, and profusely in 
the district of Tarma, and Messrs. Veitch remark that it was found at the 
first-mentioned locality (about lat. io° S.) by their collector, Walter Davis, 
associated with Cypripedium caudatum, growing anion- the scrub and long 
bushes, generally in partial shade. 

In 1844 a plant was figured by Lindley under the name of Anguloa 
uniflora (Dot. Reg., xxx. t. 60), which had flowered in the collection of Mr. 
G. Barker, of Birmingham, in April of that year. It is said to have been 
received among Colombian collections from Linden. This is the plant 
which has ever since borne the name of A. uniflora in gardens, but a 
comparison with the original figure of Ruiz and Pavon (above cited) shows 
marked discrepancies. In fact A. eburnea is the original A. uniflora, Ruiz 
and Pavon, for the globose shape, broad segments, ovate front lobe of the 
lip, and acute lobes of the rostellum are unmistakable. The garden plant 
may in future be called A. virginalis, Linden, which is its earliest 
unappropriated name. R. A. R. 

ORCHIDS IN SEASON. 
Several handsome flowers are sent from the collection of H. S. Goodson, 
Esq., Fairlawn, Putney, by Mr. Day. Two forms of Cattleya X Adula 
(bicolor X Hardyana) show great diversity in colour. One called Goodson's 
variety has light greenish yellow sepals and petals, and a brilliant violet-rose 
lip, while in that called var. Bronze Wing the sepals and petals may be 
described as salmon-rose, and the lip is rather larger and more crimson in 
colour. Both are very beautiful and show a considerable general 
resemblance to C. X Iris. A fine hybrid from Cattleya Bowringiana X 
granulosa will be a form of C. X Hopkinsii {Orchid Stud-Book, p. 262), and 
has bright mauve-purple sepals and petals, most resembling those of the 
second parent in shape, while the lip is strongly three-lobed, with infolded 
white side lobes, a bright purple front lobe, with darker veins, and a trace 
of buff on the sides of the isthmus. The other is said to be a hybrid from 
Cattleya Leopoldi and Brassavola Digbyana, and thus should be a form of 



3 i 8 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [October, 1909. 

Brassocattleya Praetii. It is much like a purple form of B.-c. Pluto, 
having bronzy purple sepals and petals, and a strongly three-lobed lip, with 
infolded, acute, lilac side lobes, tipped with purple, and a broad, bright 
purple, fringed front lobe ; the isthmus also being purple and about as 
broad as long. Shortly afterwards came a magnificent form of Cattleya X 
Iris, called var. King Edward VII. , having reddish buff sepals and petals, 
the latter over two inches broad, and the front lobe of the lip very undulate, 
rich carmine-purple, and 2$ inches broad, while the short side lobes are 
salmon-coloured. Mr. Day considers it to be the most beautiful that he 
has ever seen. There are also good flowers of C. Hardyana, X Maroni, X 
Pittiana, and Laeliocattleya bletchleyensis. 

A flower of the handsome Sophrocattleya warnhamensis atropurpurea is 
sent from the collection of R. G. Thwaites, Esq., of Streatham. It 
measures over four inches in diameter across the petals, and the colour is 
dark crimson-purple with a yellow throat to the lip. The front lobe is 
elliptical-oblong, and somewhat undulated. A curious peloriate form of 
Odontoglossum crispum is also sent in which the sepals are of the same 
shape as the petals, and just as strongly crisped, while the lateral pair have 
a broad median yellow line on the basal half, with a few additional lines 
and traces of brown spots on the inner basal angles, the colour and 
markings resembling those of the crest of the lip. Cattleya X Adula var. 
Thwaitesii is a very distinct and brilliant form, having rose-purple sepals 
and petals, the latter if inches broad, and recalling the C. x Hardyana 
parent in shape, and the front lobe of the lip intense purple-crimson, two 
inches broad, with a very short isthmus, and the side lobes bright rose. 

Several interesting Orchids are sent from the collection of His Honour, 
Judge Philbrick, K.C., Bodorgan House, Bournemouth. There is a good, 
brightly-coloured form of Laeliocattleya elegans, an inflorescence of 
Odontoglossum X Andersonianum, and a fine flower of Phragmopedilum 
X grande atratum, the latter from a plant bearing three spikes, which has 
been in bloom for six weeks. The others are three Paphiopedilums of 
unknown parentage, but the best is clearly a hybrid of P. Stonei, while the 
spotted dorsal sepal and green leaves indicate something containing P- 
insigne, possibly X Leeanum, which would make it a form of P. X 
Harveyanum. Another may be a form of P. X Paulii, as it seems to 
combine the characters of P. X Harrisianum and P. X selligerum, while 
the third looks like a hybrid of Rothschildianum, though we cannot suggest 
the second parent. There are too many hybrids without either name or 
record of parentage. Fine flowers of P. X Gowerianum and var. magnificum 
are also sent, with a richly-coloured P. X selligerum majus, and a bloom of 
Cattleya granulosa. 

A pretty rose-purple Laeliocattleya is sent from the collection of 



October, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 319 

E. F. Clark, Esq., Chamonix, Teignmouth, which Mr. Clark states is from 
a cross made a few years ago from Cattleya Gaskclliana X Laelia X Iona. 
It is about intermediate in size and shape, and has rose-purple sepals and 
petals, and a dark purple lip, without any yellow in the throat, in which 
respect it most resembles the pollen parent. It flowers from the young 
growth without a sheath, like the hybrids of Laelia pumila and L. Dayana, 
a character which Mr. Clark has noticed as extending to the second 
generation where these parents are only represented to the amount of one- 
fourth. One other hybrid is recorded from Lama Iona, namely, Laslio- 
cattleya Lucasii, of which Cattleya Warscewiczii was the other parent. 

A good flower of Paphiopedilum X tonso-superbiens is sent from the 
collection of R. Gallsworthy, Esq., of Harrogate. It is of good shape, and 
has a broadly ovate, white dorsal sepal, closely veined with green, while the 
petals are broad and flat, ciliate, and about half as much spotted as in P. 
superbiens, but with rather larger spots. It was purchased as " tonsum X 
Veitchii," hence must be referred to the above. 

NOTES. 

Two meetings of the Royal Horticultural Society will be held at the 
Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, during October, 
on the 12th and 26th, when the Orchid Committee will meet at the usual 
hour, 12 o'clock noon. 

The Manchester and North of England Orchid Society will hold 
meetings at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on October 7th and 21st. 
The Committee meets at noon, and the exhibits are open to inspection 
from 1 to 4 p.m. The following meeting is fixed for November 4th. 

Messrs. Moore, Ltd., Orchid Importers, Rawdon, Yorks, announce that 
on and after October 1st, 1909, the name of their firm will be changed to 
that of the Principals who have controlled the business for the past few 
years, namely, Messrs. Mansell & Hatcher, Ltd. 

The Report of the R.H.S. Scientific Committee for August 31st contains 
the following Orchid notes :— 

Cypripedium Tir.HTicrM. — This is one of the commonest herbaceous 
plants in open places at. an altitude of 11,500 to 12,000 feet. A photograph 
was shown in an interesting series of Chinese photographs by Mr. E. H. 
Wilson. 

Malformed Cypripedium.— Mr. R. W. Rickards, of Usk Priory, sent 
a flower of Cypripedium insigne in which the two lateral petals had a slight 
tendency towards the form of the lip, and the bract was green and leathery 
instead of membranous. 



THE ORCFIID A'/! JEW. 



ORCHID PORTRAITS, 



Angr^cum Kotschyi. — Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. pp. 206, 221, fig. 94. 

ClRRHOPETALUM PULCHRUM. — JoUYIl. Hort., I909, ii. p. 219, with fig. 

Cypripedium acaule. — Gard. Chron., 1909, p. 209, fig. 87. 

Cypripedium X A. de Lairesse. — Gard. Mag., 1909, pp. 706, 707, 
with fig. 

Cypripedium Calceolus. — Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 210, fig. 88. 

Cypripedium californicum. — Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 211, fig. 89. 

Cypripedium macranthum.— Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 212, fig. 90. 

Dendrobium acuminatum. —Joum. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 291, with fig. 

Disa X Luna. — Joum. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 267, with fig. 

L^eliocattleya X Golden Oriole, Westonbirt var. — Joum. Hort., 
1909, ii. p. 315, with fig. 

Megaclinium purpureorachis, Wildem. — Bot. Mag., t. 8273. 

Odontoglossum X Goodsoni. —Joum. Hort., 1909, ii. p. 243, with fig. 

Odontoglossum percultum. — Gard. Chron., 1909, ii. p. 197, fig. 76. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

[Orchids are named and questions answered here as far as possible. Cor 
requested to give the native country or paiuuta-;, of plants sent. An addrk.ssed f> 
sent if a reply by ; I Y postcards should be used). Subjects o t 

will be dealt with in the body of the work]. 

G. P.— The disease on Dendrobium Wardianum and thyrsiflorum senl 
known "spot," which is generally believed to be caused by too much m< 
falling temperature. Drip from the roof \n cold weather is a fruitful source < 
may be the cause in your case, for in the leaves of D. thyrsiflorum the inju 
cases confined to the upper surface, and your treatment seems correct, w 
any trace of a parasitic fungus. The injury is of course done before any 
appears. It is curious that the spot has not appeared in former years. 

T. Y.— The Formosan Dendrobium sent belongs to the section Strongyle, but is 
yet identified. 

O. N. W.— Cirrhica dependens, Rchb. f. 

B.— We regret that we cannot name hybrids of which no clue to the parentag 
given, though, of course, someot the common kinds can often be recognised. In the ( 
of plants sent for determination a brief statement of the history should always be given 
Catasetum tabulare Lindl. 5. Epic 

J. G., and several others.— Unavoidably postponed till next month, 
aphs received with thanks.--E. M., H. S. G., H. J. C. 



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NOVEMBER, 1909. [No. 203. 

THE 



ORCHID REVIEW: 

Hn 3Iiusratet> 3ournal of ©rcbifcolO0\> 



Amateur's Collection ... $.n) Orchid Portraits ... : 

Answers to Correspondents 352 Orchids in season 3 

Calendar of Operations for November -..331 Saccolabium penangianum \ 

CirrhopetalumornatissimumandC. Mannii 335 Societies ... ', 

Lytham Hall Collection 225 Manchester and North of England Orchid ^ 

Dendrobium muricatum var. munificum ... 347 Sophronitis granditiora as a parent ... 3 

Notes 351 ; Sophrocattleya Dons til;. 25) 1 

•Odontoglossum distans 334 Sophrocattleya Thwaitesii (fig. 24) .... j 

Odontoglossum X percultum (fig. 27) ..-337 Species k -.only ... : 

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THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



NOVEMBER, 



SOPHRON1TIS GRANDIFLORA AS A PARENT. 
By J. M. Black. 
On glancing over the field covered by intercrossing the genus Cattleya with 
its near allies, Laelia, Brassavola, Epidendrum and Sophronitis, and the 
hybrid genera formed, namely Brassocattleya, Epicattleya, &c, the supreme 
importance of the genus Sophronitis will be at once apparent. If one runs 
the mind over all the known species of Cattleya and Lselia — by far the most 
.important genera florally— one cannot help being struck with the uniformity 
of colour, or the blending of tint, that one finds. With the exception of 
the smaller-flowered Lselias, such as cinnabarina, flava and harpophylla, 
which are more or less self-coloured flowers of different shades of yellow, 
nearly all the Cattleyas and Lselias give various shades of rose, purple, 
magenta and yellow, but no scarlet; and if one is a hybridist of lengthy 
experience and with some ambition, the material to hand in these two genera, 
with the Brassavolas thrown in, will seem hardly sufficient in view of the 
iact that nearly all the primary combinations possible have already been 
made, and sufficient ground has been covered with combinations of these 
.first crosses to indicate certain limitations with them. 

If one combines a desire for new hybrids with the intention that they 
.shall be not only new and beautiful, but have a character of their own and a 
utilitarian value — as distinct from mere freak hybrids — then the scarlet 
:Sophronitis grandiflora loudly commends itself. Of all the long list of 
Cattleya and Lselia hybrids the best, taken collectively, are those which have 
been derived from C. Dowiana, whether primarily or secondarily, as witness 
.Brassocattleya Leemanniae, C. x Hardyana, C. X Raphaeliae, C. X 
Octavia, Sophrocattleya Doris, S.-c. Blackii, and the wonderful Sophro- 
catlaelia Marathon var. Vesuvius, to mention a few that occur quickly to the 
mind. These hybrids are generally distinct, and convey immediately the 
imprint of the C. Dowiana. That there is a wide field and abundant scope 
to keep on improving by selecting existing hybrids for judicious crossing 
together is very evident, and it is along these lines that hybridists must now 
work, achieving no doubt in future years very wonderful and unlooked-for 
.results, and in Sophronitis grandiflora we have a factor which offers infinite 



THE ORCHIL) REVIEW. 



[Xc 






possibilities to the Cattleya hybridist. It is impossible to overrate the 
importance of C. Dowiana and S. grandiflora, for the latter, although not 
large, has a new and intense colour, and the shape is good. 

This sounds as though S. grandiflora had been but recently 
discovered and had never been attempted by the hybridist, but although 
Sophronitis has always been available, and the first hybrid from it,, namely 
Sophrocattleya Batemaniana, appeared in 1886, it has perhaps never yet 
been generally taken in hand. True, a few have taken it up, and worked 
pretty hard at it, but it has not been work that has given a generous return 






> 



Fig. 24. .Sophrocattleya Thwaitesii. 

(Sepals and petals carmine red ; lip rich, soft yellow, with bright 






:.1 P -. 



) follow 



Mill- 'I' i 



turned aside from it 
les that yielded a fuller 



Sophronitis 



as far as quantity is concern 
disheartened at the small return 

There are, however, now some forty-eight hybrids ha 
grandiflora in some proportion in their composition, quite sufficient, one 
would say, to make their influence felt and give data galore upon which to 
appraise their possibilities in the future. I have made a list of all the 
existing flowered Sophronitis hybrids, and at first sight, and taken in the 
aggregate, the result, or effect, is undeniably disappointing, but there are 






THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



3V> 



two or three such glorious exceptions that one becomes quite reconciled, 
and a further and careful analysis explains why, in the aggregate, they are 
disappointing. 

I shall come back presently to that list, and will, in the meantime, set 
forth the reasons, as they appear to me, why it is not more prepossessing. 
Sophronitis has, in comparison to any Cattleya of the labiata group — the 
group which contains the largest and best flowers — a small flower, and 
relatively a small column. Therefore the same hypothesis which applies to 
Brassavola Digbyana as a seed-bearer applies here— the pollen tubes of the 




smaller flowers fail to reach the ovary of the larger one, or succeed in 
reaching those ovules only which are immediately at the base of the column. 
My own experience is that a large percentage of the pods of these Cattleyas 
come off quite empty or contain no fertile seed. The consequence is that 
the operator in these cases is thrown back upon the Sophronitis itself as 
the seed-bearer, and all who have handled this seed will agree with me that 
it is so small, of such poor quality and so uncertain that an infinitude of 



3 2 4 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

patience and care must be applied in manipulating it ; and if to these two 
-virtuous assets an illusive and phantom-like intervention known as good 
luck lends its assistance a few seedlings may be the result, which will, in a 
year or two, be large enough to count. 

On the other hand, Cattleyas of the long-bulbed group, with their smaller 
(and poorer) flowers and shorter columns, lend themselves more readily to 
foe seed-bearers, both when crossed with the pollen of Sophronitis pure or 
when used with the pollen of a secondary Sophronitis hybrid, for these 
latter are only one degree removed from the Sophronitis in their intract- 
ability as seed-bearers. The result is that while Sophrocattleyas having 
for parents C. Bowringiana, Harrisoniana, intermedia, Leopoldi, Loddigesii, 
and amethystoglossa are fairly well known, and have been for some years 
catalogued, such later productions, of a vastly different caste, as the 
Sophrocattleyas having Dowiana, Mendelii, or X Hardyana for the other 
parent are comparatively little known and have hardly yet acquired the 
renommee that their great beauty, their rarity and their infinite possibilities 
as future parents warrant. Sophrocattleya Imperatrix (C. Mossiae ? X S. 
grandiflora <J ) must be included among the latter. This appeared as long ago 
as 1899, raised by Messrs. Veitch, and found its way into the collection of 
Baron Sir H. Schroder, the Dell, Egham. It was the only seedling raised, 
and remains still a perfectly unique plant. 

Among Sophrolaelias we find some dearth of really fine things— fine in 
the sense that one would expect from Sophronitis grandiflora. All, how- 
ever, are charming flowers, and particularly fine when well grown are S.-l, 
Orpetiana, S.-l. heatonensis and S.-l. Gratrixiae. 

Among the secondary Sophronitis hybrids, i.e., where a Sophronitis 
hybrid has been used as one of the parents, I find that out of the thirteen 
■existing Sophrocatlaelias, one or other of the Sophrolaelias has been used ten 
times, and a Sophrocattleya only three (and these long-bulbed Cattleya 
crosses), so that there is a predominance throughout of Laelia and the long- 
bulbed section of Cattleya. The most successful among these secondary 
hybrids is Sophrocatlaalia Marathon, already mentioned, the variety 
Vesuvius being one of the most lovely of the whole group. It stands out as 
an inspiration for further and repeated effort. This hybrid is between S.-l. 
Psyche and C. X Frederickiae, and contains consequently equal parts of L. 
cinnabarina, S. grandiflora, C. Mossiae and C. Dowiana. This I consider 
one of Mr. Charlesworth's most notable triumphs. It will be quite unneces- 
sary for me to go further into the secondaries, as I am appending, as far as 
I know, a complete list of them, and students will see at a glance what has 
so far been produced. I am indebted to the catalogue of Messrs. Charles- 
worth for a few names that I have failed to find elsewhere, and to this firm 
is due the credit of having largely enriched this group by their many fine 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 325 

productions. It once occurred to me to give a detailed list of all the raisers,, 
but second thoughts convinced me that this was quite unnecessary with the 
Orchid Stud-Book to hand, and in anticipation of future supplements with 
careful records, but I would like to pay a tribute to Wilson Potter, Esq.. 
(and his erstwhile gardener, Mr. W. H. Young), whose collection was dis- 
persed a year or two ago. Mr. Potter was keenly interested in this section, 
and spent some ten years at Elmwood, Park Road, Croydon, persevering 
with Sophronitis seedlings, and at his sale a good number were scattered 
among different collections. S. grandiflora X C. X Whiteleyae and S. g. 
X C. Percivaliana were two of the best, and they will be both new and, I 
prophesy, very fine. 

We may safely leave the results to speak for those who are still actively 
engaged in the work. 

(To be concluded.) 



THE LYTHAM HALL COLLECTION. 

Rarely has it been our pleasure to visit a collection of Orchids that has 
come so rapidly to the fore as this extremely interesting one, situated on the 
Lancashire coast and formed by the intrepid traveller and explorer, J. Talbot 
Clifton, Esq. Most of the Orchid collections round Manchester, and the other 
busy manufacturing centres of Lancashire, are well known to the majority of 
enthusiasts in this country, either from personal visits or through the 
medium of gardening literature. These may be termed " speciality " 
collections, the owners generally confining their tastes and pockets to one 
or two of the popular genera, such as Cypripedium, Odontoglossum and the 
Cattleya family. 

At Lytham Hall one's attention is drawn to the fact that the owner 
enjoys a very catholic taste, for the less showy and often diminutive and 
insignificant kinds receive quite as much attention and appreciation as the 
more stately species. And an enthusiast may here linger over and admire 
—providing he remembered to bring his pocket microscope with him— 
many of the intensely beautiful little gems of the Orchid world. 

Mr. Clifton is a gentleman of widely-travelled experience in almost every 
corner of the civilised world, and has hunted big game in Russia, Siberia 
and the Rockies. He lived six months with Esquimaux in order to secure a 
specimen of the extremely rare Musk Ox (Ovis Clifton ii), which he very 
generously and patriotically presented to the British Museum, and is known 
now as " Clifton's Big Horn," from the valley of the Lena. And many 
other splendid trophies he has brought and added to a very interesting 
private museum at Lytham Hall. In his wanderings in Manchuria he 
kindly undertook the duties of war correspondent to one of the London 



326 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909 

dailies during the Russo-Japanese War, which his knowledge of the two 
languages specially qualified him for. 

To a gentleman who has experienced an adventurous and exciting life 
such as this, we should think that the pleasure derived from his latest 
hobby must come as a splendid relaxation, and one which very few are 
qualified to enjoy to the same degree ; and it is not surprising that when 
Mr. Clifton decided to make a collection of Orchids he should have put 
into it some of the energy which has made his reputation as a big game hunter. 
In the early spring of this year he started on an Orchid-hunting expedi- 
tion in the East, accompanied by Mrs. Clifton, who is a very keen Orchidist. 
They visited Burma, Ceylon, the Philippines and Andaman Isles, Java and 
other places, managing to secure many rare and interesting plants, which 
were either sent or brought home by themselves. 

To find accommodation and to give the correct treatment for the 
successful cultivation of the great number of species got together at Lytham 
Hall, it has been found necessary to remodel many of the old glass structures. 
This has been done most thoroughly ; also new houses have been added from 
the best designs procurable from sources of experience ; in fact, no expense 
has been spared to provide suitable accommodation for the requirements of 
each important section. 

One of the first houses which Mr. Clifton is naturally proud to take his 
visitors into contains many of the rare and botanical specimens which he 
has collected himself. Here we noticed a magnificent mass of Vanda 
Roxburghii, which should delight the eye of its fortunate possessor when it 
flowers, and grand specimens of Angraecum sesquipedale showing a great 
profusion of flower spikes. 

The rare Vanda Dearei is in fine health, and we saw a nice plant of 
Aerides Micholitzii, a fine healthy piece of the albino variety of Vanda 
suavis, and the chaste Saccolabium violaceum Harrisonianum in flower. 
Grammatophyllum scriptum is said to be the only plant in cultivation. 
There were also Eriopsis biloba, Sarcochilus Calceolus, a good plant of 
Eulophiella Elizabethan, some well-grown Catasetums, including C. Brandtiae, 
C. fimbriatum in flower, C. gnomus, and C. X splendens Lindenii. The 
assortment of Angrsecums is specially large, including such rare ones as A. 
Rothschildianum, A. caffrum, A. Kotschyanum, A. caudatum, A. Buyssoni, 
A. Eichlerianum, and another species which has not yet been identified and 
promises to be quite new. Mormodes pardinum was noticed to be doing 
exceptionally well, as also were several species of Aerides, such as A. 
maculosum, roseum, crispum, &c. 

In another division were to be found growing equally well many of the 
Ccelogynes, including such rare ones as C. Mayeriana, C. Rhodeana, C. 
Rochussenii, C. Veitchii in flower, and some other recently imported species. 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



32 7 



In another house our notice was drawn to a very complete collection 
•of Dendrobiums, about 140 species and varieties, which Mr. Clifton sent 
home himself from the East. Here also we noticed many varieties of 
BulbophylJum", Cirrhopetalum, Bollea, Pescatorea, Stanhopea, Xylobium 
•leontoglossum, &c, &c, doing well, and a good plant of Cynorchis X 
kewensis in flower. 

The Cattleya and Laeliocattleya hybrids are- recognized as extremely 
useful plants for giving a continuous display of flowers throughout the year. 
In the house set apart for these we noticed C. X Mantinii in flower; also 
several distinct varieties of C. X Iris and C. X Maroni, Laeliocattleya 
■Gottoiana, and the gorgeous Brassocattleya Leemannise. An! the species 
are not neglected, for we found good and well-grown plants of many of the 
albinos, such as C. Mossias Wageneri, C. M. Reineckeana, C. Gaskelliana 
alba, C. intermedia alba, and others. 

Odontoglossums are well represented in another house, the decorative 
and showy hybrids of recent introduction finding most favour, although 
several hundreds of a good type of O. crispum were doing equally well and 
showing many strong flower spikes. Of the plants in flower here the most 
conspicuous were O. X Phoebe, O. X loochristiense, a very distinct variety, 
O. x Hallio-crispum, O. X warnhamiense, O. X ardentissimum, and O. X 
Rolfeae. Disa polygonoides was showing a very strong flower spike, and 
fine plants of D. grandiflora giving evidence of having flowered well. 

In another cool division a very complete collection of Masdevallias is 
staged and is doing remarkably well. Here we found the curious Pleuro- 
thallis astrophora in flower, and the bright purple-flowered Oncidium 
Retemeyerianum. Lycastes were well represented, many of the choicer 
species and hybrids being included, such as L. X Tunstillii, L. trifoliata, 
L. X Balliae, &c, as well as fine selected varieties of L. Skinneri. 
•Cymbidiums were also looking happy, and one immense specimen of C. 
Lowianum should present a fine spectacle when in flower next spring. 
Scaphosepalum anchoriferum was here in flower with its curious little 
-flowers disposed upside-down on the spike. 

In another house, separated from the main block, which we were informed 
had formerly been used for melon growing, but with a very few alterations, 
was found to be exact 1 }- suited for the cultivation of Phalaenopsis, we found 
what must be called a feature of the Lvtham Hall collection. Most of the 



species of tins interesting genus are represe 



th ; - 



wonderful lot of plants, in perfect condition and growing as luxuria 
venture to think, as any that Mr. Clifton has had the pleasure of s 
their native habitats. We had pointed out to us a small consign me 
amabilis which the owner brought home with him. These ha 
•established in pans, and in many instances had strong flower spikes 



323 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



'Xn 



IOC) 



well advanced, though only six weeks have elapsed since they arrived in 
England; proof sufficient that the house will suit Phalaenopsis, we think! 
Among the choicer species and varieties are good pieces of P. X casta, 
P. X intermedia Portei, P. gloriosa, P. fasciata, P. sumatrana, the " Coundon 
Court " variety of P. Sanderiana, P. amabilis, Kinleside's variety, &c. In 
the same house we noticed B ulbophyllum virescens doing well ; also 
the wonderfully pretty Cirrhopetalum pulchrum var. Cliftoni, which 




Fig. 26. ClKRHOPETALUM PULCHRUM VAR. CLIFTONI. 

received a First-class Certificate at the Horticultural Hall a few 
weeks ago. 

From such a choice and interesting collection of plants, many of which 
considerations of space prevent us noting here, it is not surprising to find 
it possible for Mr. Clifton to send the remarkably fine groups which his able 
gardener, Mr. J. Float, has staged at the fortnightly meetings of the 
Manchester and North of England Orchid Society of late, and greater 
things may be expected in the future. 

Quercus. 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 329 

THE AMATEUR'S COLLECTION. 

The question what to grow will depend very largely upon the accommoda- 
tion at hand, and the price one is prepared to pay. Importations of the 
ever-popular Odontoglossum crispum and other species are frequently 
arriving, and are obtainable at a cheap rate, and with proper care soon 
establish themselves. The flowering of a batch of imported O. crispum is 
always an interesting matter, for no one can tell what surprises are in store. 
A few natural hybrids usually appear, and occasionally examples of the 
choice blotched varieties of O. crispum which are so highly prized. Even 
the white and rosy forms vary considerably, and material for selection is 
immediately available. Examples of O. Pescatorei, triumphans, luteo- 
purpureum, Hallii, cirrhosum, Harryanum, Edwardii and a few others 
should also be included, with a few of the Mexican species, as O. Rossii. 
Cervantesii, maculatum, &c, the smaller being suitable for growing in 
hanging pans. The brilliant Cochlioda Ncetzliana, C. vulcanica and Ada 
aurantiaca should also be included, and opportunities often occur for adding 
a few other species and some of the garden hybrids which are now becoming 
common. There is abundant material to select from. 

Of the Cypripedes a wealth of material is available, and the popular C- 
insigne and its hybrids are amongst the very best of autumn-flowering 
plants, and very easy to grow. C. insigne is very variable, and among 
importations made during recent years numerous handsomely-blotched forms 
have appeared, as well as several yellow varieties. Imported plants soon 
establish themselves, and afterwards may be relied upon to flower annually. 
C. X Leeanum, x nitens, X Arthurianum and other of its hybrids are 
equally floriferous and will form the nucleus of a very useful collection. 

Dendrobium nobile, D. Wardianum and other species can be obtained 
as imported plants at the proper season, also various species of Cattleyaand 
Lselia, while flowered and unflowered hybrids are abundant and cheap. 
Numerous other things can be obtained as established or semi-established 
plants. The beautiful Ccelogyne cristata and its varieties are also easily 
obtainable, so that there is ample material to select from. The rarer and 
more expensive varieties may be added as circumstances permit, and when 
experience has been gained in growing the common kinds. 

The Intermediate house is still the gayest of the three divisions, and the 
fine old Cattleya labiata has already commenced its annual display, also 
the well-known autumn-flowering C. Bowringiana, while the hybrids 
raised from them are both numerous and very beautiful, especially those in 
which C. Dowiana aurea is concerned. Lselia Perrinii is also flowering 
well, and this is a species from which several very beautiful hybrids have 
been derived. Lajlia autumnalis and L. anceps are producing fine spikes, 



33° THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

and can usually be relied on to make a good display, though in urban 
districts the flowers are sometimes much injured by fogs. Oncidium crispum 
and others of this section are flowering well, and some of those mentioned 
last month are still good. The genus includes some fine autumn-flowering 
species. Cypripedes are pushing up numerous sturdy scapes, both here and 
in the Cool .house, and a few are already in bloom, prominent among them 
being the dainty C. Fairrieanum, which is now making a good show. It 
grows and flowers freely in this house, and it becomes increasingly difficult 
to understand why the original importations should have so nearly died out. 
C. purpuratum is also flowering well. Vanda Kimballiana and V. ccerulea 
are making a fine display, while Sophronitis grandiflora is also flowering 
freely, and is quite indispensable. 

In the Cool house a few Odontoglossums are in bloom, but the majority 
are now growing and rooting freely. They should be encouraged as much as 
possible, for strong growths will produce strong spikes later on. A moist 
genial atmosphere, with plenty of light and air, should be secured, though 
cold draughts must be avoided, as well as anything like a hot dry atmosphere. 
The cool-growing Cypripedes, as C. insigne and its varieties and hybrids 
will soon be in bloom, and will keep up a supply of flowers for weeks. 

In the Warm house, plants of the striking and very fragrant Cycnoches 
chlorochilon are flowering well, with Vanda suavis, the beautiful Dendrobium 
Phalaenopsis and formosum, and some of the warm-growing Cypripedes, but 
the show of bloom in this house is not great just now. 

Winter treatment will now be the order of the day, and the great thing 
will be to keep the temperatures and atmospheres right. There are a few 
Cool house species which thrive best in intermediate temperature during the 
winter, as the Chimaera section of Masdevallia, and if not already done these 
should now be moved to the Intermediate house. Other species which are 
actively growing during the winter are often benefited by being removed to 
a slightly warmer house. Great care must be exercised in watering during 
the winter months, for evaporation is now reduced to a minimum, and the 
compost takes a long time to dry out. 

Small Orchid Houses. — We have received a very interesting letter 
from a " Constant Subscriber " in Lancashire, respecting a note on small 
Orchid houses which appeared at page 168. He remarks : " I have two small 
houses, one 16 by 8 by 8 ft., which I made myself throughout, and which 
will bear inspection, although I have never had an hour's lesson from any- 
one. The other is 7 by 8 by 8 ft., which I bought, but I have made a new 
top in sections. I also fitted the boiler and pipes for heating, and the lath 
blinds for shading. These two houses contain about 350 Orchids of a mixed 
collection." The letter concludes with a cordial invitation to inspect the 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 331 

collection when next we are in the district. We hope to see it some day. 
Meantime we thank our correspondent for his remarks as to the value of the 
Review, and are very glad that he finds it so useful. 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR NOVEMBER. 

By W. J. Morgan, Rann Lea Gardens, Rainhill, Lanes. 
Cypripediums will be making a fine show during this month, and if the 
flowers are well cared for will continue good far into December. Where a 
house cannot be set apart for them while they are in bloom, the houses in 
which they are placed should be kept slightly drier, or the flowers soon go 
thin, and the more delicate will soon spot. It is worth the trouble to stage 
the plants which are in bloom by themselves in a separate house, leaving 
those that are growing in a house by themselves. Cypripediums do not 
appeal to everyone, when seen flowering in the growing houses dotted about 
singly, but when they are massed and nicely staged with ferns and other 
foliage plants the endless variety is wonderful, and the varieties can be 
more easily distinguished. It is also much easier to compare varieties than 
when they are scattered about the houses. Cypripediums, unlike most 
Orchids, must not be dried off when in bloom. Watering must still be 
•carefully attended to, and a plant should never be allowed to get dust dry, 
or it will soon get into a poor state, and will take a lot of pulling round 
again. When the leaves are allowed to shrivel thrip will soon make head- 
way, and if not checked will spoil the whole of the young leaves. Where a 
house is used for flowering they can all be kept at a temperature of 55 at 
night, and 6o° as a day average, provided of course that the house is not too 
heavily charged with moisture. The house should be ventilated on every 
favourable day. These temperatures will also suit Cattleyas, Odonto- 
glossums, Oncidiums, &c, when in flower, and the flowers will last much 

Dendrobiums of practically all the spring flowering section will now 
have finished their growths, and will need very careful watering until they 
are again in their growing quarters. D. aureum and its hybrids will be 
pushing their buds up, but should still be kept in the Cool house until the 
buds are well advanced. Then they can be put in a warmer house if wanted 
for early flowering. If they are placed in strong heat before the buds are 
well advanced, these will in most cases turn yellow and drop, and the plant 
will go into growth. D. nobile, D. Wardianum and their hybrids should 
be kept as dry as possible without shrivelling the bulbs, to prevent them 
from starting into growth. D. thyrsiflorum and densiflorum should also be 
given similar treatment. Keep the glass clean to let them have as much 
light as possible, and ventilate whenever the outside conditions will allow. 
These should be given a temperature of 55 at night and 6o° by day. A 



33» THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

good syringing on a nice day will do a lot more good than watering them 
too often at the roots, and the house will soon dry again if a nice day is 
chosen when the ventilators can be used. D. Dalhousieanum, fimbriatum, 
Gibsoni and others of this section must not be given lower than Cattleya 
house temperature if good results are to be obtained. These are better 
given stove treatment until they have finished growing, when they can be 
removed to the Cattleya house or a similar temperature. 

Dendrobium Dearei which was imported in the spring and potted up 
should now be making fine growths. Those which were potted in very 
small pots and have overgrown them should be shifted into larger pots as 
soon as they make new roots. A mixture of Osmunda fibre and leaves 
should be used, with plenty of crushed crocks to keep it porous, as this 
species likes plenty of water during its growing season. When the plants 
are strong they are almost always in bloom, and, like all white flowers, are 
always admired, and are very useful for buttonholes. Many of the imported 
bulbs will push flower spikes. These species should be given warm treat- 
ment, and not too much sun. The shady end of the Stove seems to suit 
them better than a more sunny position. 

Dendrobium Phal^enopsis and D. formosum, as they finish flowering, 
can be given a slightly lower temperature. A sunny position in the Cattleya 
house suits them during the winter, and only sufficient water should be given 
to keep the bulbs plump. D. Jamesianum and infundibulum are two very 
beautiful species which often receive Cool house treatment, but I find that 
they do much better in a temperature of 6o° as an average, both during 
their growing and resting season, with plenty of sun at all times. They 
then make fine growths, and I find that the leaves do not spot. Do not 
overpot them, as they are small rooting varieties. They are irregular in 
blooming, and when the plants are strong, their season of flowering is often 
extended over several months. The flowers are large, and make a fine 
show, as the plants are evergreen and the flowers look well against the dark 
green foliage. They should not be dried quite so much as the D. nobile 
section, as if the bulbs are allowed to shrivel much they soon get into bad 
health. 

Cattleyas and L^elias. — The species will nearly all have finished 
their growths, and must be very carefully watered for some time. Do not 
water a plant unless it really wants it ; then give it a good watering. Do 
not be tempted when going through the plants to water half dry plants ; if 
they are looked over for water twice a week now it will be sufficient, and 
the temptation of watering half-dry plants will not be so great. If they are 
not dry leave them until the next watering, and they will take no harm ; in 
fact, it will rather benefit them. A Cattleya or Laelia which is kept on the 
dry side after it has completed its growth will make many more roots than 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 333 

a plant which is never given a chance to become dry, and roots in Cattleyas 
mean healthy plants and fine flowers. The plants should be looked over 
occasionally for scale, which must be carefully sponged off or it will soon 
turn the bulbs and leaves yellow. If they are sprayed occasionally with 
insecticide it will prevent a lot of it, but the plants want looking over as 
well several times during the winter to keep them thoroughly clean. It is 
most important in Cattleya growing to keep them clean, and the glass 
should be washed whenever it gets at all dirty, both inside and out, to give 
them all the light possible during the winter months. The stages and 
surroundings should also be kept clean, as it helps to keep away woodlice, 
slugs, cockroaches, &c, which are great pests in a Cattleya house. 

L^eliocattleyas, &c. — The hybrids are not so difficult to manage as 
the species, being much more robust and not so fickle under general treat- 
ment. Where a number of these are grown, and some are active and others 
resting, they should be sorted out, and the growing plants placed at the 
warmest end of the house. These, of course, will need an ample supply of 
water until their growths are finished, while those which have made up their 
growths can be kept on the dry side until they commence to push up their 
buds, when the supply must be increased slightly, or the flowers will not 
develop properly. With the numerous varieties which are now in cultiva- 
tion, flowers can be had all the year round if a careful selection is made. 
They are very fine for grouping, and much freer flowering than the species. 
The long-stemmed varieties are very useful for cutting, and there is an 
endless variety of colours amongst them. Like the species, these are 
subject to scale, and should be looked over occasionally to keep them clean 
and in perfect health. Amongst the hybrids no fixed rule can be given for 
potting, as they are growing and resting at all seasons. Plants should be 
potted only when the roots are active, and not overpotted at any time. A 
mixture of Osmunda fibre, with a few leaves mixed in, and plenty of crushed 
crocks, should be used. Pot firmly, keeping the plants just below the rim 
of the pot. When plants are potted in the winter time they must be 
carefully watered, and if the compost is damp when used they will go for 
some time without watering, if they are syringed overhead on every 
favourable occasion, and this will keep the bulbs from shrivelling without 
souring the compost. Always stage newly potted plants in a batch by 
themselves, and then no mistakes occur in watering. 

Vanda ccerulea. — As the plants finish flowering they will do well 
staged with the warmer Dendrobes in the Cattleya house, where they may 
remain during the winter. They will need very little water during the 
winter, just enough to prevent the leaves from shrivelling will suffice. They 
are rather difficult plants to handle, and a suitable corner has to be found 
for them for successful culture. Frequently the most unlikely place is just 



334 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

the place they will thrive in. Generally speaking they like a dry treatment, 
with good ventilation. They are very beautiful when in flower, and well 
worth a little extra care in growing. 

Epidendrum vitellinum autumnalis will now be in full bloom, and 
the flowers are very showy and last a long time in perfection, either on the 
plants or cut. After they have finished flowering they should be kept rather 
drier until they commence to grow again. A batch of these will make a 
fine show in the dull months, and if staged with the white Lselia anceps, one 
helps to show the other off. They are very little trouble to grow, and take 
up very little room. Intermediate temperature suits them best, although 
they are catalogued as cool Orchids. A mixture of Osmunda fibre and leaves 
suits them as a potting compost, and plenty of water is needed while they 
are in full growth. 

Damping and Watering must be very carefully done during this month, 
especially in foggy weather. During a fog it is best, if possible, to move all 
flowers into one house. The houses can be damped whenever they are dry, 
as it does no harm to the plants, and is far better than keeping a fiery 
temperature and breeding thrip. If the house is kept moderately dry, the 
flowers will keep fairly well. Do not raise the temperature, as I find this 
does far more harm than the fogs. Many growers advise not to water anything 
while a fog lasts, but as long as the temperatures are kept regular the plants 
should not be allowed to suffer for w r ant of water or moisture in the houses. 
It is a most drastic treatment for the soft-growing varieties, such as Cypri- 
pediums, Miltonias, &c, for often a fog will last a fortnight. Keep the fires 
right, and there will be very little harm done to the plants, but the flowers 
will suffer more or less according to the density and length of the fog. 

Blinds will be a great help in keeping up the temperature, if they are 
run out every night and rolled up in the morning as soon as it is light. 
They keep the temperatures steady and save fuel. 

Temperatures should run about the same as advised in last month's 
Calendar. Keeping them as regular as possible is the principal thing to 
consider. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM DISTANS. 

An Odontoglossum exhibited at the R.H.S. meeting held on September 28th 
proves to be O. distans, Rchb. f., a species of the section Myanthum, which 
has apparently not previously appeared in cultivation. The species was 
described in 1849 (Linnaa, xxii. p. 84S) from a dried specimen collected in 
September, 1846, in the province of Merida, Venezuela, at 6,000 feet 
elevation, by Messrs. Funck and Schlim (n. 1031), and is recorded as having 
whitish flowers with a rose-coloured lip, It was afterwards collected at 
Aspasica in the province of Ocana, at about 4,900 feet elevation, by Schlim. 



November, 1909.J THE ORCHID REVIEW. 335 

Messrs. Low's plant is supposed to have come home with Oncidium 
macranthum, but agrees so well with O. distans, including the details of the 
lip and column, that I think it must be referred to it. It bears a considerable 
resemblance to Oncidium macranthum in habit, bun has an upright, loosely 
branched panicle measuring f-inch across, with narrow, light greenish- 
yellow sepals and petals, and a tinge of rose on and in front of the lip's 
crest. The crest consists of a pair of erect, somewhat bilobed calli. Like 
many species of the Myanthum set, it cannot be called showy. R. A. R. 

CIRRHOPETALUM ORNATISSIMUM AND C. MANNII. 
What is Cirrhopetalum Mannii ? Mr. F. W. Moore, Keeper of the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, has sent to Kew on two or three occasions 
flowers of two closely allied and handsome Cirrhopetalums, under the names 
of C. ornatissimum and C. Mannii, and remarked on their distinctness, 
though in the Botanical Magazine they had been considered identical, and 
the latter was regarded as not representing Reichenbach's plant. 

The latter was described in 1872 under the name of Bulbophyllum 
(Cirrhopetalum) Mannii, Rchb. f. (Flora, 1872, p. 275), as a highly 
interesting species collected in Assam by Gustav Mann. No affinity was 
given. In 1890 a plant was figured in the Botanical Magazine (t. 7229) 
under the name of Cirrhopetalum ornatissimum, Rchb. f., which is said to 
have been " received at Kew from the Royal Botanical Gardens of Calcutta 
in 1890 (under the erroneous name of Bulbophyllum Mannii)." This is the 
plant cultivated at Glasnevin as C. Mannii, and the question arises whether 
the name is not correct. Reichenbach describes the dorsal sepal as aristate, 
and the petals as aristate from the middle. The latter phrase is meaningless, 
but if he meant furnished with appendages in each case the description 
would agree very well. The type specimen is of course locked up for five 
years longer, so the point must remain doubtful. 

C. ornatissimum, Rchb. f., was described ten years later {Gard. Chron., 
1S82, ii. p. 424) as having flowered in four different collections, though it 
was first sent by Mr. W. Bull in October, 1879. The author remarked : 
"It may come from East India, though I am not sure of it.'" On Sep- 
tember 19th, 1882, it was drawn by Mr. Day (Orch. Draw., xxxi. t. 15)., and 
it is recorded as " Drawn at Mr. Wm. Bull's Nursery, Chelsea. The plant 
was received from the Philippine Islands. It is a charming thing, well 
deserving of its name." In 1889 it was figured in the Orchid Album (viii. t. 
369), from the collection of F. G. Tautz, Esq., Studley House, Shepherds 
Bush. In the Flora of British India the locality is given as " Sikkim 
Himalaya (Ic. in Herb. Calcutt.), Assam, Griffith," but the former belongs 
to C. appendiculatum, Rolfe, and the latter agrees best with the plant 
figured in the Botanical Magazine. On the other hand nothing like C. 



336 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

ornatissimum has appeared among the recent importations from the Philip- 
pines. The difference in colour and in the shape of the leaf are very well 
shown in the figures cited, but whether both are forms of a single species 
remains uncertain. The identity of the original Bulbophyllum (Cirrho- 
petalum) Mannii, and the real habitat of C. ornatissimum also remain 
doubtful. It would be interesting if any reader can throw further light on 
the matter. R. A. R. 

THE PRODUCTION OF HORTICULTURAL VARIETIES. 

This was the title of the second " Masters" Memorial Lecture, delivered by 
Professor Hugo de Vries at the R.H.S. meeting held on September 28th, 
and although it contained no reference to Orchids, a few notes on the 
general principles involved should be of interest. 

The Lecturer remarked that if the facts of variation supported the 
argument for evolution, which was now generally admitted, the process by 
which variations arose became, in all its details, a most interesting and 
important subject of enquiry, for the laws governing the process are the 
same in both cases, though the details may and probably do differ. In 
"fixing" varieties which arise in gardens, where numerous closely allied 
forms grow in proximity, one has to contend against the difficulty of cross- 
pollination, and especially so where the variations which it is desired to 
develop are only faintly indicated at first, as in the doubling of flowers or 
variegation of foliage. Only after careful selection do such variations 
become marked enough to make them worth cultivating as novelties. 

There are two distinct types of variation with which the horticulturist 
has to deal, the "constant" and the "ever-sporting" variety, and the 
former Professor de Vries calls " mutants," because they arise suddenly and 
breed true to type when self-pollinated. Examples of mutants were 
furnished by white " sports " of many flowers, and by " dwarfed " varieties, 
in which cases the florist's work consisted solely in securing isolation. The 
occurrence and extent of variegation depends largely upon the method of 
cultivation, and the extent of doubling may vary enormously, even on the 
same plant and at different seasons of the year. Small indications of 
possibilities appear first, and the florist has to isolate them and work them 
up by constant selection. 

The lecturer showed how variations had been produced under his own 
observation in plants whose history was known for many generations, and 
various examples were thrown upon the screen, among them being numerous 
examples of the genus (Enothera. He also showed many views of his 
experimental garden in Amsterdam, including the gauze cages under which 
the plants were cultivated so as to ensure the exclusion of insects likely to 
carry the pollen about. The lecture was followed by a short 1 



November, 1909.] 



THE ORCHID REVIEW. 



ODONTOGLOSSUM x PERCULTUM. 
The annexed figure represents a very interesting and beautiful group of five 
seedling Odontoglossoms, raised in the collection of the late Norman C. 
Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. H. J. Chapman). The 
photograph was taken by Mr. Chapman, who kindly forwarded us a copy, 
and recorded its history as follows : — 

" All were raised from the same pod of seeds, obtained by crossing 
O. X Rolfeae Oakwood var. (Harryanum x Pescatorei) with the pollen of 




Fig. 27. Odontolossum x PERCULTUM. 
O. X ardentissimum Cooksonas (crispum X Pescatorei). The offspring thus 
consist of one half O. Pescatorei and one fourth eachO. crispum and O. Harry- 
anum. There were a number of absolutely spotless forms, as seen in the 
lower left-hand corner of the illustration, and many others linking up the 
different steps, until O. X percultum Cookson's var., which is represented 
in the centre of the photograph, was obtained. The flowers of this variety 
have a peculiar shade of slaty or bluish purple." This variety received a 
First-class Certificate from the R.H.S. on April 6th last, as recorded at 
page 146. The above figure is very interesting, and gives a graphic 



338 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

representation of the wide range of variation and the dissociation of 
specific character so often seen in secondary hybrids, and frequently com- 
mented upon. A few cases of this kind illustrate the difficulty of determining 
the parentage of natural hybrid Odontoglossums by a study and comparison 
of their characters, which is unfortunately the only method available. Who, 
for example, would have pronounced these five seedlings to have originated 
from a single capsule had they appeared in some importation ? We should 
much like to see a single flower of every seedling out of the batch. Of 
course all will not flower together, but it would be quite easy to dry a single 
flower of each in blotting paper, and report on them when the series is 
complete. An analysis of the result would certainly be interesting. 



SOCIETIES. 

Royal Horticultural. 
A MEETING of the Royal Horticultural Society was held at the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster, on September 28th last, 
when there was a very good display of Orchids, and the meeting was 
remarkable by the presence of female flowers of Cycnoches in two different 
collections. The awards were four medals, one First-class Certificate, 
three Awards of Merit, and one Botanical Certificate. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. 
Mr. Alexander), received a First-class Certificate for Laeliocattleya Pizarro 
Holford's var. (L. Jongheana X C. Dowiana aurea), a magnificent variety, 
having very broad rose -purple sepals and petals, which are gracefully 
recurved, and a broad open copper-red lip, becoming more purple in front, 
and the throat rich brown with some obscure yellow veining. He also sent 
L.-c. Golden Fleece (L.-c. Golden Gem X C. Dowiana aurea), bearing a 
spike of seven deep yellow flowers, with bronzy red markings on the lip and 
some yellow veining in the throat, and Cypripedium X Actasus Bianca 
(Leeanum Prospero X insigne Sanderae), a magnificent yellow flower, with 
the upper part of the dorsal sepal white. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), sent 
a choice group containing Laeliocattleya Ophir rosea, Cirrhopetalum 
appendiculatum, several well-flowered plants of the rose-coloured Dendrobium 
Phalaenopsis, and its paler variety Schrcederianum, also the Gatton Park 
var., in which the flowers are nearly white, with slaty blue markings on the 
lip, the rare D. bicaudatum, a Javan species, having racemes of green flowers 
with some brown markings on the lip, a light form of D. taurinum, bearing 
several spikes of whitish flowers with a rose-purple lip, and the prettily- 
spotted Brassocattleya Mary. 

De Barri Crawshay, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent 



November, igog.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. $tf 

Odontoglossum X McNabianum rosefieldiense, a fine form with yellow sepals 
and petals blotched with brown, and a white lip barred with purple-brown 
on the basal half, the influence of O. Harryanum being very marked in the 
latter organ. 

J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. Davis)* 
sent a small group of Cypripediums, including C. Fairrieanum With four 
flowers, a richly-coloured C. X Baron Schroder, C. X Thalia Mrs. Francis 
Wellesley and New Hall Hey var., C. X Ballantinei Westfield var., C. X 
Milo and the dark-coloured Cobb's variety, and C. X Tityus superbum. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), sent a good 
plant of Cypripedium X Chapmanii superbum. 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood), sent the 
fine Odontoglossum grande Pittianum, and O. X Stamfordianum (bictoni- 
ense album X Uroskinneri), the latter being fairly intermediate in character, 
with greenish sepals and petals and the lip tinged with pink. 

E. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, West Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent 
Odontoglossum crispum Ethel, a richly blotched form. 

J. Gurney Wilson, Esq., Glenthorne, Haywards Heath, sent a fine plant 
of Saccolabium violaceum Harrisonianum, a white variety of the species. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a very fine group, 
to which a Silver-gill Flora Medal was awarded. It contained a number 
of good Cattleya X Iris, and the variable C. X Rhoda, C. Harrisoniana 
alba, some good Laeliocattleyas, including L.-c. Phoebus (L.-c. Cappei X C. 
X Iris), a richly-coloured hybrid, some good Vanda coerulea, good examples 
of Odontoglossum grande and O. crispum, the beautiful O. c. xanthotes 
Charlesworthii, a very dark O. Harryanum, O. grande aureum, O. apterum, 
good examples of the rare Angraecum Buyssoni, the striking Chondrorhyncha 
Chestertoni, Oncidium incurvum album, Miltonia Candida grandiflora, a 
batch of the pretty rose-coloured Phalamopsis Esmeralda, Dendrobium 
Ccelogyne, D. Phalaenopsis, Masdevallia macrura, Pleurothallis loranthi- 
formis, Cypripedium Fairrieanum and C. X Rossetti, a pretty Odontioda 
raised from Cochlioda Ncetzliana and Odontoglossum X armainvillierense, 
Cycnoches peruvianum Tracy's var., bearing an inflorescence of two female 
flowers, and a charming little cluster of Sophronitis grandiflora hybrids in 
front, prominent among them being several plants of Sophrolaelia heaton- 
ensis and Gratrixias, and Sophrocatlselia Nestor (S.-l. Gratrixise X C. 
Dowiana). Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya X Miss Pitt superba 
(Harrisoniana X Dowiana aurea), a large bright rose form with purple lines 
in the throat of the lip, and to C. X Basil (Enid X Mantinii), a large and 
handsome form, having rose-purple sepals and petals, and a broad expanded 
ruby-crimson lip with a yellow disc. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, staged a fine group, to which a 



340 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1969. 

Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained several fine plants of Oncidium 
oblongatum, including the yellow variety citrinum, O. Lanceanum, O. 
unicorne, O. incurvum, several good plants of Dendrobium formosum, 
Ccelogyne Veitchii and Massangeana, six fine plants of Cycnoches 
chlorochilon, C. maculatum, Odontoglossum grande, Cirrhopetalum 
refractum, Pleurothallis stenopetala, Lseliocattleya elegans, Odontioda 
Thwaitesii, some good forms of Cattleya Gaskelliana, C. X Iris, C. X 
Harold, a fine plant of C. X Minucia with a spike of seven flowers, &c. An 
Award of Merit was given to Cattleya X Rhoda conspicua (X Iris X 
Hardyana), a very beautiful form, much resembling a white form of C. X 
Hardyana. It had broad cream white sepals and petals, and the lip violet 
crimson, with a large yellow disc and some yellow veining in the throat. 

Messrs. Mansell & Hatcher, Ltd., Rawdon, Leeds, Yorks, gained a 
Silver Flora Medal for a brilliant group, including about twenty good 
plants of the variable Cattleya X Iris, C. X Armstrongise, C. X Fabia, C. 
X Patrocinii, Brassocattleya Thorntoni, Oncidium Gardneri, a plant of 
Mormodes pardinum unicolor bearing two fine spikes of clear yellow flowers, 
the rare Trichocentrum albopurpureum, Dendrobium Dearei, Trichopilia 
subulata, Neobenthamia gracilis, Listrostachys pellucida, some good 
Odontoglossums, Cirrhopetalum guttulatum, Brassavola nodosa, Bulbo- 
phyllum Dearei, Seraphyta multiflora, Cypripedium insigne Sanderse, C. X 
Maudise, C. X Flambeau, C. X Wiertzianum, &c. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group, including a good plant of the new Dendrobium Sanderse, 
bearing five inflorescences, two of them with eight flowers each, the rare 
D. velutinum, D. chrysanthum, Lseliocattleya Walter Gott (C. bicolor X 
L.-c. bletchleyensis) . having bronzy yellow sepals and petals, and a rose-purple 
lip with some white at the base, L.-c. nitens (L.-c. Helena X C. Dowiana 
aurea), having deep yellow sepals and petals tinged with red, and a crisped 
ruby red lip with some yellow veining, Cattleya X Ella and other good 
Cattleyas, the very rare and distinct Ccelogyne Micholitzii, Cirrhopetalum 
refractum, Angraecum Scottianum, Eria floribunda, Lycaste macrophylla, 
Epicattleya Lilianse, Oncidium pubes, and a most interesting plant of 
Cycnoches peruvianum, bearing a long raceme of male flowers and a short 
inflorescence of two female flowers on the same bulb. 

Messrs. James Veitch & Sons, Chelsea, received a Botanical Certificate 
for a pan of Disa polygonoides, containing four plants, each bearing a 
compact spike of yellow flowers. 

Messrs. Stanley & Co., Southgate, staged a pretty little group, including 
several plants of Cattleya X iridescens, showing much variation in colour, 
a good C. Gaskelliana alba, C. Minucia, C. X St. Gilles, Laeliocattleya 
bletchleyensis, &c. 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 34 r 

At the meeting held on October 12th there was again a very good 
display of Orchids, and the awards consisted of five medals, one First-class 
Certificate and four Awards of Merit. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. Day), staged a fine 
group, to which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained the hand- 
some yellow Odontoglossum grande Pittianum, O. X Neptune, a bright 
yellow hybrid blotched with brown, and other good Odontoglossums, 
Miltonia X Bleuana Our Queen, a fine white form with rose markings at the 
base of the lip, some good Lseliocattleyas and Masdevallias, Cypripedium 
X Maudia, C. X Padgeni, C. X Chapmanii superbum and others, with the 
handsome Anguloa eburnea, whose history was given at page 316. A First- 
class Certificate was given toCattle y a X Hardyana The Baron (C. Dowiana 
aurea X C. Warscewiczii var. Frau Melanie Beyrodt), a very large aud 
beautiful white form, with a ruby-crimson lip, a pair of yellow blotches in the 
throat, and some yellow veining on thj disc. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), 
received Awards of Merit for Dendrobium taurinum Colmanii, a pretty 
light-coloured variety from the Philippines, having rosy petals and the lip 
margined with the same colour, and for Cirrhopetalum Fascinator, a hand- 
some species which was noted at page 155 of our last volume. He also sent 
the yellow Spathoglottis X Colmanii aurea and a few others interesting 
things. 

Mrs. Norman C. Cookson,Oakwood,Wylam-on-Tyne (gr. Mr. Chapman) 
received an Award of Merit for Cypripedium X Faire-Maude (Fairrieanum 
X Maudis), a large dark form resembling C. X Juno, the dorsal sepal being 
tinted with rose and striped with purple. 

Lt.-Col. G. L. Holford, CLE., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. 
Alexander), received an Award of Merit for Cypripedium x Cynthia 
(Charlesianum x Charlesworthii), a very fine hybrid, having a white dorsal 
sepal marbled with rosy lilac, and the petals greenish, tinged and spotted 
with purple. He also sent the fine C. X Germaine Opoix Westfield var., 
C. X nitens-Leeanum var. Hannibal, C. X Gaston Bultel var. King 
Edward VII., C. X nitens alportense, Cattleya X Dirce (Vulcan x 
Warscewiczii), having deep rose-coloured sepals and petals, and a three- 
lobed lip veined with rose-purple, and the handsome C. X Heloisiae (Forbesii 
X Mossise Reineckeana), a pretty blush white flower marbled with rose on 
the lip. 

J. Foster Alcock, Esq., Exhims, Northchurch, sent Cypripedium X 
Baron Schroder, New Hall Hey var., a richly-coloured form. 

R. Brooman White, Esq., Arddarroch, Garelochead,N.B.,sent a beautiful 
series of Odontoglossum crispum flowers, both white and spotted, which had 
been selected from about 400 fine spikes. 1 he plants are said to bj placed 



342 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

outdoors throughout the summer, and thrive well in a district where 
Sphagnum moss and Hymenophyllum grow naturally. 

F. Menteith Ogilvie, Esq., Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), sent Sophro- 
cattleya Doris, Shrubbery var., a good dark form with a yellow throat to 

H. T. Pitt, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill, showed Cattleya X newing- 
tonensis (Mrs. J. W. Whiteley X Harrisoniana). 

E. Rogerson, Esq., Oakdene, West Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), sent the 
handsome Cypripedium X Priam (insigne Chantinii X Niobe, having a 
large white dorsal sepal blotched with purple. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder, The Dell, Egham (gr. Mr. Ballantine) showed 
the interesting Cattleya X lamberhurstensis (intermedia X citrina), in 
which the characters of two remarkably distinct species are combined. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange, Stone (gr. Mr. Stevens), showed 
Odontoglossum X exultans (crispum X excellens), a pretty light yellow 
flower blotched with brown, and Cypripedium Daisy Barclay var. dunham- 
ense, prettily tinged and lined with purple on a light ground. 

Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, staged a fine group, to 
which a Silver Flora Medal was given. It contained a lot of good Cattleyas, 
Lseliocattleyas, and Odontoglossums, including two good O. grande aureum, 
L.-c. luminosa, some fine examples of Vanda ccerulea, the rare Pescatorea 
Dayana, the pretty little Lselia monophylla, the rare Disa polygonoides, 
Saccolabium violaceum Harrisonianum, Odontioda Bradshawiae, Angraecum 
imbricatum, and other good things. 

Messrs. Stuart Low *& Co., Bush Hill Park, received a Silver Flora 
Medal for a good group, including forms of Cattleya X Venus, X Iris, X 
Adula, and x Vulcan, Epidendrum vitellinum, Sophrocattleya Doris, 
Dendrobium formosum, Habenaria militaris, Lseliocattleya Ophir, a plant 
of Oncidium X haematochilum, O. curtum, and other Brazilian species, the 
rare Cirrhopetalum Mastersianum, and other interesting things. 

Messrs. Sander & Sons, St. Albans, also received a Silver Flora Medal 
for a fine group, including some good Lseliocattleyas, a splendid example of 
Vanda coerulea, Cattleya x Lord Rothschild and other Cattleyas, Ccelogyne 
speciosa, C. oculata, and various other good things, with a fine plant of 
Arachnanthe Lowii in the centre, bearing three yellow flowers at the base, 
and 29 others of the usual green and crimson type. 

Messrs. James Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, received a Silver Banksian 
Medal for a good group, including a number of Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, 
a good batch of Cypripedium Ftfirrieanum,. C. x Maudiae, C. X Milo 
Westonbirt var., Masdevallk* Chrmasra, Mikonia vexillaria Leopold]*,- 
Oncidium Papilio, varicosum and Forbesii, some good Cattleya X Maiunui 
and others. 



November, 1909.] TELE ORCHID REVIEW. 343 

Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Tunbridge Wells, sent Cattleya X radiata 
(Dowiana aurea X Pittiana), with cream yellow sepals and petals, and the 
front lobe of the lip rosy crimson, with some yellow in the throat, C. 
Rothschildiana, Orchidhurst var., a good light form, and Laeliocattleya 
Purple Empress (L.-c. X Fournierae X C. X Hardyana). 

Mr. James Douglas, Edenside, Great Bookham, sent a fine dark Laelio- 
cattleya Gottoiana. 

Mr. A. W. Jensen, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, sent a fine Odonto- 
glossum crispum and a very brilliant O. Harryanum. 

Mr. E. V. Low, Vale Bridge Nursery, Haywards Heath, sent Odonto- 
glossum grande Pittianum, Cypripedium x Rossetti, and the fine C. X 
Germaine Opoix. 

M. Maurice Mertens, Mont St. Amand, Ghent, showed a few good hybrid 
Odontoglossums. 

Mr. Charles Turner, Slough, sent two good plants of Lselia pumila, one 
with blush white, the other with rosy flowers. 

Manchester and North of England Orchid. 
At the meeting held at the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on October 7th, 
there was an excellent show of plants, the room being well filled. The 
Committee sat as follows:— Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, 
Thorp, Cowan, Ward, Arthur, Warburton, Keeling, Ball, Shill, Holmes, 
Ashton, Smith, Parker, and Weathers (Hon. Sec). 

J. T. Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float), staged a specially 
fine group of plants, full of interest and variety, many rare botanical species 
being represented. A central group of Cattleyas, Laslias, &c, received a 
Silver Medal, the whole group gaining the Society's Silver-gilt Medal. 
Awards of Merit were given to a fine Laeliocattleya Ophir, L.-c. lythamensis, 
Catasetum fimbriatum, and Stanhopea oculata Shuttleworthii, and First- 
class Botanical Certificates to the dainty Oncidium Retemeyerianum and to 
Ccelogyne Veitchii. Several other botanical curiosities gained Second- 
class Certificates. I noted many varieties of Odontoglossum, Cypripedium, 
Vanda ccerulea and Kimballiana, Stenoglottis longifolia, the richly-tinted 
Cattleya X Iris, and varieties of Brassocattleya, Lasliocattleya, &c. 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a fine group, 
composed of hybrid Cattleyas, Laelias, Cypripediums, and several fine 
well-flowered Stenoglottis longifolia. A very bright and effective hybrid 
Lceliocattleya X Wilfred (C. Dowiana aurea X L.-c. Gottoiana), received a 
First-class Certificate, Awards of Merit going to L.-c. Ophir, Cattleya X 
Peetersii and Sophrolselia Penelope. A very fine pan of Odontoglossum 
grande received a Cultural Certificate (Silver and Silver-gilt Medals). 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), staged a group 



344 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [November, 1909. 

of Cattleyas, Laelias, &c. C. X Armstrongise Hey House var. and Laelio- 
cattleya X Chantinii memoria Law Schofield received Awards of Merit. 
The group included L.-c. X Bryan (Duchess of York), L.-c. callistoglossa, 
L.-c. Henry Greenwood, the true Cattleya Loddigesii, C. Harrisoniana, 
C. X Adula, and many others (Silver Medal). 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Beardwood, Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), 
staged some well-grown plants of Oncidium varicosum Rogersii, 
Cypripedium X Maudiae, C. X Rossetti, Cattleya X Maroni, C. bicolor, 
&c, the whole forming a pretty group (Silver Medal). 

Charles Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, Preston, staged a small group 
of choice Cypripediums. C. Charlesworthii var. Prestona gained an Award 
of Merit. I noted C. X Maudise, C. X A. de Lairesse, C. X Kubele, C. 
X Lord Derby, C. X Baron Schroder, C. Burtoni, &c. (Silver Medal). 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a small 
group of Cypripediums, which included C. Fairrieanum, C. bellatulum 
album, C. X Sir Redvers Builer, C. X Kubele magnificum, C. X Maudiae 
magnificum, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

N. Galloway, Esq., Great Horton, Bradford, sent a small miscellaneous 
group, which received a Bronze Medal, and a fine Cypripedium X Rossetti 
gained a First-class Certificate. 

H. J. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighky (gr. Mr. Corney), sent 
Cypripedium X Duchess, var. Corneyanum, a fine C. x Juno, and C. X 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Ashlands, Newchurch (gr. Mr. Fletcher), sent 
Odontioda Thwaitesii (Award of Merit), and Miltonia vexillaria Leopoldi. 

Rev. J. Crombleholme, Clayton le Moors, received an Award of Merit 
for Cypripedium X Lumsdenii var. vinolentum. 

S. Gratrix, Esq., West Point, Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), sent the 
fine Cypripedium X Bianca superbum (First-class Certificate). 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), gained 
an Award of Merit for a seedling Odontoglossum crispum var. Eclipse. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, sent the exceptionally fine Cypripedium X 
Lord Ossulston, Sander's var., a most delicately tinted form (First-class 
Certificate). 

Mr. W. Shackleton, Great Horton, Bradford, staged a small but effective 
group of plants, in which were several good Odontoglossum crispum, Cypri- 
pedium niveum, and a variety of Sigmatostalix (Bronze Medal). 

Mr. J. Birchenall, Alderley Edge, sent Zygopetalum Amesianum, 
Miltonia Lamarcheana, Trichopilia fragrans, &c. 

Mr. W. Bolton, Wilderspool, Warrington, staged a fine Cypripedium 
Charlesworthii, and a seedling much after the "Thalia" type. 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., sent a pretty Odontoglossum crispum Solar Star, 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 345 

having pure white sepals and petals and a deeply blotched lip (Award of 
Merit). 

The Liverpool Orchid & Nursery Co., Gateacre, sent Lffiliocattleya 
Bella, Cattleya X Iris and a few Cypripediums. 

Messrs. Muirhead & Willcock showed a very distinct Cypripedium X 
Berkeleyanum var. dunhamense (First-class Certificate). 

The meeting held on October 21st resulted in an excellent show, 
probably the best of the season so far. The Committee present were 
Messrs. E. Ashworth (Chairman), R. Ashworth, Thorp, Ward, Cowan, 
Arthur, Shill, Warburton, Keeling, Holmes, Ashton, Cypher, Parker, and 
Weathers (Hon. Sec). The exhibits were very numerous and of good 
quality. 

J. T. Clifton, Esq., Lytham Hall (gr. Mr. Float), staged a magnificent 
group, which filled one side of the central stage, almost every species of 
Orchid in season being represented, as well as many valuable hybrids. The 
group gained a Silver-gilt Medal for Cattleyas, Laslias, &c, and the Society's 
Gold Medal for a general group. The beautiful Cattleya X Hardyana alba, 
Counte-s Torby, the deeply-coloured C. X Hardyana, H.I.H. Grand Duke 
Michael, and C. X Iris, The Prince, all gained First-class Certificates, the 
same award going to Arachnanthe Lowii, a grand plant with a fine raceme 
of flowers. Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya labiata pallida, Phaius 
Zollingeri, and Catasetum Cliftoni. Of the many rare botanical plants 
brief mention can only be made. Coryanthes maculata punctata, Burling- 
tonia rigida, Catasetum Cliftonae, C. macrocarpum, Arpophyllum giganteum, 
and Pleurothallis scapha all received First-Class Botanical Certificates, 
Second-class ditto going to Pleurothallis pulchella and Disa polygonoides. 

O. O. Wrigley, Esq., Bridge Hall, Bury (gr. Mr. Rogers), sent a 
specially well-grown and floriferous group. At each end were banked fine 
plants of Dendrobium Phalasnopsis, exceptionally well bloomed, several of 
the spikes bearing upwards of twenty flowers. In front were many grand 
plants of Cypripedium Fairrieanum of good type, and behind about a 
dozen plants of C. X Maudiae and C. X M. magnificum, while further 
back were well-flowered Odontoglossum grande, Vanda ccerulea, Cattleya 
X Iris, &c. This very fine group was awarded a Special Vote of Thanks. 

J. McCartney, Esq., Hey House, Bolton (gr. Mr. Holmes), gained a 
Silver-gilt Medal for a good group of Cattleyas, Laelias, and hybrids of 
same. Laeliocattleya x Lady Rothschild and Cattleya labiata Chillingham 
Castle var. both gained Awards of Merit. The group also included 
Cattleya Dowiana aurea, C. X Mantinii nobilior, C. x Fabia, and many 
other choice things. 

A. Warburton, Esq., Vine House, Haslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleish), 



346 THE ORCHID REVIEW. [Novfmber. 1909. 

staged a group, including Odontoglossum Uroskinneri album and other 
good types of Odontoglossum, with Dendrobium Phalaenopsis album and 
Cypripedium X Florodora. An Award of Merit was given to Cypripedium 
x Lee-Curtis (Silver Medal). 

Mrs. Wood, Moorfield, Glossop (gr. Mr. Gould), staged a mixed group, 
which gained a Silver-gilt Medal. Lseliocattleya X Decima (L.-c. 
Epicasta X C. Eldorado), a distinct and richly-coloured hybrid with a 
large amount of lemon yellow in the throat of the lip, received a First-class 
Certificate, and Awards of Merit were given to Cattleya labiata Wigan's 
var., C. 1. Moorfield van, C. X Hardyana Moorfield var., and C. X 
weedoniensis var. Mona. I noticed a large and highly-coloured Vanda 
ccerulea, many varieties of Cypripedium, Oncidium, stout spikes of 
Zygopetalum Mackayi, &c. 

Ziba A. Ward, Esq., Cringlewood, Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), 
staged a fine group of Odontoglossum and Cypripedium, with a few choice 
Cattleyas. I noted Cypripedium insigne Sanderse, C. i. Harefield Hall var., 
C. i. ChantiniLindeni.C.i.aureum Hardy's var., Cattleya x Iris,C. X Adula, 
C. X Ashtonae, Odontoglossum Vuylstekeae,and many well-grown O. crispum. 

H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rann Lea (gr. Mr. Morgan), staged a small but 
choice group of Cypripediums, including C. X bingleyense, C. X Kubele 
magnificum, C. X St. Albans, C. bellatulum album, C. Fairrieanum, and 
the curious and rare Dendrobium Ccelogyne (Silver Medal). 

G. S. Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmoreland (gr. Mr. Herdman), showed a 
nice group, including many varieties of Cattleya x Iris, Cypripedium X 
Astrsea, Thompson's var., C. x beechense superbum, C. concolor G. S. 
Ball's var., C. insigne Bohnhoffianum, C. i. McNabianum, C. Curtisii 
exquisitum, C. x Baron Schroder, Ardern's var., &c. (Silver Medal). 

Norman Galloway, Esq., Great Horton, Bradford, gained a Silver 
Medal for a mixed group, and an Award of Merit for Cypripedium Rolfei, 
Galloway's var. I noted C. x Minos Youngii, C. X Rossetti, Dendrobium 
Dearei, several plants of Miltonia Candida grandiflora, &c. 

J. Rutherford, Esq., M.P., Beard wood, Blackburn (gr. Mr. Lupton), 
showed a small group, including Cattleya Dowiana aurea, C. X Mantinii, C. 
labiata, and various well-flowered Oncidiums (Bronze Medal). 

Chas. Parker, Esq., Ashton-on-Ribble, staged a small group of 
Cypripediums, including C. x Baron Rothschild, C. x Gravesii, C. X 
Maudiae, &c. (Bronze Medal). 

E. Ashworth, Esq., Harefield Hall (gr. Mr. Holbrook), gained Awards of 
Merit for Lselia pumila broomfieldensis and L. p. Wellsiana. 

J. J. Holden,Esq., Southport (gr. Mr. Johnson), received a First-class 
Certificate for Cypripedium X Venus,. Holden's var., and an Award of Merit 
for Laelia Perrinii niveum. 



November, 1909.] THE ORCHID REVIEW. 347 

H. J. Craven, Esq., The Beeches, Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), showed the 
fine Cypripedium X eboraicum. 

Messrs. Cypher & Sons, Cheltenham, staged a good group of mixed 
plants. Lseliocattleya X Ophir superba gained an Award of Merit, and a 
Cultural Certificate was given to Cattleya X Portia gigantea, grown to a 
strong plant from one back bulb in three years, and with three leads 
flowering. I noted also C. X Mantinii nobilior, C. X Fabia, Miltonia 
vexillaria Leopoldi, many varieties of Dendrobium Phalsenopsis, Cypri- 
pedium x triumphans, C. X Minos Veitchii, C. X Niobe superbum, &c. 
(Silver Medal). 

Ed. Rogerson, Esq., Didsbury, showed Cattleya x Hardyana, Laelio- 
cattleya X Lady Rothschild, Cypripedium X Gaston Bultel, C. x Thalia 
giganteum, C. X Priam, C. X Leeanum Prospero, C. X Niobe, CxTityus, 
C. x Troilus, &c. (Silver Medal). 

Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Bradford, gained a Bronze 
Medal for a small but choice group, consisting chiefly of Cypripediums. 

Messrs. Stuart Low & Co., Enfield, staged a small but choice group of 
Cattleyas, Laliocattleyas, &c, which received a Bronze Medal. 

Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, showed Cattleya X Cypheri, C. x 
weedoniensis var. Mona, and C. X St. Gilles, all of which received 
Awards of Merit. 

Mr. Wm. Bolton, Wilderspool, staged Miltonia X Bluntii Lubbersiana, 
Cypripedium X triumphans, C. X Para, C. X Baron Schroder, &c. 

Messrs. W. Shackleton, J. Birchenall, and the Liverpool Orchid and 
Nursery Co., each received a Vote of Thanks for a small exhibit. 

H. Thorp. 



DENDROBIUM MURICATUM VAR. MUNIFICUM. 

At the R.H.S. meeting held on August 31st last, a Botanical Certificate was 
given to Dendrobium muricatum, a remarkable New Caledonian species 
which was exhibited by Mr. F. W. Moore, Keeper of the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Glasnevin. The species was described from dried specimens by M. 
Finet, in 1903 (Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. y 1. p. 377. *• H> fi g- x - 6 )> together with the 
variety munificum [I.e., p. 378, t. 14, fig. 7-18), which was distinguished by a 
markedly different shape of the lip. The Glasnevin plant proves to be the 
latter variety. Finet refers the species to the section Dendrocoryne, and 
compares it with D. speciosum, Sm., but a comparison shows that it is 
much better placed in the section Sarcopodium, with which it agrees well, 
both in habit and structure. The plant is of robust habit, and the pseudo- 
bulbs are ov